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I. — Notes on English Etymology. By the Kev. Prof. 

Seeat 1 

II. — Fifteenth Address of the President to the Philo- 
logical Society, delivered at the Anniversary 
Meeting, Friday, 18th May, 1888. By the Rev. 

Prof. Satce, M.A., President 23 

III. — On the Vocalic Laws of the Latin Language. By 

E. R. Whabton, M.A 43 

lY. — On the Conditions of a Universal Language, in 
Reference to the Invitation of the American Philo- 
sophical Society of Philadelphia, IT.S., to send 
Delegates to a Congress for Perfecting a Universal 
Language on an Aryan Basis, and its Report on 
Volapiik. By Alexander J. Ellis, F.R.S., a 

Vice-President 59 

V. — Thirty-five Words of the Cayapas Indians in the 

Interior of Ecuador. By Gustavus Wilcztnski . . 98 
VI. — On >8-Stems in the Celtic Languages. By WnrrLEr 

Stoees, D.CL 100 

VII. — A Second List of English Words found in Anglo- 
French. By the Rev. Prof. Seeat 112 

VIII. — On the term ' Beetle-hrowed,' and the word * Be- 
haviour.' By Dr. J. A. H. Mubeat 130 

IX. — The Language of Mexico; and Words of West- 
Indian Origin. By the Rev. Prof. Seeat . . . , 137 
X. — ^Notes on English Etymology. By the Rev. Prof. 

Seeat 150 

XI. — ^Loan- Words in Latin. By E. R. Whaeton, M.A. 172 
XII. — Notes on the Dialect of Urhino, the Nasal Sounds, 
etc., in a Letter to A. J. Ellis, Esq., F.R.S. By 
Prince L.-L. Bonapaete 198 




XIII. — On Professor Atkinson's Edition of the Passions 
and Homilies in the Lebar Brecc. By Whitlet 

Stokes, D.C.L 203 

XIV.— On the Old English Nouns of More than One 

Gender. By Robert von Fleisc?biiacker, Ph.D. . . 235 
XV. — An Attempt to Explain some Peculiarities of Modem 
Kussian by Comparison with its Earlier Forms, 
and with other Slavonic Languages. By W. R. 

MoRFiLL, M.A 255 

XVI.— On Twenty-Five MSS. of Richard RoUe's '* Pricke 
of Conscience/' Eighteen of them in the British 
Museum, Four in the Library of Trinity College, 
Dublin, the Corser MS., and Two in Lichfield 
Cathedral Library. By Earl D. Bulbring, M.A. 

Ph.D 261 

XVII. — ^Notes on English Etymology. By the Rev. Prof. 

Skeat 284 

XVIII. — On Latin Consonant-Laws. By E. R. Wharton, M.A. 316 

XIX. — ^Albtoiian, Modem Greek, Gallo-Italic, Provenqal, 

and Illyrian still in Use (1889) as Linguistic 

Islands in the Neapolitan and Sicilian Provinces of 

Italy. By the Prince L.-L. Bonaparte, D.C.L. . . 335 

XX. — On the Linguistic Value of the Irish Annals. By 

Whitlet Stokes, D.C.L 365 

Appendix. Caxton's Syntax and Style (with an Account of 
the MSS. and Prints of the Romance of Blanohardyn 
and Eglantine), By Dr. Leon EIellner, of Vienna 
(from Dr. K.'s edition of Caxton's englisht Blan- 
chardyn and Eglantine for the Early English Text 

Society, 1890) in Part II. pp. i-cxxvi 

Treasurer's Cash Accounts : 1887 . . in Part I. p. xix of Abstracts of 

„ „ „ 1888 & 1889 . . in Part II. immediately 

preceding the Appendix 
„ „ „ 1890 .. .. in Part III. p. 434 

Index 435 

Abstracts of Proceedings from Nov. 4, 1887, to June 15, 

1888 in Part I. pp. i-xx 

List of Members, corrected to July, 1888 . . (see Part I.) i-viii 
List of Members, corrected to August 16, 1890 (see Part II.) i-vni 
List of Members, corrected to July, 1891 . .(see Part III.) i-viii 






Prof. Skeat. 

{^Rtad at a Meeting of the Philological Society^ November 4, 1887.] 

Bat, a thick stick. Dr. Murray cites an A.S. bat as a 
purely theoretical form, given by Somner and others, but 
unauthorised. But Prof. Napier has just discovered it, in 
the form hatt. Among the glosses of the eleventh century 
printed by him in Engl. Studien, xi. 65, we find : " Chita; 
batt." The Lat. claua means a thick stafi*, cudgel, or club 
(Lewis and Short). 

Coarser; see Horse-courser. 

Cozier, (perhaps) a cobler. This word occurs in Tw. Nt. 
ii. 3. 97, where Malvolio reproves the company for squeaking 
out their " coziers* catches." It is said by some to mean a 
tailor, but the earliest authority, Minsheu, says it means a 
cobbler. His Dictionary has : '* A Cosier, or sowter, from the 
Span, caser, to sew ; vide Botcher, Souter, or Cobler." It is 
not at all likely that the word is of Span, origin. It is far 
more likely to be French. The nearest form I can find in 
Godefroy is the O.F. cousere, for which he gives a quotation, 
but puts it under the form comeory for which he adduces no 
authority. He explains cattsere by couturier, and Cotgrave 
has : " Cousturier, a Tailor, or Botcher, a Seamster." The 
O.F. cousere is evidently derived from the stem cous-, which 
appears in cous-u (Lat. consutu^), the pp. of coudre, to sew. 
From Lat. con, together, and suere^ to sew. Godefroy also 
gives an O.F. chosier, which he does not attempt to explain. 
His quotation is : " Un charpentier, un cercelier, un chosier, 
Pldl. Traai. 1888-90. 1 


un peletier/' These are all names of tradesmen; and as 
peletier means ' a furrier/ it seems just possible that chosier 
may mean ' a cozier/ 

Cut. I have given this word as of Celtic origin. If this 
should turn out to be incorrect, perhaps it may be Scandina- 
vian. It appears first in Layamon, as I have said. Ihre 
gives 0. Swed. koiiaf to cut or carve wood with a knife ; but 
gives no reference. The Swed. dialects have kdia^ kuta, to 
cut or chip with a knife ; kdta ur, to hollow out ; kuta or 
ki/Ui, a knife ; kutts, a piece or bit cut off, chip. Haldorsson 
gives an O.N. kuta, to cut with a small knife (quoted by 
Matzner) ; also kuti, a knife (quoted by Aasen, s.v. kytel). 
Yigfusson has kuti^ a little blunt knife, without a reference. 
Aasen gives Norw. kytel^ k/utul, most often kj/ttel, a pointed 
slip of wood, with which bark is stripped off trees. The 
Norw. form kyttel reminds us of the M.E. form kitten. It is 
curious that the traces of the word should be so slight. 

Decoy. On this difficult word there is an excellent article 
by C. Stoffel, of Amsterdam, in Engl. Studien, x. 181. He 
shews that we may fairly conclude that the word coy is 
simply borrowed from the Du. kooi, a cage. We find coy- 
ducka in Burton's Anatomy of Melancholy, i. 205 (London, 
1827). In the word de-coy , he suggests that de may be 
simply the Du. definite article, so that it would answer to 
Du. de kooi, the cage. This is a new light, and may be 
correct ; if not, we must take de- to be the usual E. prefix of 
Lat. origin. He further shews that kooi is a genuine Du. 
word, with a variant form kowce, given by Kiliaen. The 
whole article is valuable, and full of useful quotations. To 
these I add one from N. & Q. 5 S. xi. 7, where it is said that 
Spelman (Eng. Works, ed. 1727 [Posthumous Works], p. 
163) says that Sir Wm. Woodhouse " primum apud nos in- 
stituit Decipulum Anatorium, peregrine nomine a Koye" 
And I have further to add that the word is given in Skinner's 
Diet., 1671, where he has: "(7oy, Belg. Voghel Koye^ k nom. 
KoyCy cavea, septum aviarium, item avis pellax, illex," etc. 

Dismal. Attempts have been made to connect this difficult 
word with the Lat. did tnaltts, and Trench shews, in his 


• • • • « 

• • • • • 
* • • • 


Select Glossary, that the phrase dismal days, i.e. unlucky 
days, was once common. It was Minsheu who started this 
etymology, and he tried to illustrate it by explaining about 
the unlucky days called the dies mali or dies ^gyptiaci. See 
Brand's Antiquities, ed. Ellis, ii. 48, where Brand cites from 
Bp. Hall, " If his journey began unawares on the dismal 
daj/f he feares a mischief." Chaucer first uses the phrase 
"in the disnialle," Book of the Duchess, 1205, where he 
immediately goes on to speak of " the woundes [i.e. plagues] 
of Egipte," thus again connecting the word with the dies 
^gyptiaci. Though we cannot derive dismal from dies malus, 
I believe Minsheu is, practically, right after all. By turning 
the Lat. plural dies mali into Old French, it becomes precisely 
dn mal. The O.F. word for day was di, as in mod. F. Lun^ 
di, Mar-di, etc., and the ^plural dis (with the s distinctly 
sounded) is sufficiently common. See examples in Godefroy 
and Bartsch. It seems to me that dismal meant precisely 
' unlucky days ' ; and that the phrase in the dismalle meant 
*at an unlucky time.' When the sense of dis was lost, the 
word dai/s was added, thus producing the phrase dismal days, 
which meant no more than had been formerly expressed by 
the word dismal alone. And this is why Chaucer uses it by 
i^^^lf. If this is right, it definitely and finally solves a 
puzzle to which no answer has ever yet been found. Trench 
telU us that Minsheu's is ' one of those plausible etymologies 
to which one learns after a time to give no credit.* But it 
niay be quite right, if we will but go to the Old French 


ujstead of Latin for the explanation of the actual form of the 
word. See also Dies JEgyptiaci in Ducange ; Chambers, 
Booh of Days, i. 41 ; Cockayne's Leechdams, iii. 77. 

J^g. Traces of this word in A.S. are so extremely scarce 
^hat I note the word doggipom, probably meaning Dogthorn, 
m the boundaries in an A.S. charter, dated just before a.d. 
960. See Birch, Cartularium Anglo- Saxonicum, iii. 113. 

l^wle. Ariel uses the expression: *'one dowle that's in 
nay plume ; " Tempest, iii. 3. 65. The various passages in 
which the word occurs are given in Mr. Wright's note on the 
line. A wool-bearing tree, or cotton-tree, is said to have 


"wool or dowl on it." Again, "young, doirk** is explained by 
Lat. lanugo. And " the plumage of young goslings before they 
have feathers is called dotcle,'* But the word probably means 
what is now called " a down-feather," as distinct from the 
larger or " quill-feather " of a bird. Two points have 
hitherto been missed. One is, the occurrence of the word in 
Middle-English ; and the other is the etymology. First, the 
word occurs in Middle English in the Plowman's Tale, in 
the 14th stanza from the end, where the Griffin threatens 
the Pelican that "he wolde him teren, every daukf'* i.e. 
every smallest feather of him. It rimes with oule and fou/e, 
and was therefore pronounced as glossic [ool] or [oo'lu*], 
according as the final e was mute or not. Secondly, as to 
the etymology. To say that it is much the same as down, as 
some do, is mere trifling ; we have no business to assume 
anything of the kind. The word down was a perfectly well- 
known word, of Scandinavian origin, and there was no more 
sense in turning it into the unmeaning form doule than there 
would be in calling a chwn a clowl, or a gotcn a gou/e, which 
is obviously ridiculous. I have no doubt that the word was 
a term in falconry, and necessarily of French origin. I find 
in Hamilton's French Dictionary the adj. douil/et, meaning 
' soft, downy.' Littr^ says, and the remark is important, that 
it can be used as a substantive ; it then means * soft stuff' ; 
Cotgrave even explains it by ^ a milksop.' This adj. is an 
extended form of the O.F. dotlle, or douille, soft, tender ; 
given by Godefroy with several examples. Of these the 
most important is one where the word is used as a substan- 
tive, to mean ' that which is soft ' ; as in : " Apres le dur 
revient le doille,*' i.e. after hardship tenderness returns. I 
submit, then, that the M.E. dowk, soft plumage, is precisely 
the O.F. doulle, given by Godefroy as an occasional spelling 
of doille, with the sense of * that which is soft ' ; the very 
sense required. There is no further trouble ; for the O.F. 
doi/le results from the Lat. ace. ductilein, i.e. easily bent, 
pliable ; from the verb ducere. Hence dowle is the soft, 
pliable, down-feather of a bird, as distinct from the feathers 
having a hard central quill. If naturalists would like to 


revive a good old word which has no simple equivalent, they 
night advantageously revive the word dowle (which might 
be spelt dotct)y to replace the clumsy compound down-feathery 
and thus restrict the term feather to express the true feather 
only, without the prefix quiU-. I believe that dowl and down 
are not quite equivalent terms. Shakespeare correctly says 
"one dowle," where "one down" would be absurd. A dowl 
is the individual down-feather, whereas down is the collective 
term for the whole of the softer part of the plumage. I 
would also note that plunie in this passage clearly means 
plumage. It is singular that Dr. Schmidt should be in doubt 
about it ; he suggests that it may mean ' wing,' or that Ariel 
might be supposed to wear a plume on his head.- But Shake- 
speare has taken pains to tell us about it. The stage-direction 
says that ^ Ariel enters like a harpy, and claps his wings 
upon the table.' He is therefore supposed to be at least 
partially covered with plumage. 

Earnest, «6., a pledge, security. The M.E. form is emea^ 
the t having been added by confusion with the adj. earnest. 
I have unfortunately supposed it to be of Celtic origin ; as 
the W. form is ernes^ and the Gallic is earlas. But the W. 
ernes must have been borrowed from Mid. English, and the 
GaeL earlas from the Northern Eng. arles. JErnes, erles, and 
arles are all found, and of these arks and erles are the more 
correct. For the etymology, see arles in Murray's Dictionary. 
Aries answers to a Low Lat. *arrhulas, dimin. of Lat. arrha 
or arra, from Gk. appa^cov. See Arrhes in Littr^, who gives 
the O.F. forms arres and erres, 

Mr. F. W. Maitland sends me an example of the word 
ernes as early as 1221 : — " Preterea si dicti homines emerint 
bladum aut aliam merchandisam ubi ernes dederint, nuUus 
inde eos perturbabit nee a merchandisa sua eos elongabit ; " 
Assize B^ll, M. 6. 31, 1 : membrane 11, back (Worcester 
Eyre of 1221). 

Entice. I have not given the origin of the French word 
from which our entice is borrowed. It is certainly of Latin, 
not of Teutonic origin. I translate a remark which I find 
in an edition of a Norman Poem which the editor calls 


Reimpredigt, ed. Suchier, Halle, 1879. In the 7th line of 
the Poem the word enticement occurs, and a note at p. 66 
says : " enticier (E. entice) is wrongly derived from German 
by Burguy ; it is Lat. *in'titiare, formed from the nom. titio, 
like chacier (Lat. *captiare) from chace (Lat. captio), or like 
trader (Lat. *tractiare) from trace {Lat. tractio). Another 
treatment of the sibilant is seen in O.F. atisier (mod. F. 
attiser), Lat. ^ad-titiare, which is also found, however, in 
O.F. with the sharp c, as atice (riming with malice, Ben. 
Chron. 12122 ; riming with herice, Roman de Renart 1 S. 
47) ; attice, Joinville 33, cf . Chastel d'Amur 337) ; as well as 
in the form atiscy cited by Littr^." Hence entice ^is from 
O.F. enticer, enticier, representing Lat. ^in-titiare, from titio, 
a fire-brand ; and the original sense was ' to set on fire.' 
See also Attice in Murray's Dictionary. 

Feon, Fheon, the heraldic name for the barbed iron head 
of a dart. Ogilvie adds — ** it is still used as a royal mark, 
and is called the broad arrow." It is conspicuous on the coat 
of arms of Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge. The usual 
spelling of this word, with pk, is a late affectation. It 
occurs in the fifteenth century as /eon. Thus in the Book of 
St. Alban's, in the last portion which treats of heraldry, fol. 
b 5, we find: " Feons be calde in armys brode arow hedys." 
The context shews that be calde refers to the /eons ; in 
modem English construction, we should say, conversely, 
that " broad arrow-heads are called feous." No one can 
doubt that the word is French ; this is clear from the form 
of it, and from the fact that so much of our heraldry is 
derived from French. But I cannot find that any origin 
has been suggested for it. Even the usual guesses are 
absent. This being so, I am going to give a guess of my 
own. This is, that I really believe the form to be corrupt. 
I suppose it to be corrupted from the O.F. foene, a form 
given in Godefroy's F. Diet. The change from foene to /eon 
is not a particularly violent one in a word which, to an 
English ear, gave no sense whatever. If this change in 
form be admissible, there is no, difficulty about the sense, for 
the two words may have precisely the same meaning. Gode- 


froj'g quotation is : '' line foene doist estre enhantee en une 

laoce comme la hante d'un glaive," which I take to mean — 

"a broad barbed head ought to be fitted to a handle to form 

a lance just as the handle of a sword (is fitted)/' The 

ipe]iiug foene is rare, and so is the variant iorm/ouane. The 

usual forms BTe/oine,/oyney or fuyne. Cot grave has: **/ouine, 

a kind of instrument like an eele-speare, to strike fish with.'' 

The Latin word is fuacina, a three-pronged spear, or trident, 

used by Cicero. Ducange gives several examples of the F. 

word under the heading fuscina. Such variant forms as 

fouane and foene are not easy to account for; but the fact 

that the pronunciation of the word was so variable in 0. 

French makes it still more likely that it appears under a 

further disguise in English. In fact, we know that the verb 

tofouie also appears in E. with the spellings fetcn and fune ; 

see my Specimens of English, Part III. (Glossary), and 

Halliwell's Diet. p. 385. From fewn to feon is a very short 

step. Perhaps I ought to add that the O.F. word is also 

once si^XtfoUne^ which is important as retaining the 8 of the 

Liat. fuscina. (See also Fein.) 

Foin, to thrust with a sword. I have already given the 
etymology of this word in my Dictionary, where I derive it 
from the French word which Cotgrave gives as fouine, " a 
kind of instrument in ships like an eele-speare, to strike fish 
withal." This is open to the objection that the two words 
are not sufficiently alike, the one being spelt with oi, and the 
other with out. But I can remove this objection, and at the 
same time clench the etymology, by remarking that the 
usual O.F. form of Cotgrave's fouine was precisely foine, as 
shewn in Godefroy. Curiously enough, there were two 
distinct O.F. words both spelt foine, and they both passed 
into English in the same form foine. Thus the O.F. foine, a 
fish-spear, gave the E. verb foinen, to thrust, with the action 
of one who uses a fish-spear ; and the O.F. foine, a beech- 
marten, gave the E. sb. foine, with the same sense. I would 
draw particular attention to Matzner's remark on foinen. 
He says, he would like to derive it from the Burgundian 
French verb foindre, a peculiar spelling of O.F. feindre, to 


feign, or make a feint, if it were not that the sense will not 
suit ; for the E. verb foinen invariably means ' to thrust,* as 
all his examples shew. Some have been misled by a line in 
Chaucer, which is the only one in which the sense is at all 
ambiguous. I mean the line in the Knightes Tale, 1692 — 
** Foyne, if him list, on foot, himself to were ; " but Chaucer 
himself uses the word quite clearly in the very same tale, 
1. 796 — " And after that with scharpe speres stronge They 
foinen ech at other wonder longe." Of course it would be 
more satisfactory if we could produce an example of an O.F. 
foiner^ but we must remember how extremely imperfect are 
the records of Old French. I think there is no great 
difficulty in deriving a verb signifying * to thrust ' from the 
name of a weapon-like instrument which could only be used 
for thrusting. (See also Feon.) 

Flotsam. I find I have mistaken the nature of the suffix 
in the words floisam and jetsam. The form of the suffix, viz. 
-«flrw, is a corrupt one ; it was formerly spelt 'Sorif or rather 
-eson^ 'ison. The right book to consult is the Black Book of 
the Admiralty, ed. Sir T. Twiss, 1871, vol. i. At p. 82, the 
Anglo-F. form appears as floteson ; and at p. 170, it is flote^ 
8one, with the variant reading flotesyn. Hence the E. Jlotson, 
in Blount's Law Diet., ed. 1691 ; also spelt Jloisen, flotzam, 
in Cotgrave, B.y.flo. Minsheu, ed. 1627, has flotsen, flotzon, 
flotzam. The A.F. form flotesan is quite regular ; it is formed 
from the O.F. verb Jloter (Mod. F. flatter) with the suffix 
-esouy 'ViOUy as seen in A.F. ven-eson, ven-esoun^ ven-ison, Mod. 
E. ven-ison ; see examples in my Handlist of English Words 
found in Anglo-French. This F. suffix represents the Lat. 
suffix -ationem, as in Lat. uen-ationem. The yerhfloier does not 
represent the Lat. fluctuare exactly, but was merely formed 
from the ah. flot, from hat fluctum. ^eucefloteson is equiva- 
lent to a Lat. form ^fliict-ationetn, and the word is fully 
accounted for. We find fludare for fluctttare in Low Latin. 
See Jetsam. 

Oorce, a pool of water to keep fish in, a weir. (F. — L.) 
This is an obsolete law-term ; see the quotation in Blount's 
Nomolexicon. I have not collected the Anglo-French forms. 


80 that I cannot say if gors is sing, or plural ; but the 
occurrence of the pi. form gorge in Britten (i. 81) suggests 
that gors or gorce is really plural. Blount also gives the 
F. spelling gort, which retains the t of the Lat. ace. 
gurgiieni. See Littr^, s.v. gottr, which is the Mod. F. word. 
Tha derivation is verified by a quotation given by Blount, 
who says, " I find in the Black Book of Hereford, fol. 20 — 
Qiwdtres gurgites in aqua de Monew attachiantur." Blount 
adds the remark — " where gurgites is used (though im- 
properly) as a Latin word for gorces or wears." But my 
point is, that the Latin word is used properly. The 
a^ ds Monew is clearly the river Monnow, whence the 
name of Monmouth. I suspect that gorces is a double 

Hone-courser, also Horse-scorcer, a dealer in horses. 
Examples of this word may be found in Nares, under the 
headings Horse-courser and Scorse or Scorce. The spelling 
is very variable, as the etymology was not understood. Much 
turns upon the various forms which the word assumes. 
Wedgwood derives it from an O.F. couracier, for which he 
adduces no authority, and which I can nowhere find. Wher- 
ever found, it cannot be the origin of the E. word ; for it can 
hardly be other than a purely graphic error (by the common 
naiswriting of c for t) for the O.F. couratier^ the true 
original of the mod. F. courtier^ which Cotgrave explains by 
'abroaker, horse-scourser, messenger.' It will thus be seen 
that the F. courtier gives precisely the right sense, but I 
hold it to be impossible that either the form courtier, or any 
^f the numerous variants of it (such as courratier, couratier, 
corHier) given by Littre, can ever have produced the E. 
^ord. Nor do I see how, if the form couracier were genuine, 
it could be twisted into courser without considerable violence. 
I may add that Littre gives the etymology of cotiratier quite 
correctly ; it answers to a late Lat. form curatarius, from the 
Yerb curare, I believe that the etymology lies in a very 
different direction, and was long ago pointed out by Junius 
<luite correctly. We ought to account for the verb to cose, or 
^ because this is the earliest English form, as far as I can 


discover. For this verb see Jamieson's Dictionary ; he gives 
examples of cose, coas, or coisa, to barter, exchange, from 
Blind Harry's Wallace, x. 470, and Douglas's tr. of Vergil. 
From this verb to cose was formed- the sb. coser^ one who 
barters ; in fact, we find ** Hie mango, a cosyr," in Wright's 
Vocab., ed. Wiilcker, col. 684, 1. 40 ; and coseri, barter, in 
the Mort Arthure, 1. 1582. This word was frequently used 
in the compound horae-coser or horse-cosser, and acquired an 
initial 8 by confusion with the last sound in horse ; thus pro- 
ducing the forms horse-skoser, horse-scosser^ and (by insertion 
of r before « precisely as in the mod. E. adj. hoarse) the 
ultimate form horse-scorser, and not unfrequently horse- 
courser. The verb to scarce was evolved from the sb. ; it is 
impossible to find any other origin for it. It would require 
a great deal of space and a complete set of "Dictionary 
quotations" to establish this result; but I believe it will 
be found to be correct. Dr. Murray will soon, I hope, be 
coming to the word courser, and the truth will then certainly 
appear. Meanwhile, I quote two significant facts. A quota- 
tion which speaks of " hakeneymen and skocers " occurs in 
Croft's edition of Sir T. Elyot's Governor, where the text 
follows that of the first edition. There is an excellent note 
on the word in the Glossary, vol. ii. p. 602 ; but the editor 
begs the whole question when he says that "this word should 
undoubtedly be printed skorcers, as it appears in the lafer 
editions ; " a principle of criticism from which I wholly 
dissent. Again, it is not a little remarkable that the form 
without a medial r occurs as late as in the Exmoor Scolding, 
where we meet with the pp. scoast, i.e. exchanged, at p. 78, 
1. 330, of Mr. Elworthy's edition. In this case, Mr. Elworthy 
remarks that the word is spelt scorst in earlier editions, and 
that scorst comes nearer to the pronunciation ; but let us 
observe that he does not mark the r as being trilled ; and the 
change of spelling only proves that the o was sometimes 
pronounced as o in more, and sometimes as o in boat. It 
seems to me that, if once we start from the old verb coss or 
cose^ all the numerous forms which I have mentioned result 
from it easily and, in fact, inevitably. I suggest, further. 


tbat the r was only inserted in order to define more closely 
tbe occasional sound of the preceding o, precisely as in the 
adj. hoane already mentioned, which is derived from the 
A.8. hctSf and is cognate with G. heiser. In any case, we 
ought to try to find an original for the Lowland Scotch verb 
tocm OT cose, meaning to barter. My suggestion is that it 
was borrowed, as is the case with so many Scotch words, 
from French. And here I have to admit that the traces of 
such a verb in O.F. are very slight, but I think it may easily 
have been evolved out of the O.F. coss-on or cosaour (see p. 12), 
which meant precisely ' a dealer.' From the quotations in Oode- 
froy, we see that a cosson dealt in game, fowl, eggs, fruit, and 
such wares. The equivalent in Italian is cozzone, which Florio 
explains by *a horse-courser, a horse-breaker, a crafty knave,' 
thus giving us the very sense we want. He also gives the 
verb cozzonare, * to break horses, to plaie the horse-courser/ 
The corresponding Latin word is cocio, a broker, or factor, 
given in Lewis and Short, and in Ducange (with several 
quotations). Roquefort's Old French Diet, has : " cof^sous, 
courtier, maquignon," where I submit that cossous is an error 
for cossons, really a plural form ; observe that he gives the 
aense as courtier, which shews that the cocio dealt in horses 
in France as well as in Italy. But further, Lewis and Short 
give another form cociator, a broker, and Ducange gives 
cociatura, brokerage. These forms imply a verb *cociare, 
which would precisely give us an O.F. verb *cos8er and the 
Scotch coss. The etymology of Lat. cocio is not known, 
though there is a note upon it by Festus. I offer this 
investigation for what it is worth ; I believe that further 
search will definitely confirm or refute it. At present, I 
would sooner connect horse-courser with the Ital. cozzone, 
which is precisely identical with it in meaning, than with an 
O.F. couracier, which I cannot believe to be other than a 
miswritten form of couratier, and therefore incapable of 
giving us the E. word ; nor can I, as yet, find any example 
of couracier at all. It is worth notice that, under the word 
horsC'Courser, Nares definitely refuses to recognize any con- 
nection with the verb to cose ; but, under scorse, i.e. in a later 


article, he thinks that the suggested connection is probably 
right after all. Second thoughts are best. 

After some further investigation, I have found that 
skoaae is still in use in Kent ; as, " I'll skoase horses with 
you." And it is sometimes pronounced [skoaus], shewing 
how the r came to be introduced. This will appear in the 
new Kent Glossary for the E.D.S. I also find, further, that 
the Anglo-F. word cossour actually occurs as early as 1310, 
being the precise form due to the Latin cociator. Riley, in 
his Memorials of London, pref. p. xxii, says — " the trade of 
a Co880ur [is] mentioned in 1310, perhaps for Corsour, a 
Courser, or Horse-dealer." It never occurred to him that 
corsour was the later and corrupted form ; and, consequently, 
when the word appears again 62 years later, in 1372, at p. 366 
of the same volume, his note turns the whole matter topsy- 
turvy. He says, accordingly — " a courser (from the French, 
no doubt) was a dealer in horses. Grose (Clas. Diet of the 
Vulgar Tongue) ignorantly says that it is properly horse-coser, 
vulgarly and corruptly pronounced courser^ and assigns to it 
a Scottish origin." Yet this ignorant Grose is here perfectly 
right. In consequence of this misapprehension, Riley goes 
on to make a still greater blunder at p. 66, where he quotes 
an entry of the date of 1308, about a certain "John de 
Merlawe, quilter." Here " quilter " is, as he tells us, his 
translation of the A.F. cozoun, which, in my view, means 
nothing of the kind ; but is precisely the O.F. cossoun, a 
dealer, already mentioned. Thus Riley's own dates and 
examples prove the case against him ; for we find cozoun in 
1308, and cosnour in 1310, but corsour in 1372. The early 
existence of this A.F. form cossour is highly important for 
the etymology, since cosser or coser might have been formed 
from it immediately, precisely as harbour became barber, and 
brocour became broker. 

Hutch. I have given the etymology from O.F. huche^ 
which is from the Late Lat. hutica, with the same sense. 
There can be no doubt about this; but the note upon the 
word hutche in the Promptorium Parvulorum shews that the 
M.E. hutche (better hucche or huche) was strangely confused 


with the M.E. tchi/che, which had a somewhat similar sense. 
Mr. Way does not distinguish between the words, and offers 
us both a French original, in Palsgrave's huche, and an A.S. 
original, which he spells hwcBCca. Putting aside the M.E. 
hmh or hucche as being obviously of F. origin, let us look 
for a minute at the word whyche. Matzner gives us the 
forms whyche, tchichche^ and ichticche in his Dictionary, p. 550 
of part 2, and gives as the original the A.S. hwecca. But no 
such form as huecca is known, and the form htc(ecca rests 
only on an entry in Lye's Dictionary, where he gives corn- 
hwscca, a corn-chest. Fortunately, Prof. Napier has just 
printed some A.S. Glosses in Engl. Studien, xi. 65, from a 
Bodley MS., and one of these gives us : " Clustella, hwicce." 
Hence the A.S. formj at any rate in the 11th century, was 
precisely huncce, answering exactly to the M.E. ichicche. 
The M.E. tchucche is a mere variant, which may have arisen 
from confusion with hutchy or may have arisen quite in- 
dependently, from the action of the tc upon the t, as in E. 
voman from A.S. td/man. The gain is, that we can now 
definitely separate the A.S. htcicce, M.E. whicche, from the 
O.F. htiche, mod. E. hutch. 

Jetsam. This word is spelt jetsen, jetzon, in Blount's Law 
Diet., ed. 1671 ; jetson, in Minsheu, ed. 1623. But the full 
form is the Anglo-F. geteaone or gettesone, in the Black Book 
of the Admiralty, ed. Sir T. Twiss, vol. i. pp. 96, 170. This 
represents, quite regularly, the classical Lat. iacfationem, 
from the verb iaclare, to cast out. See Flotsam. I do not 
find that the Dictionaries explain the suffix ; and, in fact, it 
18 only the Anglo-F. forms that make it clear. They also 
account for the occasional form jettison. 

Larboard. I shall not say much about this difficult word. 
I only throw out a new suggestion. Nares thinks that the 
phrase leer side, as used by Ben Jonson, means the left side ; 
and Hackluyt has the spelling leerehord for larboard ; 
Voyages, i 4. I wish to draw attention to the curious Mid. 
High German word lervy lire, lure, left, also appearing as 
lerz. Examples are given in Lexer's Mid. High German 
Diet. ; we find lirhe hand, the left hand, zuo der lirken aiten. 


to the left side. Schade's Old High G. Diet, also gives lirc^ 
lerc, lurCf with the sense of left. Schade further gives 
another word lerz^ lurz, with the same sense, which he 
supposes to he related to the former. This is the word 
which Kilian gives as Mid. Du. iurts, and which appears in 
Bavarian as iurz ; Schraeller gives die lurz Hend^ i.e. the left 
hand. Diez suggests that it is just this form which gave 
rise to the curious F. ourse^ the / being dropped because it 
was thought to be the def. article. Gotgrave explains ourae 
as ' the sheat or cable whereby the mainsaile is fastened to 
the Larbordj or left side, of a ship.' Littr^ gives the mod. 
F. orse as meaning simply ' larboard/ and says it is in use on 
the Mediterranean. Torriano explains Ital. orza by ' a rope 
in a ship, called of Mariners the larboard-sheet ; which, a 
roan standing at the poop of a ship, with his face towards 
the prow, is ever on the left hand ; therefore is orza taken 
for the left hand or side.* If larboard is in any way 
connected with this Mid. High Germ, lerc, left, the chief 
difficulty is to discover by what channel it reached us. 

Mr. Wedgwood, in his Etym. Diet., suggests that lar- 
may represent a contraction of the Mid. Du. laager, lower, 
since l^mger hand, lit. lower hand, also meant * the left hand.' 
He kindly refers me to the Grand Diet. Holl. et Fr. par P. 
Marin, Dord, 1730, which gives * laag, has ; larger, plus has,' 
and * de laager hand, la gauche ' ; also to Halma's Diet., 2nd 
ed., Amsterdam, 1729, which gives the same information. 

I will venture to add yet another guess. Perhaps Hack- 
luyt's leere represents the M.E. lere^ empty, already used by 
Rob. of Gloucester (ed. Hearne, p. 81, 1. 1). For the helms- 
man stood on the starboard side ; the other side was empty. 

Numbles, the entrails of a deer. (F. — L.) M.E. nonibles, 
Cath. Anglicum, p. 256, and note. — F. nombles (d*vn cerfj, 
* the numbles of a stag ' ; Cotgrave. — Low Lat. numbulus, 
used for lumbulus, dimin. of lumbus, loin. See nombles in 
Littr6. (Suggested by Mr. Mayhew.) 

Obsidian, a kind of vitreous lava. (L.) It is, perhaps, 
worth while to point out that this name may have originated 
in a mistake. The usual account, correct as far as it goes, is 


founded on a statement in Pliny, bk. 36, ch. 26, which in 
Holland's translation runs as follows : — " There may be 
ranged among the kinds of glasses, those which they call 
OUidiantty for that they carry some resemblance of that 
stone, which one Ohsidius found in -ZEthyopia ; " vol. ii. p. 
598. But Lewis and Short point out that the right readings 
in this passage are Obsiana and Obsius, an4 add the remark 
that " the older editions of Pliny read Obaidiana and Obsidius; 
hence the name of obsidian as the name of the stone.'' See 
also HoUand's Pliny, ii. 629 a. 

Pail. This word is not of F. origin, as I have stated, but 

is a genuine E. word. The gloss which appears in Wright's 

Vocabularies, ed. Wiilcker, col. 124, 1. 2, as " Oillo, waBgel," 

is misprinted. The correct reading is " Oillo, paogel." This 

correction is due to Eluge ; see Anglia, viii. 450 ; and see 

his further remarks upon the word in Engl. Studien, x. 180. 

Hence the E. pail is from A.S. pisgel, just as E. nail is from 

A.S, ncegel, Cf. Low G. pegel, a measure for liquids, in the 

Bremen Worterbuch. Hexham gives Mid. Du. pegel^ 'the 

concavity or the capacity of a vessel or of a pot ' ; cf. also 

Ban. pipgel, half a pint. The W. paeol, a pail, is, I suppose, 

merelv borrowed from Mid. English. 

Pamphlet. I have already expressed my belief that this 
difficult word is derived from the name Pamphilns or 
Pamphila. The only difficulty is to know who the person 
was from whom the form arose. In any case, I wish to 
draw attention to the following facts. One of the first 
persons to use the word is Hoccleve. He not only writes it 
pamfihty but he pronounces it with three syllables. In Hoc- 
cleve's Poems, ed. Mason (1796), there is a poem addressed 
to Richard, Duke of York, father of Edward IV. It begins 
with the line — " Go, litel pamfilet^ and streight thee dresse." 
Secondly, the Knave of Clubs is sometimes called Pam. 
This is because he was called Pamphile in French ; and 
Liittre tells us that this is the proper name Pamphilus, but 
he does not know who is meant. My guess is this. The 
knave at cards was sometimes called valet ; both vaiet and 
kfutve mean ^ servant ' ; so the person referred to was a 


servant. Why may he not be the Panfilo (i.e. Pamphilwt) of 
Boccaccio's Teseide P He was the servant of the celebrated 
Palemone, and helped him out of prison. See Tyrwhitt's 
analysis of the Teseide, books 4 and 6. Tyrwhitt calls him 
Pamphilo. The editor of the Teseide, printed at Milan in 
1819, calls him Panfilo. If ever a Writer of fiction had the 
power to make a name widely known in Italy and France, 
surely Boccaccio was the man. 

Thirdly, the E. word is also spelt panflet or paunflet, with 
n. But, as I have just observed, the Italian name is also 
spelt Panfilo, with n. This is another link. 

Parget, to plaister a wall. Guided by the fact that this 
word also appears as sparget in M.E., I have supposed it to 
be a derivative of Lat. spargere. But the 8 may have been 
added afterwards, since we have in E. an intensive prefix «-, 
borrowed from the O.F. es-, from Lat. ex-. If so, the etymo- 
logy may lie in another direction. A correspondent has 
kindly sent me the following. " In T. Bond's Cor/e Castle^ 
Stanford, 1883, p. 107, an old account is quoted in which 
pargeted is Latinised by perjactavit*' I have since observed 
that, in Wright's Vocabularies, ed. Wiilcker, col. 602, 1. 7, 
is the entry: "Per/ado^ Anglice, to perjette." This certainly 
suggests that our word was originally perJeUe, and represents 
an O.F. *parjeier and a Low Lat. *perjactare. Of this O.F. 
form, and of this Low Lat. form, I can find no very clear 
traces ; yet I have just given an example of perjaciare, and 
of the Low Lat. perfacio, which is equally unknown, except 
from this solitary gloss. At the same time, the component 
parts of the word, viz. the F. prefix par- or per-, and the F. 
verb Jeter (=Lat. jactare) are extremely common, and the 
new compound par-Jeter may easily have been struck out at 
any moment, or the E. word may have been simply coined 
by compounding the verb to Jet with the prefix per- or par', 
without any authority from O.F. or Latin at all. When we 
consider how exactly perjette or parget answers to a F. 
*par-Jeter, and how precisely such a compound would express 
all that is meant by pargetting, viz. a thorough sprinkling, 
the above suggestion becomes highly probable. Moreover, 


the gloss above quoted, as well as the quotation above given, 
are m evidence; and in any other direction there is no evidence 
at all. We are bound to consider it as the best solution, 
till some further evidence is found. I may add that in the 
Chanson de Roland, 1. 2634, it is said of some lanterns, that 
they "pargetent tel luiseme," i.e. spread abroad such a light ; 
but it is thought that, in this instance, the O.F. pargeter 
answers to a Low Lat. proiectare, with the prefix prO', not 

Pheon ; see Feon. 

Pot, to go to. I have adopted Mr. Wright's note to 
Coriolanus, i. 4. 47, to the effect that "the figure is taken 
from the melting-pot." I now believe that the figure was 
taken from the much more common cooking-pot Whoever 
looks at the word pot in Littr^ will see how many F. phrases 
refer to the cooking-pot, and Dr. Schmidt, in his Shakespeare 
Lexicon, seems to take the same view ; for he quotes the G. 
parallel phrase which Fliigel gives as " in die P/anne hauen, 
to put to the sword," lit. to hew into the pan. The reference 
is here to the shredding of vegetables before they are thrown 
into the pot to be cooked. I venture to think this expression 
is far more graphic, when we refer to it, in the natural way, 
to the ordinary cooking-pot. Without arguing the point 
farther, I add one unmistakable example from King's Art of 
Cookery, first printed in 1708. 

"In days of old, our fathers went to war, 
Expecting sundry blows and hardy fare ; 
Their beef they often in their murrions stew'd. 
And in their basket-hilts their beverage brew'd. 
Some oflBcer perhaps might give consent 
To a large covered pipkin in his tent. 
Where everything that every soldier got. 
Fowl, bacon, cabbage, mutton, and what not. 
Was all thrown into bank, and went to pot.** 

** ith this graphic and simple explanation I can rest satisfied. 

Hence, when the soldiers remark that Coriolanus has gone 

^ the pot," they mean that he will be cut in pieces. "The 

m. Tnuu. 1M8-90. 2 


weaker goeth to the pot" occurs in Heywood's Proverbs 
(1562). And still more clearly, in XJdall's translation of the 
Apophthegmes of Erasmus (1664), bk. i. Diogenes, § 108 — 
** by the said tyranne Bionisius, the ryche and welthy of his 
subiectes tcent daily to the potie and were chopped yp." 

See further under Hodge-podge in my Dictionary. The 
form hochepot occurs even in Chaucer. " Ye han cast alle 
hir words in an hochepot " ; Tale of Melibeus, Six-text, 
Group B, 1. 2447. 

Purse. I have given this word, as is customary, as being 
one of F. origin. But it already occurs as purs in the 
eleventh century, and must have been taken immediately 
from the Lat. bursa. See Prof. Napier's list of glosses in 
Eng. Studien, xi. 65, where we find the entry : '^Ftscus, purs, 
o'S^e seod." The A.S. seod means 'a little bag.' The change 
from initial b top still remains puzzling. I wonder whether 
it represents a Celtic pronunciation of the Latin word. 

Bivelled, wrinkled. I have given this word as being of 
A.S. origin. Further light is thrown on it by the gloss : 
" RugoBUSf rifelede," contributed to Eng. Studien, xi. 66, by 
Prof. Napier, who refers, for the mode of formation of the 
word, to an article by Sievers in Paul und Braune's Beitrage, 
ix. 257, and to Eluge's Nominale stammbildungslehre, § 234. 
He also notes A.S. geri/od, wrinkled; ^If. Homilies, ed. 
Thorpe, i. 614, 1. 14. 

Shatter. This is merely a variant of scatter. I note here 
that it is still in use in Kent in the old sense ; as, ** the wind 
shatters the leaves;" which is just Milton's phrase in Lgcidas, 

Souse, Sowse, to plunge down upon suddenly. I find I 
have made a mistake in connecting this word with the sb. 
souse, meaning 'pickle,' which is a mere doublet of sauce, 
and which I explain, I believe, correctly. It is probable 
that the words were sometimes confused, but they are of 
totally difierent origin. When Pope says (Second Satire of 
the Second Book of Horace, 1. 60) that certain folks " Souse 
the cabbage with a bounteous heart," he employs a verb 
which is a mere derivative from the sb. souse, pickle. But 


m another passage (Epilogue to Satires, DiaL ii. 15) he 

" Gome on, then, Satire ! general, unconfined. 
Spread thy broad wing, and aoiise on all mankind ; '' 

and here he employs the same word as Shakespeare does in 
Xing John, v. 2. 150 — 

" And, like an eagle o'er his aery, towers 
To souse annoyance that comes near his nest." 

ifr. "Wright correctly says, with respect to this verb — "to 
swoop upon or strike, is a term of falconry," and he illus- 
trates it by an apt quotation from Spenser, F. Q. i. 5. 8. 
But he does not give the etymology. Webster, E. Miiller, . 
and others correctly separate the two words, but all they can 
think of is to ask us to compare the German sausen, to rush 
or blaster as the wind does, with which the verb to souse has 
nothing whatever to do. We did not borrow our terms of 
falconry from High German, but from French. The true 
'source' is, without a pun, the very word source itself/ 
strange as this may appear, and past all guessing. Our 
word source is the F. source, O.F. sot'se, the fem. pp. of the 
Terb which arose from the Lat. surgere. As applied to a 
river, it means the * rise ' or ' spring ' of it ; but as applied in 
falconry, it meant the upward spring or swoop of a bird of 
prey, and is so used by Chaucer, C.T. 7520, and House of 
Fame, ii. 36 : 

" Therefore, right as an hawke upon a sours 
TJpspringeth into th* aire ; " 

and again — 

" Me fleeing, at a swappe he [the eagle] hente. 
And with his sours again up wente." 

The original sense of * upward spring ' or * upward swoop ' 
was easily lost, whilst the notion of * swoop ' remained ; 
hence, the sense of direction being lost sight of, the word 
easily took the more useful sense of 'doirnward swoop/ simply 
because the downward swoop of a hawk was of more con- 
sequence and was more closely watched than his upward 


swoop, which was of no special consequence to the h&wker. 
At least, such is my belief, but I want more evidence. 
Besides this, the r was dropped ; and this point I can prove. 
For, in the Book of St. Albans, fol. dl, back, we find : " Iff 
your hawke nym the fowle a-lofte, ye shall say, she toke it 
at the mount or at the soiice." From this it is an easy step to 
the use of the word in Drayton's Polyolbion, Song 20, where 
birds are described as trying to dive to escape from the 
hawks, but the fowlers make them leave the water, and then 
the hawks secure them : 

''But when the falconers take their hawking-poles in hand, 
And, crossing of the brook, do put it [^ihe prey] over land. 
The hawk gives it a souse, that makes it to rebound 
Well near the height of man, or more, above the ground." 

To work out the word thoroughly would require a large 
number of quotations, but I think I have adduced enough to 
shew how the M.E. sours took a new form and a new sense. 
I should like to add that this view is entirely new, as far as 
I know at present; but I suppose the same thing will be 
said to me as was said when I discovered the etymology of 
the verb to surround, viz. that, in the first place, it's not 
true ; and secondly, as shewn by our Dictionary-slips, though 
it is quite right, we knew it before. 

Staniel, a kind of hawk. (£.) It is the same bird as the 
kestrel or wind-hover, the Falco tinnunculus of Linnaeus. 
Nares quotes it from Lady Alimony , an old play dated 1669 ; 
see Hazlitt's Dodsley, xiv. 284. It does not really occur in 
Twelfth Night, ii. 5, but is probably the right word; the 
first folio has stallion. In Wright's Vocabularies we find : 
" Aluclus, Anglice a stamel " ; wher^ statnel is a misprint for 
Htaniel'y for Halliwell quotes the same MS, correctly. Tracing 
the word still further back, we find : " Pellicanus, stangella,^* 
in an A.S. vocabulary of the eleventh century ; in Wright's 
Vocab., ed. Wiilcker, col. 287, 1. 10. In Spelman's edition 
of the A.S. Psalter, Ps. ci. 7 (Ps. cii. 6 in the E. version), 
we find pellicano glossed by stangillan in two MSS. ; this is 
the dat. case from a nom. stangilla. Our ancestors did not 


dearly know what a pelican was like. In the Vespasian 
Psalter, the same word appears with the older spelling stane- 
gelkf the sense of which is obvious, viz. ' the yeller from the 
rock.' Professor Newton kindly tells me that the staniel has 
"the same kind of metallic ringing voice as other hawks ; it 
also frequents rocks where there are such, and makes its nest 
in or on them." The phonological changes are perfectly 
regular. The syllable stdn is shortened by stress, precisely 
as in Stan-fordy Stan-tony Stan-ley (all from A.S. stdn). 
Oella or giila is the agential substantive from the verb gellan 
or giUafif the mod. E. yell ; hence atangella became stan-yell, 
or, with a slight weakening of the latter syllable (due to lack 
of accentual stress), precisely staniel. At a later time it was 
farther shortened to stannel^ just as Daniel is sometimes 
BarCel Even this is not the end, for sometimes the former 
syllable was translated by the form stimey and thus the bird 
was called the stone-gall. Both stannel and stonegall occur in 
Merrett's Pinax Iterum, 1667, p. 170. In Swainson's Pro- 
vincial Names of British Birds, E.D.S. p. 140, we find the 
bird called stannel, stannel hawk, stathchel, and even stand- 
hawk. Another name was the wind-hover, from its hovering 
in the wind, a habit (Prof. Newton tells me) possessed by no 
other common English bird. Taking advantage of this 
name, the guessing etymologists resolved the word into stand- 
in-gale or stand-gal^, which they pretended to be the original 
of staniel; but this clumsy fiction is easily detected by 
observing that gale has a hard g (before a) which will not 
pass into the sound of y. Fortunately also there is a cognate 
Or. word stein-gall, answering to the A.S. form all the way 
through ; for the G. stein is the A.S. stdn ; and the G. suffix 
-gall is the same as the suffix in nachtigall, a nightingale. 
This G. gall is the O.H.G. gala, a singer, from the stem of 
the past tense of the strong verb gellan, and therefore having 
precisely the same sense as the A.S. suffix -gellu, though 
differing in the vowel according to the ordinary stem- 
gradation. The A.S. gellan was applied particularly to hawks; 
as in [«V?] gielle sicd hafoc^ I yell like a hawk ; Riddle 25, 1. 3 
(Exeter Book). It is also used of the chirping of crickets^ 


as being a shrill sound. How the G. steingall is to be derived 
from stand-in-gale, when German does not possess the word 
gale at all, we are not likely to be informed. I may add 
that, in the form stone-gall, the suffix is not quite the same 
as before, but is the same as the -gale in nightingale. The 
M.E. galen, to sing, is a secondary weak verb derived from 
the stem gal, which is the past singular stem of the strong 
verb gellan. 

Steward. I have given ^stigweard as the theoretical A.S. 
form. But I have now found it, viz. in Birch's Cartularium 
Saxontcum, iii. 75. In the Middle Eng. translation of the 
same charter, iii. 77, the form is styward. 

Vagrant. I add to my former note on this word the 
remark that the original O.F. form of the verb which I cite 
as wakrer or tcaucrer was icalcrer, answering to M.H.G. 
icelkern, a frequentative of the verb which appears in A.S. 
wealcan, E. icalk. See Suchier's edition of the Reimpredigt, 
1879, p. 78. 

Whicche. See Hntoh (above). 

Whimbrel, a bird, a sort of curlew ; Numenius phceopus. 
(E.) Willughby says the bird was described to him under 
this name by Mr. Johnson of Brignal (N. Riding of York- 
shire). See also Swainson's Provincial Bird-names, E.D.S., 
p. 199. It is easily analysed as being for whim-b-r-el ; where 
b is excrescent after m, r is frequentative, -el is the suffix of 
the agent, and tc/iim (allied to whine) is imitative. It is 
therefore the bird that keeps on uttering a cry imitated by 
fchim; cf. Lowl. Sc. whimmer, E. whimper and whine, G. 
wimmern. See also my note on whinyard in Phil. Soc. Trans. 
1885-7, p. 331. 

List of words discussed : — bat, courser, cozier, cut, decoy, 
dismal, dog, dowle, earnest, entice, feon, foin, flotsam, gorce, 
horse-courser, hutch, jetsam, larboard, numbles, obsidian, pail, 
pamphlet, parget, pheon, pot (to go to), purse, rivelled, shatter, 
souse (sowse), staniel, steward, vagrant, whicche, whimbrel. 


18th may, 1888. By the Rev. Prof. Sayce, M.A., 

I AM aware that in conferring upon me the honour of the 
Presidential Chair, the Philological Society has departed 
from a tradition of considerable standing. My immediate 
predecessors have been distinguished by their researches 
into the living languages of to-day, by the contributions 
they have made to the science of phonetics, and by their 
study of the fountain-head of all our philology in England, 
the English tongue itself. I can claim only to be a repre- 
sentative of what Mr. Sweet has expressively termed 
''antiquarian philology," of that side of linguistic science 
which deals with letters and symbols rather than with 
sounds, and essays to trace the history of language in the 
past rather than to observe its varying phases in the modern 
world. I have, in fact, lived more among inscriptions and 
ancient texts than among phonographs and the symbols of 
" visible speech." 

But '' antiquarian philology " does not exclude the study 
of phonetics and the observation of living speech. From the 
outset of my philological career, at a time when the com- 
parative philologists of Germany and their followers in other 
countries were inclined to regard words as so many con- 
glomerations of variable letters, I preached the doctrine that 
sounds and not letters are what the philologist has to 
examine, and that if we are to arrive at any solid results 
in our study of extinct forms of speech, it must be through 

24 THE president's address for 1888. 

the medium of living languages. In science, as in nature, 
we can reach the truth only by proceeding from the known 
to the unknown, by working backwards from what lies 
before us to that which belongs to the dead past. Had 
scholars been content to observe and analyse language as 
it actually exists, instead of forming theories about it as it 
once was, we should have been spared the numerous idola 
and false assumptions which have impeded the progress of 
scientific philology. We should have heard less about 
Sanskrit or Latin grammar, and more about the usages of 
our own tongue. Above all, we should have been spared 
explanations of phonetic change which a very little observa- 
tion of existing speech would have shown to be impossible. 

The science of language has often been compared with 
the science of geology, and the student of language may 
well take a lesson from the geologist. Geology traces the 
past history of the globe, explains the mode in which the 
rocks have been built up and the forms of life they contain 
have followed one another. But it does so by first observing 
the phenomena that afiect and alter the surface of the earth 
to-day, phenomena that are in some measure themselves the 
results of former changes, the records of which lie hidden 
in the rocks below. The geologist, therefore, who would 
explain the phenomena of the present must have studied the 
phenomena of the past, while the student who would decipher 
the records of the past must be thoroughly acquainted with 
the phenomena of to-day. It is the same, or ought to be 
the same, in the case of the scientific student of language. 
Here, too, neither the history of the past nor the facts of the 
present can be neglected ; they are but the two faces of the 
same shield, the necessary complements one of the other. 
Linguistic science is neither antiquarian philology nor the 
study of phonetics, but a combination of both. 

Prof. Skeat, in the Presidential Address, which he delivered 
two years ago, describes himself as looking about for a 
subject which was not ''already extremely familiar to most 
of '* his hearers. My own difficulty is of quite the opposite 
character. I have a hobby, which, like every man who has 


a hobby, I am very willing to discourse upon. But I am 
not at all sure that you will be equally ready to listen to me. 
My special studies have lain in a direction in which I have 
but few fellow-labourers, and I am therefore doubtful whether 
anything that I can say about them can be of interest to 
you. The extinct languages of Western Asia, which are 
being painfully recovered from its long-buried monuments, 
offer bat little attractions to those whose time and interest 
haye been occupied with the burning questions of modern 
philology. Nevertheless, I believe that even these languages, 
fragmentary and extinct as they are, will help to throw light 
upon some of the problems and difficulties of our own 
modem science. If it is true that the scientific philologist 
cannot afford to neglect the most barbarous dialect of the 
nnallest and most barbarous tribe, it must be still more true 
that he cannot disregard languages which stand to the living 
languages of the East in the same relation that the institu- 
tions of the Roman world stand to the world of to-day. 

Students of civil and constitutional history tell us that 
we cannot understand the laws and customs, the culture and 
policy of the present, without the help of the past. The 
history of modem Europe, the social life in which we 
participate, would have been altogether different had the 
Boman Empire never existed; and though the Roman 
Empire seems widely removed from ourselves and our 
surroundings, the scientific historian must take account of its 
influence upon the course of future events if he would read 
aright the tale of European history. What holds good of 
history holds good also of philology. In so far as philo- 
logical science is historical, the problems it presents must 
be solved by an appeal to history. In order to know 
thoroughly what a language is now, we must know what 
It has been in the past. Language, like all else in nature, 
w an example of perpetual development, and the key to this 
development is the study of the phases it has undergone 
io the past. 

I will try, therefore, to indicate some of the ways in 
^hich the decipherment of the Cuneiform Inscriptions has 

26 THE president's address for 1888. 

thrown light, not only on the historical philology of Western 
Asia, but also upon the general questions raised by the 
science of language. But let me first point out what a 
wide linguistic field is covered by the phrase *' Cuneifona 

We have, to begin with, the Persian texts of Darius and 
his successors composed in the Indo-European l&nguage of 
ancient Iran. It represents the dialect of Western Persia 
in the Akhsemenian era, and is consequently invaluable for 
the purposes of comparison with the ancient Iranian dialect 
preserved in the Avestan literature. Whether the latter 
were spoken in Baktria or, as is now maintained, in Media 
Atropatene, is of little consequence from a philological point 
of view ; though it is possible that light may be cast even 
on this question by the Cuneiform monuments. The Median 
princes with whom Sargon came into contact in B.C. 713, 
eastward of the Kurdish range, have unmistakeably Indo- 
Aryan names of an Iranian stamp. In Pama and Satar- 
parna we have the -phemis of the Greek transcribers, the 
frand of Old Persian (in a name like Yiiidafran&, Inta- 
phern^s), Satar-parna, like the district of Sidir-pattian, 
probably containing the same element chUra 'a leopard,' 
as Chitra-takhraa, the Greek Sitratakhm^s. The name of 
Ariya, the chief of Bustu, needs no commentary, any more 
than that of Arbaku or Arbakes, or of Aspabara 'the horse- 

The decipherment of the Old Persian Cuneiform texts 
led the way to the decipherment of other texts written in 
more than one Cuneiform system of writing. Step by step 
the Semitic language of the valleys of the Tigris and 
Euphrates was made out, with its two dialects of Assyrian 
and Babylonian, and with its records extending over about 
three thousand years, the latest dated record being con- 
temporary with Domitian. Through Assyrian we have 
been made acquainted with the earliest form of agglutinative 
speech that has left memorials of itself. This is the Accado- 
Sumerian of primitive ChaldsDa, whose speakers preceded the 
Semites in their possession of the country, and which was 



sobdivided into two main dialeots, the Accadian of the north 
and the Sumerian of the south, together with several sub- 
dialects. As in the case of Assyrian, so too in the case of 
Accadian, the monuments enable us to trace the history and 
gradual development of the language through the course of 
eeyeral centuries. 

Aocado-Sumerian, however, was not the only form of 
agglutinative speech whose existence has been revealed to us 
by Cuneiform research. The Persian and Assyro- Babylonian 
texts of the monuments of Darius and Xerxes are ac- 
companied by a third text, the miscalled Median or Proto- 
medic It really represented, as I have essayed to show,^ 
the language of South-Eastem Susiana, an earlier form of 
which has been preserved to us in the inscriptions copied by 
Sir A. H. Layard in the plain of Mai-Amir, and was but 
the sister-dialect of the language of Susa, memorials of 
which have been discovered, not only among the ruins of 
Sosa itself, but as far south as the Persian Gulf. If we turn 
irom the extreme south of the ancient civilised world of 
Western Asia to the extreme north, we find among the 
mountains of Armenia, and more especially on the shores of 
lake Van and the banks of the Araxes, Cuneiform inscrip- 
tions in yet another form of language. These are the 
Vannic inscriptions which I succeeded in deciphering a few 
years ago,^ and which have already yielded us not only 
Btartling historical facts, but startling linguistic results 

Not even yet, however, is our survey completed of the area 
covered by the Cuneiform system of writing. We owe to 
Mr. Pinches the discovery of Cuneiform texts in the 
language of ancient Kappadokia. Several clay tablets 
mscribed in this still undeciphered language are now in 

^ *^The iDscriptions of Mai- Amir and the Language of the Second Column of 
we Akhftmenian Inscriptions,*' in the Transactions of the Sixth Oriental Congress 
»*I*iden, yol. ii. (1885). 

"The Cuneiform Inscriptions of Van, deciphered and translated," in the 
^,^^1 of the Eoyal Asiatic Society^ vol. xiv. parts 3 and 4 (1882). I have pub- 
'•wied a Supplementary Paper in the same Journal, vol. xx. part 1 (1888), partly 
^*^ on the researches ana discoveries of Guyard and D. H. MiiUer. 

28 THE president's address for 1888. 

Europe, which have come from the ruins of some old library 
in the neighbourhood of the modern Kaisariyeh. The 
ideographs occurring upon them show that the library was 
established in a temple of the Sun-god. 

Besides these extinct languages, relics of which, more or 
less numerous, we now possess, thanks to the spread of the 
Cuneiform system of writings we occasionally come across 
isolated examples of other languages, also embodied in 
Cuneiform characters. Thus I possess a haematite cylinder 
found in Asia Minor, which carries an inscription in an 
unknown form of speech, and Dr. Oppert has pointed out in 
De Clercq's collection (pi. xxx. No. 321) a seal bearing a 
Phoenician text, but written in Cuneiform, while in 1842 
a haematite cylinder was discovered on the hills near Herat 
inscribed with Cuneiform signs, which disclose a language 
of unknown type.^ 

The Assyrians themselves, moreover, or rather the Baby- 
lonians of the south, have made us acquainted with some of 
the words and phrases used by the neighbouring populations. 
The mountains bordering on the eastern side of the Chaldean 
plain were occupied by wild tribes known as Kassi or 
Kossaeans, some of whom once overran Babylonia, and 
established there a dynasty of kings. A tablet gives us the 
equivalents of such words as ' sky' (dagigi), 'earth* {miriyas)^ 
'wind' {turukhna) in their language, and another tablet 
explains the meanings of their royal names. In other cases 
words are interpreted which belonged to the language of 
Elam, or to the Suti, a nomad Semitic population in the 
eastern part of Babylonia, or again to the inhabitants of the 
island of Dilvun in the Persian Gulf. The constant necessity 
the educated classes were under of learning the extinct 
Accadian gave them an interest in foreign languages, and 

^ Journal of the Asiatie Society of Bengal^ toI. xi. pp. 316 8q. The cylinder 
was bought by Major Pottinger, but was afterwards unfortunately lost. The 
characters, so far as I can make them out from the copy, read as follows: 
(I) *god* Nin{fyz%-in; (2) Su'lukh^fyme-am-el \ (3) Khi-ti-sa * servant' na. 
The usual formula on a cylinder of the kind is '* To the god r^ A the son of B, 
his serrant." In the second line the places of the third and fourth characters 
apparently require to be reversed. 


in what we may term comparative philology. Hence we 
need not be surprised that an Assyrian king goes out of his 
way ia a historical inscription to inform us that a particular 
object was called by a particular name in Syria,^ or that 
Semitic words were subjected to the same kind of etymolo- 
gifflDg as the words of English or Latin in the dictionaries 
of the last century. Just as Junius derives soul from (foo) 
and the Teutonic wala * a well,* or merry from the Greek 
Iwpl^Wy so the Babylonian scribe derived the Semitic words 
of the language he spoke from the extinct vocabulary of 
primssval Sumer.^ 

Two facts, among others, of interest to the general 
philologist have resulted from the decipherment of the 
Aaeyrian texts. We possess in them contemporaneous 
docnments of Assjrro-Babylonian, which mount back to a 
period between 3000 and 2000 B.C. Nevertheless, throughout 
the greater part of the period during which we can trace the 
history of the language, it already exhibits extensive marks 
of decay. The final m, which once characterized the case- 
endings, is frequently lost, and the case-endings themselves 
tend more and more to be confused together. Analogy plays 
a conspicuous part in the formation of the verbal tenses, and 
the construct genitive of the Semitic parent-speech is 
constantly replaced by a construction of which the genitival 
relation is expressed by the pronoun sa * which.' But it is 
in its phonology that ABsyro-Babylonian shows the greatest 
signs of decay, even on the oldest monuments. It is true 
that its sounds were represented by a syllabary which had 
heen the invention of the speakers of an agglutinative 
laognage, and was ill adapted to express the peculiar sounds 
of a Semitic idiom. But with every allowance for the 
imperfections of the instrument by means of which the 

' " I built a portico like a Syrian palace, which in the language of Phoenicia 
theycaUa^ir-AAiteni'* (Sargon's Bull -inscription, 67-69). 

' Thus the word sabattu ' a Sahbath * from sabaiu * to complete,' is derived in 
w« lexical tablets (W.A.I, vol. ii. p. 32, 16) from the Accadian sa * heart,' and 
**** to complete,' and accordingly interpreted as 'a day of rest for the heart,* 
^9apatu *a snare,* is derived from the Accadian sa *a cord,' and para * to 

30 THE president's ADDRESS FOB 1888. 


sounds of the language were represented, it remains tha' 
these sounds had degenerated widely from those of th« 
Parent-speech. Like the Mandaite it had lost the gutturals 
so distinctive of Semitic utterance ; hha (^) had disappeared 
more completely than in PhoDniko-Hebrew, where it wai 
merged in kheth ; there is no trace of ghain (4), and even 
ain had passed into the diphthong i. The semi-vowels w and 
y are seldom represented in writing before u and t, and the 
sibilants have undergone much the same fate as the gutturals. 
As in Hebrew, dhdl (J), dh&d (^), and z& (1^) have all been 
confounded with other sounds. In another respect, also, the 
characteristic sounds of the Semitic languages have under- 
gone transformation. Teth has been assimilated to d^ and 
was probably pronounced like the dental in the English then^ 
and though qoph has not been altogether lost, it is frequently 
softened into kaph in the Assyrian dialect of the north, while 
it regularly becomes gimel in the Babylonian of the south, 
just as it does in the Arabic of modem Egypt. 

Here then we find that a language which was spoken over 
a wide tract of country, and was stereotyped in literature 
at an early period, had already passed into what may be 
described as a very modem stage of linguistic growth, at all 
events so far as its phonology was concerned. More than 
4000 years ago Assyrian had undergone more phonetic 
change than the Arabic that is spoken to-day in the streets 
of Cairo. 

And yet this Arabic is considered to have departed very 
widely from the original purity of the language brought 
into Egjrpt by its Arab conquerors. If we turn to the 
lawless nomad tribes of north-eastern and central Arabia, 
we find the Arabic of the Kordn still spoken as it was in the 
days of Mohammed. According to Palgrave, the three case- 
endings are still correctly used in Central Arabia, and the 
Bedouin throughout the Peninsula distinguish in pronuncia- 
tion the gutturals and sibilants peculiar to the Semitic 
tongues, and preserve the primitive pronunciation of teth 
(td), and qoph (Aa/). It is only in the case of p, which 
has become /, that the Arabic of the Bedouin stands 


on 8 lower level of phonetic decay than the Assyro- 

Now the fact that, from a linguistic point of view, the 
Arabic of the Modem Bedouin is more archaic than the 
ABsyro-Babylonian of 4000 years ago, settles a question 
which has sometimes been asked by the students of language. 
It proves that two members of the same family of speech 
can exist side by side, though in two wholly different stages 
of hnguistic development. The Semitic languages are 
eonnected together by peculiarly close ties, while Assyro- 
Babylonian was not separated from Arabic by any wide 
geographical interval; nevertheless, the latter is still in a 
atage of growth which must have been left by the former 
long before the earliest Assyrian monuments known to us 
were inscribed. 

What makes the fact still more interesting is the further 
&ct that the Semitic language which has shown itself so 
conservative is not a language which was committed to 
writing at an early epoch, but one which is still spoken by 
wild Bedouin tribes. It is the cultured languages of the 
Semitic group which exhibit signs of transformation and 
decay, while the language of the illiterate " desert-ranger " 
remains unchanged from generation to generation. This 
nms counter to the usual doctrine according to which the 
languages of savage and barbarous tribes are in a constant 
state of flux. But it is thoroughly in harmony with the 
itationary character and remarkable uniformity observed to 
exist in the various languages or dialects of the Eskimaux, 
more particularly of the east,^ as well as with the relatively 
primitive nature of that least literary of European tongues, 
the Lithuanian. 

' See my ** Principles of Comparatiye Philology," p. 86. In The American 
Antiquarian^ vol. x. p. 1 (1888), p. 40, Mr. F. Boaz says : << The languages of all 
tribes from Greenland to the Coast of Behring Straits differ only very slightly. 
• . . In Greenland and North-Eastem America the Angaskut use in their con- 

JQiations a great numher of words which do not occur in the common language, 
'art of them are symbolical; the greater number, however, arc obsolete 
radicals. Some of them are still in use among the tribes of Alaska, and some 
tre still found in Greenland. They prove the existence of a close relation of the 
dialects in olden times." For this sacred language of the Eskimo conjurors see 
>gain my Frindplet of Comparative Fhtloloffyj p. 84, note 2. 

32 THE president's address for 1888. 

But Assyrian phonology, degenerated as it is, has never- 
theless served to show that in one respect the phonology o£ 
the Parent-Semitic and of the Parent- Aryan agreed together. 
Prof. Haupt has sought to prove that the Semitic dh&l^ 2d 
and tha were originally rf+A, t+hy t+hy where the aspirate 
was pronounced as in the Sanskrit dh or th. At all events 
a comparison of Assyrian with Phoeniko-Hebrew makes it 
clear that the Parent-speech once possessed the sounds s+h 
and t+h. Both Assyrian and Hebrew, that is to say, the old 
language of Semitic Canaan, belong to the northern division 
of the Semitic family, and an intimate relation exists between 
them. Now we find that in certain cases where Hebrew has 
hy Assyrian has 8 and t. Thus the causative conjugation in 
Assyrian is formed by the prefix «, in Hebrew by A, and the 
pronouns of the third person 8u* and %f have become hu* 
and hi* in Hebrew. Similarly the suflBx of the feminine t 
has in most cases passed into h in Hebrew. As regards the 
sibilant, the majority of the other Semitic languages have 
adopted the same mode of dealing with the original sound as 
Hebrew. Though traces of a causative in 8 are to be found 
in Hebrew, Arabic and Ethiopic, it is only in Aramaic that 
we meet with the same sibilated conjugation as in Assyrian, 
and the only other Semitic language known to us besides 
Assyrian which has preserved the initial 8 of the pronoun 
is one of the dialects of ancient Himyar, with its modern 
descendant the Mehri. 

Now there is but one way of explaining the fact that 
whereas in some Semitic languages and in certain words we 
find 8 and ty in other languages and in other words we find h. 
Both alike must be derived from a primitive 8+hy t+ky the 
initial sibilant and dental being retained in some cases, and 
the final aspirate in others. 

I have said that there is a second fact resulting from the 
decipherment of the Assyrian texts which is of interest to 
the general philologist. This relates to the fixity of forms 
of speech, and the antiquity of language. We have just 
seen how marvellously unchanged has been the language of 
the Bedouin Arab ; what it is to-day, we may safely say it 



hm been Bubstantially for the last four or five thousand 
years. Its speakers have lived isolated lives ; they have not 
had that contact with other languages which brought about 
the early disintegration of the Assjrro-Babylonian dialects. 
We may perhaps argue from this that when a form of speech 
ODce acquires a particular type, it needs the disintegrating 
inflaence of foreign tongues ta produce alterations in it. At 
any rate this seems to have been the case in the Semitic family. 

But even tho^ members of the Semitic family which have 
departed most widely from the original type have done so 
to a comparatively slight extent. One of the chief diffi- 
culties of Comparative Semitic Philology consists in the close 
relationship of the individual members of the family one to 
another, while there is no extant Parent-speech, like Latin 
in the case of the Romanic idioms, which can offer us a 
starting-point for our investigations. French, Italian, and 
Spanish differ more from each other than do the several 
Semitic languages. The latter have preserved to a most 
remarkable extent a common phonological system, a common 
atroctare, a common granmiar, and a common stock of words. 

And yet the language among them, which has on the 
whole undergone the greatest amount of change, is just the 
language whose contemporaneous records can be traced back 
to the third millennium before the Christian era. It had 
already acquired all those characteristics which mark the 
Assyrian off from its sister tongues. Such a fact gives us 
some idea of the length of time that must be allowed before 
we arrive at the Parent-Speech, or, at all events, at that un- 
divided community whose members afterwards carried with 
them the dialects that eventually became the Semitic lan- 
guages. A comparison of the names of objects shared alike 
hy the northern and southern languages of the family, tends 
to show that this undivided community had its home in 
the deserts of north-eastern Arabia, where it adjoined the 
cultured kingdoms of the Accado-Sumerians. A recol- 
lection of its nomad life was retained by the Assyrians, who 
gave the * city ' the name of dlu, the Hebrew dh^l ' a tent.' 

The Parent-Speech was distinguished from the other lan- 
nm. Tram. 1888-80. 3 

84 THE president's address for 1888. 

guages of the world, not only by its phonology and its 
lexicon, but also by its structure and its grammar. The 
majority of its words were triliteral, each consisting of a 
framework of three consonants, and the relations of grammar 
were for the most part expressed by varying the vowels within 
this framework. It exhibited, therefore, a more complete 
form of flectional speech than. has been known before or since. 

I will not stop to inquire whether or not this triliteml 
character of the words used by the primitive Semitic speaker 
had arisen out of something else. We have no materials 
for deciding or investigating the point ; at the earliest epoch 
of Semitic speech to which we can reach back, it was dis- 
tinguished by its triliteralism, even borrowed words as well 
as biliteral roots tending to follow the general analogy, and 
assume a triliteral form. The peculiarities which distinguish 
the Semitic idioms to-day distinguished the Parent-language 
of the pre-historic nomad. 

And yet it is possible that this Parent-language was not 
such a solitary islet of human speech as it seems at first sight 
to be. Between it and Old Egyptian there appear to be 
points of similarity which cannot be accounted for by the 
theory of coincidences. It is true that the Egyptian vocabu- 
lary shows no clear traces of connection with that of the 
Semitic tongues, except in the case of borrowed words; it 
is also true that the triliteralism and internal vocalic change 
of the Semitic idioms are unrepresented in Egyptian ; but 
it is equally true that between the Semitic and Egyptian 
pronouns and grammatical suflBxes there exists a remarkable 
resemblance. I am fully aware that in certain respects, such 
as the indication of the causative conjugation by the suffix 
8, there is a further resemblance between Egyptian and the 
*' Hamitic " lan'guages of the south, such as the Haussa, but 
this resemblance does not extend very far. The construct 
genitive, for instance, which Prof. Maspero has shown to 
exist in Old Egyptian, is of itself a peculiarity, which claims 
direct connection with Semitic speech. I am no advocate 
of associating languages together because of one or two 
points of likeness in grammar or vocabulary ; but when I 


find the Egjrptian personal pronouns anuk, entu-k, entu-s, 
anu, tenu^ senu, corresponding exactly to the Old Semitic 
andki, anta (,-*«^), «w*, «»"', -(<i)wA, anfum, sunu, I cannot resist 
the conclusion that some relationship must exist between 
Egyptian and Old Semitic.^ Professor Terrien de Lacouperie, 
in the Presidential Address of two years ago, has shown that 
mixed languages, in which the elements of the structure and 
grammar are derived from more than one family of speech, 
are to be found in Eastern Asia, and Prof, von der Gabelentz 
has proved the same for the Melanesian islands of the 
PaciBc* In Old Egyptian, it seems to me, we must recognise 
the same fact. Here, too, we have a mixed grammar com- 
pounded of elements that are partly African and partly Semitic. 
But the Semitic elements appear to belong to a period 
anterior to that in which the principle of triliteralism became 
filed' and stereotyped. They bear witness to a form of 
speech which was Semitic, and yet not of the type of that 
which I have termed the Semitic Parent-speech, Whether 
this form of speech, which for want of a better name I must 
call Old Egyptian, were the sister or the aunt of the Semitic 
Parent-speech, I cannot say ; the question must be left to 
be decided by future research. On the ethnological side, 
however, it seems probable that the Egyptians were descended 
from the people of Pun or Punt, who lived on either shore 
of the southern part of the Red Sea, though a dash of 
African blood has given them a massiveness of jaw which 
the people of Pun did not possess.' As the people of Pun 
were inhabitants of the southern coast of Arabia, their settle- 
ments on the western side of the Bab-el-Maudeb being, like 

' Hr. Le Page Renouf s argnments aniinst this conclusion in the Proeeedhigt 
*f the S<yciety of Biblical At ch<eology, March, 1888, rest upon what I must be 
•llowed to call an obsolete theory of roots. Years ago, in my Principle of 
Cmparative Philology^ I fancied I had effectually disposed of the theorj', and 
tile revolution brought about in Indo-European Comparative Philology by the 
*' Xeo-Grammarians " has since deprived it of the support it was once supposed 
to find in the Indo-European languages. 

^ '*Beitrage zur Kenntniss der Melanesischen, Mikronesischen und Pnpua- 
nischen Spraches" (1882), a treatise which ought to be carefully studiea by 
every student of language. 

' Such is one of the results derived from the casts, etc., of the ethnological 
types represented on the Egyptian monuments, taken by Mr. Flinders Petrie 
tot the British Association in 1886-7. 

36 THE president's address for 1888. 

those of the later Gbe'ez, of Arabic origin, it is probable that 
in the far-distant past they were in geographical proximity 
to the nomad Semites, and may therefore easily have spoken 
cognate languages. In any case it would appear that long 
before the foundation of the historical Egyptian monarchy in 
Jthe fifth millennium before our era, we get a glimpse of a 
language or dialect which stood to the Semitic Parent* 
speech in the relation of sister or aunt. It takes us back 
beyond the earliest epoch to which the Semitic languages 
themselves confine our range of vision, to a period, in fact, 
when triliteralism had not as yet become the dominant 
principle of Proto-Semitic structure. When we remember 
the fixity and immobility of the Semitic idioms during the 
long period of time in which we can trace their history, 
when we further remember that Egyptian was already an 
aging language at the date to which the oldest monuments 
of it belong, we can form some idea of the vast antiquity to 
which we must refer the first beginnings of Froto-Semitic 
speech. We are transported to an age far behind that of the 
Semitic Parent-language, or the time when triliteralism first 
became the governing principle of Semitic structure. 

The same testimony is borne by the dialects of pre-Semitic 
ChaldsBa. We find them inscribed upon monuments, some 
of which mount back to about 4000 years before the 
Christian era. From this time onwards we can trace their 
history for several centuries, until at last the language of the 
primitive inhabitants of Babylonia became the sacred idiom 
of their successors, and was preserved like monkish Latin 
down to the days when the conquests of Alexander brought 
the Greeks and the Orientals face to face. The transforma- 
tion undergone by Accado-Sumerian in the hands of the 
Semitic scribes, many of whom understood it badly, does not 
concern us here ; it is rather the changes which it ex- 
perienced while it was still a living tongue that have an 
interest for us. Some years ago, in 1877, a paper of mine 
was read before this Society upon Accadian Phonology, in 
which I endeavoured for the first time to trace some of the 
changes experienced by Accado-Sumerian through the aotioo 


of phonetic decay. These changes were in many instances 
Tery oonsiderable, and bear evidence to the length of time 
during which they must have been going on. Since the 
publication of my paper the subject has been further worked 
oat| more especially by Haupt and Hommel, and we now 
bave a fair idea of the extent to which the original 
appearance of Accado-Sumerian had been affected by 
phonetic change. Already in the earliest of its monuments 
it shows signs of decay. Wiidun, for instance, signifies 
'wine' in the Accadian dialect of the north, the proximity 
of whose speakers to the Semites caused it to alter more 
rapidly than the Sumerian of the south. In the latter 
dialect, and in the oldest records of it that we possess, the 
word in question takes the form of gesdin (or gosdin). But 
gbdin itself was not the primeeval word. This was gtcoadin, 
literally ' the draught of life,* from gtvijs * a draught,' and 
din'hfeJ The wine of the ancient Chaldsean, in fact, was 
like the Soma of India, that which made glad the hearts of 
gods and men. Similarly the fire-god was called Wubdra in 
Accadian, Oubdra in Sumerian, dialectal varieties of which 
were KiUra and Oibily but there is evidence to show that the 
original form of the name was Ghcusbdra, though it was a 
form that had been lost in pronunciation before the rulers of 
Tel-loh erected their monuments in the fourth millennium B.C. 

Accado-Sumerian, however, was already a fully-formed 
&Qd complete language. Its structure and grammar were 
already fixed ; it was already as far removed from the 
^rliest beginnings, not only of language in general, but also 
of the particular form of language to which it belonged, as 
are the Turko-Tatar languages of to-day. Whatever changes 
Bobsequently passed over it, they were phonetic changes 
only, affecting in no way its special type and character. 
Sixty centuries ago Accado-Sumerian was already very old. 

I shall pass over the contributions that have been made 
to the comparative philology of the Semitic idioms by the 
Semitic language which we usually term Assyrian, though 
its older and purer form was spoken in Babylonia rather 
than in Assyria. I shall say nothing of the help it affords 

38 THE president's address for 1888. 

in settling the question of the primitive home and socis 
condition of the undivided Semites ; how instructive it ii 
for example, to find that whereas the Phoeniko-Hebre^ 
word for * a city * is borrowed from Suraerian, dlu, whic 
is used in Assyrian in the same signification, is identicc 
with the Hebrew 6/wl, * a tent.' ^ Nor shall I point out wha 
light it has thrown on the formation of the Semitic Perfed 
proving that the third person is merely an abstract noui 
while the other two persons are amalgamations of the noui 
with the personal pronouns. Such matters belong rather t 
the special province of Semitic philology, than to linguisti 
science in general. 

But I cannot refrain from drawing your attention to th< 
new vistas that have been opened up, not only for the studen 
of history, of religion, and of ancient geography, but als* 
for the student of language, by the decipherment of th 
inscriptions of Van. Throughout the larger part of th( 
country now known as Armenia, and extending northward 
of the Araxes into the modern Georgia, inscriptions ar 
found, written in Cuneiform characters which were borrower 
from Nineveh, but in the language of a kingdom which ha< 
its capital on the shores of Lake Yan. The language i 
inflectional in the same sense as is the Georgian of to-daj^ 
but it does not belong to the Indo-European family c 
speech. In fact, down to the close of the seventh centur 
before our era, when the monumental record forsakes uc 
there is no trace throughout this district of any other Ian 
guage than that of the Tannic kings. "Wherever they le< 
their armies, moreover, eastward, northward, or westward 
the names of the princes they encountered, and of th 
countries they traversed, are all distinctively non-AryaB 
As late, therefore, as the age which ushered in the fall c 
the Assyrian Empire, Armenia had not as yet been con 
quered by Aryan-speaking tribes. 

This fact, coupled with the further fact that the vocalisn 

^ The identification of ^lu with 6hel was first made by myself in 1872, in tl 
TranMOctiont of the Society of Biblical Archaeology^ i. 2, p. 305, and like man 
other things has since been re-discorered by younger Assyriologists. 


of Armenian is European and not Asiatic, while the Iranian 
element once supposed to be present in it has turned out to 
be due to Persian influence of comparatively late date, goes 
to show that the classical tradition concerning the Armenians 
was based on actual history. Herodotos (vii. 73) tells us 
that the Armenians who served in the army of Xerxes were 
a colony from Fhrygia, and Eudoxos declared that their 
knguage was largely Phrygian,^ the Phrygians themselves 
heiiig stated by Strabo (pp. 296, 471) to have been of 
Thrakian origin. Such a tradition cannot have been very 
old at the time when Herodotos committed it to writing, and 
the support it has received from my decipherment of the 
Vannic inscriptions leads us to accept the view that in 
Annenian we may see the last surviving representative of 
Thrako-Phrygian speech. This alone would give a high 
importance to the scientific investigation of the Armenian 
laQgoage, an importance which is enhanced when we re- 
member the close connection that seems to have existed 
linguistically as well as geographically between Thrako- 
Phrygian and the Greek dialects. 

But the recovery of the old Vannic language itself ought 
to possess considerable interest for the comparative philo- 
logist. Considerations of geography, as well as of ethnology, 
would suggest that it belonged to the family of speech of 
which Georgian, Mingrelian, Suanian, and Lazian are the 
linng representatives. In this case it will become possible 
to analyze the words and grammatical forms of Georgian^ 
hitherto one of the greatest puzzles of linguistic science, and 
to trace their transformation into their present shape. But 
even if it shall turn out that the Yannic language is the 
Waif of an otherwise extinct family of speech, it will still 
be well worth the attention of the philologist. Its grammar 
belongs to the same type as that of Georgian, but is infinitely 
more simple and transparent. There is seldom much diffi- 
culty in discovering the root of the word ; the suffixes are 
limited in number, and are used with great regularity. The 

rp ^yp voAM ^pvyi(ovai.—l^UBtsLt\i, in Dion, v. 694. 


language holds the same midway place between agglutination 
and inflection as does Georgian ; in fact, so far as one can 
judge at present, it may be pronounced inflectional rather 
than agglutinative. The suffixes in most common use are 
-nt, -/{', and -di, which, like the suffixes of the Indo-EurbpeaU' 
languages, may be employed either in a flectional or a classi- 
ficatory sense, or, again, without any meaning whatever. 
Thus, -nt and -^t denote the accusative and locative of the 
noun, but -ni also forms adjectives, and -di nouns of place, 
while both are employed without any special signification to 
attach a root to another suffix. Similarly by the side of a 
phrase like ini-li zai-li zadua-li ' after this gate was built,' 
we find pi'li * the place of a name,' or * memorial,' and 
qahqahrU'li-ni * approach,' where -/t serves to attach the 
suffix of the accusative to the stem of the word. Other 
suffixes which may be mentioned are -ka^ which expresses 
the idea of race or descent, as in Argisti-ka-s 'the race of 
Argistis,' -a, which denotes persons, as in tarsu-a 'the 
people of strength,' that is, * soldiers,' and -khi, or with the 
adjectival suffix -khi-nij which represents the patronymic. 
The nominative terminated in -«, the genitive and dative in 
the vowel of the stem (-a, -t, and -m), and there does not 
seem to have been any special suffix for expressing the 
plural. At all events, there is usually no difierence between 
the forms of the singular and plural, both in the noun and 
in the verb. The machinery of the verb is of the simplest 
possible description. There is only one tense, the past, the 
first person singular of which is represented by the suffix 
"hiy while the third person singular and plural ends in -ni, 
perhaps a contracted form of the demonstrative %-ni * this.' 
Other forms of the verb are expressed by gerunds and 
participles, the most common being the dative of the gerund 
in 'li, which is used as a present, a future, and an optative. 
Aim tulie, for example, * whoever carries away,' is literally 
'whoever (is) for carrying away.' I may add that compo- 
sition plays a large part in the formation of the language ; 
thus, abili'dU'bi * I burnt,' is properly * I set on fire,' iui-du-bi 
' I appropriated,' is * I set for a possession,' and the word 


taniHif quoted above, is a compound of tar * strong/ and su 
* to make/ 

Though the Yannic inscriptions are numerous, and some 
are of considerable length, no bilingual text has as yet been 
diacovered. It may, therefore, be asked how it was that I 
succeeded in deciphering them. I will answer the question 
as briefly as I can. 

When the Cuneiform characters of Nineveh were borrowed 
by the people of Van, they selected from the multitudinous 
signs of the Assyrian syllabary only those which expressed 
such simple values as a, ba, bi, bu, etc., along with a few 
others, which represented closed syllables like gis. At the 
same time, they rejected the polyphony of the Assyrian 
system, assigning to each character one value only. Fortu- 
nately for us, however, they did not content themselves with 
these phonetic characters ; they also borrowed the ' determi- 
natives ' of the Cuneiform system of writing, as well as a 
good many ideographs. Consequently we can always tell 
in an inscription whether a particular word represents the 
name of a man, of a woman, of a city, of a country, or such 
objects as oxen, sheep, metals, wood, and the like, through 
the help of the determinatives prefixed to it. Similarly, the 
ideograph of plurality indicates to us when a word is em- 
ployed in the plural number, while the other ideographs, 
which are freely scattered through the texts, give us some 
idea of what the inscriptions are about. Moreover, by com- 
paring two parallel passages together, it is often possible to 
arrive at the Vannic pronunciation of the ideographs, what 
u expressed by an ideograph in the one passage being 
written phonetically in the other. In this way I was 
enabled to construct the framework of Yannic grammar, and 
to determine the signification of a good many words. It 
then became clear that the Yannic scribes had not only 
l>orrowed the Assyrian characters in the forms found in the 
inscriptions of Assur-natsir-pal, the first Assyrian monarch 
who penetrated into their country, but had also borrowed, 
or rather imitated, the stereotyped phrases of his historical 
texts. That such was the case had already been divined by 

42 THE. president's address for 1888. 

tbe Frencli Semitic scholar Stanislas Guyard, whose untimely 
death is still deplored by science. He had observed, by an 
attentive study of the ideographs occurring in it, that a 
formula which is frequently attached to the Vannic inscrip- 
tions must correspond with the execratory formula added at 
the end of Assyrian monuments of the same kind. The 
decipherment of the language has shown that his conclusion 
was right. 

Since the publication of my Memoir on the Tannic 
Inscriptions, the work of decipherment has been carried on 
first by Guyard, and subsequently by Prof. D. H. Miiller, 
of Vienna. New texts have been brought to light, new 
words explained, and corrections introduced into the transla- 
tions I put forward six years ago. Already a large part of 
the long-lost and forgotten Tannic language has yielded up 
its secrets, and a fresh field has thus been won for philo- 
logical research. 

It is time now to turn from an account of what I have 
been doing myself to what has been done by others in 
other fields of research. Mr. Wharton, more especially, 
has for some years past devoted himself to the neglected 
subject of Latin etymology, and the advances made by 
Comparative Philology, more especially in the hands of the 
so-called Neo-Grammarians, have enabled him to discover 
phonetic laws, and determine the etymology of words which 
have hitherto been the despair of the philologist. Most of 
his discoveries remain unpublished : a very important one, 
which throws light on the derivation of a large number of 
words, is placed before you this evening for the first time. 
I shall, I know, express the sentiment of the Society, if I 
thank Mr. Wharton for his kindness in allowing the results 
of his investigations to be made known through our means. 


LANGUAGE. By E. R. Wharton, M.A. 

{Btadai the Society* 9 Meeting ^ June 1, 1888.) 

Latin Vocalism. I. Short Vowels. 

[YowelB not marked long are understood to be short.] 

(1) Besides the recognized vowels t\ u, e, 0, a, Latin must 
bave possessed a * modified ' u pronounced like French u^ 
German ii, with a sound between u and t, and expressed 
fiometimes by u sometimes by t. The Emperor Claudius pro- 
poeed for it a peculiar sign, |- : we may use ii. 

Thus iubet lunter surpiculus were later written libet linter 
^irpicuhia : cliens goes with c/mo, li-td (' pay one's vows ') 
with luo, cilium with icvXa, ligd with Xtryt^o), auf-fid with 
6m^ and apparently miser with fivaapof: : stipula answers to 
Old Slavonic stuhlo (a by-form of stiblo), stringo to Old 
Slayonic strHgati, tinguo to Old High German dmwon. So, 
I would suggest, 

nimia stands for *numi8'Um, the old form of nufnerum (cf. 
Oscan Niumsieia 'Numerii'), and nimis aitu8=znumerum altva 

* a quantity high,' as French trop AaM^=Lat. turbam altum 

* a crowd high': 

pingd 'paint' (originally 'stipple') goes with piingo 'prick': 
firempse (later siremps, as according to Wolfl3in imtar 

* weight ' is from imtdre * to press on ') stands for *8urempse, 
Inf. Perf. of *8urimo (whence Festus has the Perf. suremit), 
the original form of sumo (cf. Naevius' Inf. Perf. sumpse) 

* to assume,' so that the phrase * siremps lex esto quasi, etc' 
nieans properly * let an assumption be law, as though, etc' 
■Hie first element in these words is, as Breal has suggested, 
^^ 'up' as in the phrase amque deque ' up and down ' and in 


With the same letter u we may account for Augustiu' 
spelling simus for mmus: culullus iutubus lacruma manubiae 
obstupescd quadrupes satura were later spelt culillua etc. ; 
optumus and other Superlatives gave way to optimus etc.: 
dverr-uncus and long-inquus have really the same termina- 
tion : from 8up6 came dis-sipd. Further instances will be 
given below. 

(2) Latin vocalism was complicated by four distinct in- 
fluences : intermixture of dialects, accent, adjoining letters, 
and analogy. 

(I.) Dialect: 

The most perplexing phenomenon in Latin vocalism is the 
occasional change of e in the root-syllable into i, and of o 
into u. The later Roman dialect, as we shall see, changed 
every o before a consonant in the finnl syllable into u : the 
difficulty is to account for sporadic changes of radical o. It 
may be conjectured that some dialect — whether that of the 
lower or of the upper class does not appear — changed every 
radical e into t (as Gothic does), and that either the same or 
some other dialect changed every radical o into u ; and that 
certain words in Latin were infected by this dialectic in- 
fluence. Nor are these changes confined to Latin : in Old 
XJmbrian we have enumek emk rea vestigia and beside them 
inumek isek via vistiga, in Oscan esfud and ht : New XJmbrian 
curnaco^:^Ija,t. comicem, sunitu^Ijat. sonitH, Faliscan cuncap- 
^um=Lat. conceptum. 

First for the change of ^ to t in Latin : heside feiix (' fern ') 
penna specio tea we have the spellings fiiix pinna spicid via^ 
en and endo become in and indu, trebus becomes iribus, for 
eru8 septem sex we have in inscriptions irua sipiem sir : sinister 
seems to mean ' senior ' as a term of respect, a euphemism like 
€v<ivvfio^ (for the first t cf. sindtus beside sendtus), viiulus 
(whence Greek iroKo^ is borrowed) must mean ' a yearling ' 
and go with vetus and 6x09, while sileo (as I have suggested) 
' settle down ' is a by-form of seded (Gothic ana-silan ' to 
abate ' is borrowed from Latin) : cicur * tame ' answers to 
irerroDV in the sense of * gentle,' plied to -irXe/cco, cicer to 
Prussian keckirs, nited (I would suggest) to Old Slavonic 


ffneiq ' I press ' (so tbat nited properly means to be rubbed, 
polished, and nota 'mark' is an Abliut of the same root). 
In figed beside peged an un-original e (see sec. 3, fi) becomes i. 
So the sonants m and n are represented sometimes by em and 
en, sometimes by im and in, we have hemd (in Old Latin) and 
mUum, wnilia and inter. (The relation of helu% hemd to the 
later holm homo is obscure.) 

Secondly for the change oi o to u. This is commonest 
before Liquids : Priscian says the oldest Romans said humo 
for homo, which, if true, proves that the change does not 
belong to the later Roman dialect: humus goes with j(0(ov 
(ioT*yja>/jt), Humerus apparently with Irish nos 'custom': cf. 
puli with 7roXT09, sulctts with 6\ko^ : fioXfio^ becomes in Latin 
hidhus, culpa and pulcer have seemingly older forms colpa 
and polcer : to fiopfivfHo answers murmur, to iropif>vpa pur- 
pura (borrowed). So the sonants I and r are represented 
sometimes by ol and or, sometimes by ul and t/r, we have 
iolerd and fomdx, tuU and furnus. Before non-Liquids o 
changes to u in luxus * dislocated ' beside \o^6^, in the forms 
rutundus and ubba mentioned by grammarians for rotundus 
and ohha, and (I would add) in lucuna (a by- form of lacuna, see 
8ec. 5 fin.) from locus, pudet ' it smites me ' beside airohio} 
'beat,' and perhaps cupi(^ 'try to take' for *copib with o 
Ablaut of e in *cepid i.e. capid (sec. 5, 7). — A consideration 
of certain forms tends to show that in these cases the change 
was not to a genuine but to a 'modified' u, representable 
byi: beside kSvl^; we have not *cunis but cinis, beside Old 
Slavonic po-klopH *a lid' both clupetis and clipeus, and see 
cingd imber imbilicus below (sec. 8). See also sec. 6 on 
^accented 0. 

(3) The later Roman dialect differed from the earlier 
w to short vowels chiefly in two points: ^ 

(a) in proclitics or enclitics, and before a consonant in 
the final syllable of polysyllables, invariably became n : hone 
^^%(mt became hunc and sunt^ the original form *coni * with ' 
(which remained in compounds, compdno) became cum, fllios 

The preference of 1 to m as representative of Mhas been illustrated above 


opos treUboa pocolom consol heoAme filius opus tribubus pdculum 
consul, to 7^09 answers genus^ to i-xarov centum, tbe Nom. of 
robaria is rdbur. (The o in amor colar etc. remained because 
originally it was long.) In pre- Augustan times the original 

remained after v or u, vivos mortuos; later these forms 
gave way to the analogy of the others. 

(fi) Initial to became ve : according to Quintilian, Scipio 
Africanus first wrote versus and vertex. Thus vorrd varid 
vaster votd were the older forms of verrd vertO vester vetd ; we 
have the older form void kept for distinction beside the 
younger velim ; vellus must have been originally *vollus (cf. 
oi\o^ in the sense of 'woolly'), venia originally ^vonia 
(ovipTjfjLi), vereor originally *voreor {opdoQ)^ veged originally 
*voged (Gothic vakan), verbum originally *vorbum (Lithua- 
nian wardas)^ vespa originally *vospa (Anglosaxon vdsp), 
vermis originally *vonnis with or representing a sonant r 
(Gothic vaurms). So *voicos (oZ/co?) became veicus and 
later (sec. 14) vicus ; vois ' thou wilt ' became *teis and later 
vis. Exceptions to the rule are due to analogy, on which 
see sec. 9 : the relation of voxor to the later uxor or 
oxor is obscure. In vescor from *voscor, cf. ^oaKto, the v 
represents gv: in the same way quercus is from *quorcus 
with a sonant (Anglosaxon furh), and quisquiliae (with % 
from e, sec. 2) from *quosquiliae (Koa/cvKfidTui). In some 
cases the law of * pretonic ' e, for which see section 5, takes 
effect: the older rood became not *vecS but vacd, *gvodios 
(Irish buide: oxytone like iroXio^) became not *bedius but 
badius (an Oscan form of which the Homan equivalent, 

1 would suggest, is varius with r for d), *cconis (cf. icw»v) 
became not *cenis but canis. The relation of calix to kv)u^ 
awaits explanation. 

(4) (II.) Accent : 

Every language has necessarily both a stress-accent and 
a pitch-accent : in every polysyllabic word we naturally 
emphasise one syllable, and further pronounce one syllable — 
whether the emphasised syllable or another — in a higher 
tone than the rest. In modern languages the accent, 
whether of stress or of pitch, is matter of tradition^ in dead 


kngoages mostly of inference : Greek and Sanskrit mark 
the piteh-accenty but neither they nor any other language 
mark the stress-accent. In Latin, as in English, the stress- 
accent was more powerful than the pitch-accent, while in 
Greek the reverse was the case ; hence the difference of 
Tocalism between Lat. abigd and Greek avdryo). We may 
here confine the term ' accent ' to stress-accent, and give to 
pitch* accent the appellation ' tone/ 

(3) (A.) As I pointed out three years ago, Latin e and o 
when ^pretonic,' i.e. when the pitch-accent fell on the 
qrllable following, regularly become a (cf. Stokes, Neoceltio 
Yerb Substantive, p. 31) : all exceptions are due to analogy, 
on which see sec. 9. Thus in the case of pretonic e : 

(a) Noun-stems in -t (except potis ovis, cf. iroav^ 6vi) and 
-u were oxytone : apis goes with ifiwk, ratis with i-per-fioVf 
vot (for *vadis) with aeffXov i.e. a-Fed-Xov, gradus with Gothic 
gridi (which proves the root to be ghredh, cf . Lat. gressus) ; 
and, I would add, as for assis, *ad'ti8, with elenientum (* unit ') 
for *edementum. So auria (Lithuanian auds) beside o^ is for 
*ouri8 or *6m. 

(j8) The Noun-endings -wo«, -ros, -ro«, were oxytone: 
^nagnua goes with /xeya?, stagnum possibly with areyavof;, 
^cer with sequor (for the sense compare the related word 
ftri9 'retribution'), aper with Anglosaxon e/or, arvum with 
Welsh erw. So also the ending -koa : vacca for *vat'Cd goes 
with €To^ and means properly 'yearling' (see vitulua sec. 2). 

(7) The Yerb-endings -do (in Latin the first conjugation), 
•^, •<d, were paroxytone : amS (as I would suggest) goes 
with emd * take ' (cf. cupid sec. 2), flagrd with ^Xeyo), maned 
with /Ao^o), pated (and, I would add, patior *lie open to') 
^ith irerdwvfu, canded with Sanskrit cand i.e. kvend, sapid 
^ith Anglosaxon sp/an, while capid (as the Perf. c^l shows) 
represents *cepid, /acid=*/ecid cf. edrj/ca, jacid=*jecid cf fj/ca. 
So the Verb-ending -iscO had the pitch-accent on the i, 
paciscar goes with pecu from a root pek. 

In the same way we may explain the difference of root- 
Towel between hara and ov'(f)€6^ i.e, av'(f>€a6^f palea and 
Lithuanian pelai^ aries and Lith. 'iras^ tabula and Lith. st'ibas. 


Examples of pretonio o becoming a are cra^us for *crat'tus 
beside Kpordinj ^excrescence on trees,' amdrus beside a>/LtJ9» 
salvua beside solidus (the word answering to o5\o9 ' whole ' 
is 8ollu8 not salcus), ansa beside Umbrian onse. I would add 
atrdx (rom. *atru8 {as ferox irom fer^s) for *ad'ru8 (Latin does 
not allow the combination dr ^) beside odium ; and lacHna 
* space ' ( in popular etymology connected with lacus) from 
locus. In valvae beside tolvd, and, I would add, callis 'hill- 
path' beside collis, and carbd 'carried in a basket' (the 
\dpK0^ of the Achamians) beside corbis, the al or ar may 
represent a long sonant / or r. 

(6) (B.) The unaccented vowel in Latin — i.e. any vowel 
but the first in the word — suflFered various fortunes. 

Unaccented i before r became e : dnser is for *Adnsi8 (Lithu- 
anian zqsis), vomer stands beside vomis and a stem cucumer^ 
beside cucumis, numerus and umerus were originally *numisu8 
and *umisus. In all these cases the r represents an originid 
s; but the rule applies equally to an original r, witness 
ad/erd beside adimo, imperd beside adigd. Accented ir re- 
mains, whether from -is, dinmO sirempse, or original, circus 
cirrus hirudd hirundb pirus vir vireo tirga virgo. 

Unaccented o is preserved in the second element of all 
compounds, sec. 9 : seduio is from the epigraphic form dulus 
for dolus (sec. 2), ilicd owes its i to iiiceL At the end of a 
stem it remains in somnolentus ttnolentiis and the isolate 
by-forms colober (onotrii, but normally becomes u (sec. 2 fin.), 
written u in sotnnulentus coluber aurufex monumentum rolumtis, 
t in tonitru aurifex moninientum agimus bonitds etc. So in 
avdwrv^i^, Old Latin has sorticolis popolum tabolam tolop 
colomna, later u in sorticula eU^./icedula tegumen figulus^ % in 
iegimen figilinae lamina fictilis etc. ; and in the Gen. Sing., 
in sendtuos the o is preserved by Dissimilation, otherwise we 
have M in Old Latin patrus nominus liominus, i in the later 
pain's etc. 

» Except in quadru^ for •ywa/m-, taken, I would suggest, from some Celtic 
dialect, cf. the Belric town-name Quadribtoyinmi and quad-ra * square* 
(* angular.' cf. Old Norse Anw 'pointed.' Anglosaxon hriit 'sharp'), which 
owe« the preservation of its </ to a popular connexion with guadm-^ the true 
Roman form appearing in triqwtrw *with three points.' Compounds, e.g. 
mdrtpio, do not come under the rule. 


Unaccented e and a must be taken together ; when open, 
Le. before a single consonant, both became u, when close, i.e. 
before two consonants, e remained and a becaYne e. 

Open e became ic, written u in famulus beside Umbrian 
fam^ias, occulO beside Irish celim, occupd mancupium recupeid 
from *cepid i.e. eapid (see sec. 5) ; % in familia accipi6 man^ 
eipium reciperd adimo compitum agitia etc. : cf. Umbrian 
(fSputrati beside Lat. arbiier, both from a root gvet (Qothic 
qithan). Sonant nasals mostly keep their e, decern notein 
Bept^m lumen juvenis : it becomes i (sec. 2) in Idminis tUginti. 
—Close e remains, e.g. legena acceptits (see on capid above). 

Open a likewise became ti, written u in contubernium eon- 
cutio ablud (whence Silius Italicus absurdly formed a simple 
Verb lud * wash'), imulid surrupui; i in adigd adhibed additua 
etc., inailid surripuh In aboled adolescd (beside adulescens) 
txokicd indolis suboles, which cannot be disconnected with 
old, a became o apparently through a popular connexion 
with oHo, — Close a became e, concentus from catid, ne-ceaae 
from cassus, peregre from agd, identidem from ante, sollemnis 
beside Oscan amnod * circuitu ' : condumnari in the Tabula 
Bantina is a mere mistake, condemnatua following in the 
same line. For limitations see sec. 8, a, fi: surruptus is 
dae to aurrttpui. 

Unaccented t differed little in pronunciation from e, unac- 

ceoted u from o ; hence some isolated forms in inscriptions or 

grammarians show e for i, flleai aoledda tenipeRfatebus aobreus, 

o for u as the resultant of e, oppodum} TacituB>* q flamonium 

must owe its 5 (for i) to the analogy of matHmdnium. 

Final % and o alike became e\ ante answers to ami, mare 
and lete are from the stems man- and levi-, tile from the stem 
illO', aequere corresponds to hreo. In such forms as nisi and 
quando the final vowel remains because it was originally long. 

^ So irodita from rudit. An accented u becomes o only in post- classical Latin, 
Boboles : cotania must be from a dialectic by-form of kvIJovio^ folium has a more 
nrigioal vowel than ^IWov (cf . mola iiiXii) and (if the connexion is real) formica 
than fiipftri^y /oris * door ' has a sonant r (Old SlaTonic dvh^), I would add that 
fort * to be about to be * is a by-form (cf. Hor. Sat. 1. 2. 67) of the adverb forts 
(as nuiffe pott of maptM potts), standing for fore esse * to be outside, beyond ' (so 
ultra *■ beyond * is used of time as well as of space) ; and that hivius* sortus 
si*stir-orfns (see on sirempse sec. 1), with the vowel of the simple verb. The o of 
ancora from iyicGpa must be due to remora * hindrance.* 

PliU. Traxki. 1888-80. 4 


(7) (III.) Adjoining letters : 

The Roman dislike to the combination ii, which gives 
us pi-etas by the side of bon-itaa, or uu, see above (sec. 3, a) 
on mortuos, is well known. So j'i and vu become je and ro. 
The derivation of vulgua vulpea vuUur vultus is so obscure that 
we cannot tell whether these or volgus etc. are the more 
original forms, whether vu has become vo by Dissimila- 
tion or vo has become vu by the change (sec. 2) of o to f#. 

Original initial 8ve became bo^ socer cf. iKvpo^^ aonus cf. 
Anglosaxon svin^ sopor cf. Anglosaxon svefan, soror cf. 
Gothic svistar. After an original initial velar £, ^ in a few 
words became o, beside iriXio (i.e. krelo) we have Faliscan 
quolundani and Lat. cold, beside irinrtov coqud ; but much 
more often the velar subsided into a palatal and the e 
remained, celeber celer centd cernuus cervix cervus cemo 
cerritus, while in corbis (Old Norse hrip) corium (Sk. carman) 
cortex (Lith. kertu) the or probably represents a sonant r. 
In Pliny's combretum beside Lith. sztcendrai the co represents 
SL palatal k + ve. 

The Latin change of original ev to ov, and of original ov to 
av, is now generally admitted : ev becomes ov in focea cf. ^cta 
for *x^^^» moved cf. a-fievofuu, novem cf . iv-via, novus cf. 
1/609, ov6 cf. €vd^(o, sovos (later suns on the analogy of tuus) 
cf. €09, while o«7 becomes av in ari7/a cf . 2t9> at't^ cf. ouovo^ for 
*6Fi-a)v6^f caved cf. /coeo), cart/^ cf. ^root, /aro cf. Xoi^. So 
jt^am goes with tto/i;, not with wauo (in which, as the Boeotian 
form TTi/o) shows — cf. the Boeotian /o] for xai — the at is 
original, and does not represent aFi). In words also of 
more obscure formation, arena aved avus faveo favilla favus 
gravis ravim, the av may represent original ov, though we 
cannot prove it ; while ovis, like boveni, must be Oscan, not 
pure Latin. The combination ev occurs in Latin only in 
brevis and /ms, and in each the v represents original g/iv 
(cf. ^pa/xy^ and iXjayis respectively). 

(8) Little attention has hitherto been paid to the Latin 
dislike to certain apparently harmless combinations of a 
vowel with two consonants : 

(a) e cannot stand before nc or ng : it becomes a, nanciscor 


beside i-veyKeuf, angullla beside ^y^^eXv?, frango {i.e. I would 
•^ggest, *freg-n5 : pegi is formed on the analogy of freyl) 
beside Gothic brikan, mangd (quasi ' exaggerator ') beside 
Meyay; or, when unaccented, t, e.g. attingb (for *aUengd^ 
86C. 6). So the sonant n before g or gv is represented not 
by en but by in, we have inguen beside aBi^p, lingua beside 
Gothic tuggd, singuU beside Irish samal, pinguis beside 7ra;^U9, 
and ignis (i.6. ^ingnis) beside Sk. agnia. E before nqv 
becomes t (sec. 2) and is lengthened, qulnque cf. irhne. 

(j9) e cannot stand before Ic, Ig, It, or Im : it becomes t/, 
muk6 from calcd (see sec. 6), ulcus beside €\ko^ (which is 
known to owe its rough breathing to IXato)), mulgeo beside 
a-iUKrfv, adulterd from alter, insultd from saltd, catapulta 
borrowed from KaranriKTq^, ulmus beside Anglosaxon elm. 
(Festus' meltom melidrem should perhaps be meliOsem 

(y) cannot stand before mb : it becomes u, written either 
«) umbihcus cf. 6fjL<l}dk6^, umbra cf. Sk. andhds, or i, imbilicus 
(Probi Appendix), imber cf. Sfi/Spo^:. Combretum (see sec. 7) 
mnat belong to some rustic dialect. 

(8) cannot stand before nc, tig^ or ngv\ it becomes ii, 
^tten u in cunctor beside Sk. ^ank, uncus beside oy/co^y ungo 
beside Old High German anco, unguis beside ow^, i in cingd 
beside ie6fjL/3o<; ' a band.* I would suggest that cuncti, mean- 
ing 'inclusive* (cf. the relation of frequens to farcio, saepe to 
wqwd), is a Participle of cingd with the older u to represent 
^' Broncus and onc6 are loan-words, tonged Praenestine ; 
^ngus, I would suggest, is borrowed from a Greek form 

^ryrf? (whence Tixrf^a^ta 'loiter*), as in turn Gothic laggs 
^ borrowed fro^i langus. The proper Koman form lungus 
occurs in an inscription. 

(9) (IV.) Analogy : 

The law of *pretonic A' (sec. 5) obtains in but few in- 
stances, though the form vac6 for the older toed (see sec. 3, 13) 
shows that it had some influence even in classical times ; in 
the great majority of cases the influence of analogy led to 
the retention of the radical e or o. Thus crepd (for *crap6) 
must be derived from a form *crep€re seen in crepitus, doceO 
(for *daced) from a form *docire seen in dactus. 


In rood (* to call ') void (* to fly ') volup vok6 ramd vot 
voted the later Roman dialect abstained from changing initii 
1*0 into ve (sec. 3, /3)» and followed the analogy of oth< 
Ablauts in o, 

' Re-composition/ the feeling of the essential duality of 
compound word, which leads us in English to distinguifi 
re-cover (* cover again ') from recover (* get again '), ofte 
preserves the original vowel : 

e in advehd, expetO impetus^ elegans ('very careful') an 
neglego (both from the old Verb *leg6 'to care,* seen in diligd 
and in an inscription oppedeia (the root appears in e/i^reSos 
Sometimes the compound preserves the original vowel eve 
where the simple Verb has changed it to ' pretonio ' < 
aggredior dipeciscor perpetior (for these see sec. 5, a, 7 o 
gradus paciscor patior) and defettgd (of which the root i 
seen in fessus) : 

in impotena innocens inaolena etc. (see sec. 6) : 

a in adamd. 

So menceps concors congerd comburS show combinatioi 
which have been proved above (sec. 8, a, 7, 8) to be ii 
admissible in non-compound words. 

The laws about unaccented open vowels, sec. 6, are 8om< 
times disturbed by analogy: the second vowel of cekbt 
integer is due to Celebris integra, of segetia to seges, of vegetua 1 
veged, of anatia to anas, of alacer (derivation obscure) to deer. 

In cornea judex (for *comta ^judix) the second vowel is di 
(according to Brugmann) to the analogy of forms lil 
auperatea and remex, in which unaccented a duly (sec ( 
becomes e in the close syllable {^auperatet-a, ^remeg-a). 

Forms like acribundi seem due to the analogy of eundu, 
(in which the u is the result of Dissimilation). 

Other instances of the action of analogy have been give 
above, sec. 3 and 6. 


(10) The sixth vowel, w, is even more important in i 
long than in its short form : it appears not only as a distim 
vowel, but as a dialectic representative of the diphthongs • 


and eu and of unaccented au. As u in the short form (sec. 1) 
is represented sometimes by u sometimes by i, so S is repre- 
sented sometimes by 6 sometimes by I: mutulm and stupa 
are also written mltulus and atipa, trUgonus {rpvydv) also 
trigonuSyfrigd goes with ^/>^7o>, gibbtts with Lithuanian gumbos, 
bf^us with Oscan Diumpais, siparium with Oscan supparum, 
«/9W with Old Norse at^/r. I would add 

fkus (* wasp-shaped ') beside Jiums * drone * ; 

finis beside y&nts^ a metaphor from the Circus, which was 
marked out with a rope (so a ' rape ' in Sussex means * land 
diyided by a rope *) ; 

nurus for *mii8us from the root of fiiko ' to close the eyes/ 
as one does when dazzled ; 

pUuUa beside piife6 ; 

9eri-nium 'place for odds and ends' beside scru-ta ' frippery' ; 

9pir6 beside spud. 

The same interchange of H and i appears in seyeral Noun- 
endings : compare 

eaducus with mendlcus amicus, cf. cenHeula cintcula, 

aerugd with porrigd, 

hirsUtus with aritus, 

iestudd hirudd with cupidoformidd, 

opportHnus/ortuna with dirinus culhta, 

edulis with senilis^ 

eorusctts tiioUusca (the u must be long, as the i in vopis- 
^ is known to be) with voptscus marisca ; and, I would add, 

^taeUvus (whence comes vacuus, as duo from *dutd. Old 
Slavonic dUta) with vaclvus. 

Further, an attempt seems to have been made to dis- 
tinguish this u from genuine fi and I by writing it oi or 
(later) oe : thus we have side by side ful fid (and flKus) 
foetiU, sura soera, and, I would add, fus-cus foedus * dirty ' 
(for */oeS'dus). So in Noun-endings we have side by side 
opportunus divinus amoenus (and amenus). Further instances 
will be given below (sec. 14) on the diphthongs oi, eu, and au. 

In Old IJmbrian (see below) I became e ; and the same 
seems to apply to i representing original u, beside fid we 
have fetus, beside divinus we have serenus terrenus, beside 


avUu8 we have facehu, beside amicus we have amicus, beside 
senilis we have crUdelis, beside cupidd we have cuppidd. See 
farther on the diphthongs just mentioned. 

(11) The inflaence of dialect on the Soman long vowels, 
and especially on the diphthongs, was much stronger than 
on the short vowels, as conversely that of accent was much 

Old IJmbrian, and what the Roman grammarians call the 
' rustic ' dialect, changed both I and at to e. In IJmbrian we 
have kietra beside Lat. cUtellae, ktestur beside Lat quaestor. 
The ' rustic ' forms of spica and villa were spica and tilla ; 
avena stands for *avina cf. Old Slavonic ocisU, and cl^-mens 
possibly goes with ac-cH-nis. In the same way Old IJmbrian 
occasionally changed ei to e, itu ' let him go ' is from the root 
ei (which remains in eiscurent * let them summon ') : Latin 
levis stands for ^livis or ^leiris (cf. XeZo? t.^. XcZ/^o^), and from 
*quei've *nei'Ve *seute (or site) through intermediate forms 
*queve neve *seve came (by eliding the final vowel, vocalising 
the V aud shortening the vowel before it) ceu neu seu ; deivos 
became *d€vu8 (the Oen. Fern, devas is found in an inscrip- 
tion), and, dropping the v before u, deus (dea is due to 
analogy). So, I would suggest, *rivus beside rivdlis became 
*rivu8 and then rem 'party to an action,' and so olivum (a 
popular distortion from eXaiov, meaning * fragrant,' olens) 
became *olevum and then oleum {olea being due to analogy). 
In the same way final ei became e, cf. net later ne, and the 
old Latin Datives patrei tibei and patrB tibi. 

Parallel with the Old-IJmbrian change of at to ^ we have 
in Latin aerumna aesculus caelum 'chiseP caementum caeri- 
mlhiia caesaries caches caestus caeteri faeles fraenum glaeba 
haeres nae paedor paenUria paetus praehendd praelum saepis saeta 
saevus taeter cae- and the loan-words caetra gaesum paenula 
raeda muraena volaema spelt also with e : though the spellings 
laevis vaenum for levis venum show that the spelling with a 
diphthong may not always be the older.^ The spelling with 

^ In eatp€ namia paslex aeasna teaepirumf which are also spelt eipe etc., we 
haye ae to represent Greek i) : caepe, I would suggest, meaning * grown in a 
garden/ jc^oi , and paekx — ^the spelling peliex is only due to a popular oon* 


oe in caecus caekba caena caenumfaecunduafaenumfaenmfaeted 
haedus obseaenus paene (all spelt also with e), and in caelum 
'sky* maereo paenitet praelium, is a peculiarity of post- 
claasical Latin, which had lost the earlier oe except in foedus 
moenia, sec. 14. The epigraphic Saetumi may be a mere 
mistake for Sdteurni : Aesculapius {lAa-Kkmio^) owes its diph- 
thong, I would suggest, to the physician's/^^, aes. 

(12) New Umbrian reduced the diphthongs ou and au to d: 
wehaye tdta *civitas' beside Oscan tovto, ^^e=Latin aut^ 6ht 
-auetoriiate, pldi5s=plautds. The change of ou to 6 is also 
Volacian, cf. tSticu * publico ' : it appears in Latin in rdhigd 
from a root roudh (cf. Gothic rauds)^ in cloaca (with the 6 
shortened before a vowel) also spelt cloudca, and, I would add, 
in Ikttsta from lucus ' wood ' (also spelt loucosy cf . Lithuanian 
kvkoi). Even un-original ou becomes 6 in noundinom spelt 
also ndndinum. The reduction of au to d is very common in 
Latin: we have cauda caupd caurus claudicd claudd haustus 
huritum lauius naugae paululus plaudd plaustrum raudus spelt 
alsor^fll^ etc., cdleus beside caulae, cos beside cautes^ fdcdle from 
/aiftr, alia beside aula * pot,* dmen for ^au^-men ' authorisation * 
from the root of auxiliwn, ds 'mouth ' and driga beside ausculum 
and auriga, ostium and austium, sddes for si audes (* if you are 
inclined'). So ad-orea 'victory' goes with eir-avpiaic^, crocio 
with Lithuanian krauktl, dtium with Gothic auths, (This 
change, like that of f and ai to e, is ascribed by the Roman 
grammarians to the ' rustic * dialect). 

(13) The occasional change of e to I and of d to 6 in Latin 
must be connected with that of short e and / to o and u respec- 
tively, sec. 2. Thus (1) we have epigraphic forms cinsum for 
^8um and (with the vowel written ei to show its length) 
d^eitit leigibus pleibes for decrevit, etc., and in classical Latin 
dettnio (possibly with a reference to linum 'net') beside delenid, 
^uhttlia from tela: (2) Itdc is the older form of hiie,fur goes 
with (f^p, ulna with ooikevT), daturus apparently with datdr 
for *d<itdr, praestolor is also spelt pi'aestulor, yXavKoyfia gives 
ghucuma. The converse change of fi to d (cf. sec. 6, note) 

nexion with pe/Ztctd^representiiig ♦ir^Aa|, the Ionic form of irdXha^ *boy,* cf. 

56 Vocalic laws of latin. — b. k. wharton. 

occars only in post-classical Latin, jdcundm perhaps with a 
reference to jocus: ndn, I would suggest, is not from noenum, 
i.e. *ne-oinom (sec. 14), but for *nOne (later spelt nonnCy as 
annulus for dnultis), from nd- (a by-form of ne, as ad- in sdbriua of 
86', dd' in dddrans of de, certo of c^r/e)+the -neotpdne supeme. 

(14) The classical Roman dialect modified all the original 
diphthongs except au : 

ei became i, deicat (of BeUvvfjn) deivoa (cf. Sk. deeds) eUur 
(cf. 67/Ai)= later dicat divus Hur, nei aei pa tret tibei are the 
older forms of nl si patrl tiln : lived, ' am beaten black and 
blue ' stands, I would suggest, for *leiced and goes like lim 
(sec. 11) with XeZb? 'beaten smooth.' In words of obscarc 
origin like ceivis leis Idtera the old diphthong may merely 
be a graphic way of representing the length of the voweL 
The relation of sUpes or seispea to sdspes is as obscure as its 

0% is found in old Latin, coirdre foidere loidoa moiro oinc 
oitile co-moinem : later we have coerdre foedua loedus moerum 
oenus oetier moenia ' duties ' {moenia ' walls ' must be a 
different word, a technical term which VikQfoedus 'treaty' 
preserved its archaic oe through all periods), later again 
curdre (also spelt courdre to show the quantity of the vowel] 
ludua murus Untis utor communis and munia. So mutd u 
for ^moitd, cf. fioiro^ ; and pumex for *poim-ex, Ags. f&m 
(The same change from oi to u occurs also in Old IJmbrian 
kuraiu^zLsit. curdtum, munekluzzzhdit, munusculum,) In all 
these spellings original oi coincides with the original t 
discussed above (sec. 10) ; and the identity is further showx 
by the spelling of original oi as i in Ennius'^irftw * treaty, 
Ura (Gothic laists), tibia (Lith. staibiai), and as e in fidm 
di'lerus po-merium. So the Nom. Plural ending, Gk. -of 
appears as -oe in the old form Fesceninoe, as -t in coI&ti\ 
(in old Latin spelt colofiei to show the length of the vowel), 
and as -e in the old form ploirume ; the Genitive Singula! 
in old Latin was in -oe, poploe, later in -i, populi (or populei) 
the Abl. Plural, answering to Gk. -ot9, was in -oe«, dices 
later in -is, illis. In this last the original diphthong was di 
sec. 16. 


ai became ae, aide aiquom airid praidad ^uat9^dm= later 
aedim aequum aerepraedd quaestdres. 

eu is found in early proper names, Leucesie Leucetio 
Teupib Teuranoi and remained in the interjections eheu heu 
km: in ceu neu seu (see sec. 11) and neuter netitiquam it is 
unoriginal. Later it generally became 6 (or, to show the 
length of the yowel, ou, abdoucit) : gvsid goes with 761^ for 
*7€wr«, luge6 with Xev7a\€09, iut^idtM (I would suggest) with 
Xcvpo? (for the transition of meaning see above on lived) ^ 
nutd with yeuo), pluma with ifKito for ^irKeFm, puimd with 
vXtifuntv, ructo with i-pevyofiac ; duco lubricm lux pruna and 
(I would add) nutrio (for *niidnd, cf. sec. 5 fin.) with Gothic 
tiuhan sliupan iiuhath/rius and niutan respectively. So hruma 
stands for *breuma from *brevima. — But there are indications 
that this a from earlier eu was not a genuine u but our u 
(sec. 10) : from the root leubh in i-Xevdepo^ (for *i'\€v<f>€po^) 
we get libh in liber or kiber, loibh in the old form loebertdtem ; 
the original ^pie-ids or ^ple-joB * more ' became successively 
Ve-d«, *^fcd« (though the form pleores in the Arval Hymn is 
perhaps a mistake for ploeres), and *pleu8, whence in forms 
actually found we get alike u in pluritna or plouruma, i in 
p^tnma, i in plirus (which can hardly go with 7r\^pi]<;)f and 
oi (later oe) in ploirumi ploera, 

ou became in classical Latin u : jom loucom poublicom are 
the earlier forms of jm liJtcum publicum^ lucmta and rubigd 
come (as we have seen, sec. 12) from roots with ou, clunis 
nWd mitcus go with Lithuanian szlaunh kau-ii mauk-ti 
i^spectively, cloaca (sec. 12) is also spelt cludca. So im- 
original ou became u, noundinom nountios are the earlier 
^orins of nUndinum niJtntiua, The shortening of oti to u in 
juhtb was due, I would suggest, to the analogy of habed, 

m^ alone among diphthongs, remained in the pure Roman 
dialect : for instances see sec. 12 on the New-Umbrian reduc- 
tion of it to d. Its reduction between consonants to u may 
he conjectured to have belonged to the vulgar dialect of 
Rome; beside caulae caupd claudo claudus/raus naugae raudm 
^0 find ciileus cupb cludo cludus frudd (and Jrustrd) nugae 
'•iw/iw (spelt also roudm). 


(15) Accent has no influence on long vowels,^ and (as has 
been said above, sec. 11) but little on diphthongs: all, except 
ae (from at) and au, have the same form in the unaccented 
as in the accented syllable. The diphthong ae, when un- 
accented, regularly becomes i, exquiro inado pertlmm from 
quaero caedo taedet (so «i or sei, as a ' proclitic/ =*«e?«^, Oscan 
svai) : au in such cases regularly becomes u, written (1) 6 in 
indutiae beside oiium for *autium (see sec. 12), and, I would add, 
ad'Ulor for *ad'Udor from audio (like assentor from sentio), 
and ob'turd ' put a dead weight on ' from taurus ; (2) oe in 
ohoedio from audid, and (3) e in obidio. Analogy, however, 
sometimes appears in the form of * Re-composition/ and the 
diphthong remains as in the accented syllable, e.g. con- 
quaero pertaesum exaudib {erplodo 8ujf6c6), 

(16) Diphthongs beginning with a long vowel undergo 
various metamorphoses in Latin : 

(a) Those ending in % lose the i before a vowel, see *plei6h 
sec. 14, or when final, equ^ cf. Xmrtp, The Dative in -d how- 
ever, Fortund Menervd, is un-Roman ; that in -ae is said tc 
be a Locative, not from -di, 

(/S) Those ending in u change it to f? before a vowel, 
gdviam ndtis. Octdvus goes with Sanskrit ashfdu (quasi 
*octdtu8 by a change similar to that of ov to av in Latin j 
sec. 7). Bovem and bos are un-Roman, sec. 7; Jotia (Nom.j 
goes with Zev<: (cf. jugtim ^vyov, and see sec. 7), not with 
Sanskrit dpdits ' sky, day,' Latin J never comes from dj or di 

(7) When a consonant follows, the first element of the 
diphthong is shortened, dices (sec. 14) from 'Ois cf. Sanskrit 
dftdis, gatdded nau/ragus claudd. Ovum cannot =*^rom (which 
would give *oevum, *fivum), but must go with &'6v &'(F)€oi 
&'fi€ov from a root 0, not with ^-61/ Ai-ov and Old Slavonic 
aj-e from a root di. 

^ AnheluM for anelu$^ from the root of anima -f- a termination similar to thai 
of erudelitf owes its A to a false connexion with hold : eonvicium, if rightly 8< 
spelt, must mean a meeting in the street, pleus : iuspicio (the spelling suapitto ii 
obscure) = (I would suggest) * an inward prickine/ from sp''€a, and to it ttupicai 
and atispeeius owe their meaning, which is quite distinct from that of tuipieere. 








Alexander J. Ellis, F.R.S., a Vice-President. 

(Read 15 June, 1888.) 


!l. Origin of this Paper, 59. 
2. The Nature of the Invitation, 61. 
i 3. The two Preliminary Conditions 

fulElled by Volapiik, 63. 
{ 4. What acceptance of the Invitation 

wonld imply, 65. 
} 6. Pnrther Conditions, 67. 
\ 6. Phonetics— English Sounds, 67. 
j 7. Phonetics — The Vowels — Um- 

laute, 68. 
} 8. Phonetics — The Consonants — 

Voiced and Voiceless, 70. 
i 9* Phonetics — Other Alphabetical 

Difficulties, 73. 
J 10. The Aryan Basis — Vocabulary, 

} H. The Formation of New Roots, 

§ 12. The Aryan Basis — Grammar — 
Analytic or S^thetic, 81. 

§ 13. Volapiik accordmg to the Ameri- 
can Committee, 85. 

{14. Volapiik contrasted with other 
Languages and with Spelin, 

§ 15. Spelin and the American Com- 
mittee, 91. 

§ 16. Schlever's Statement of the Prin- 
ciples of a Universal Language, 

§17. Conclusion, 96. 

§18. Summary of Reasons for Declining 
the Invitation of the American 
Philosophical Society of Phila- 
delphia, 97. 

§ 1. Ohioin of this Paper. 

Thb following letter was addressed by the American Philo- 
sophical Society of Philadelphia to the President of the 
Philological Society. It was directed to Prof. Skeat, our 
Iwt President but one, and hence did not come formally 
Wore the Society till our last Anniversary, 18 May, when it 
^w of course impossible to consider it. It was consequently 


remitted to the present writer, together with the reports of a 
Committee mentioned in it, which are necessary to under- 
stand the reason and nature of the request in the letter, to 
introduce to the Society at the present meeting. 

Hall op the Ambbican Philosophical Socibtt, 
Philadelphia, March I2th, 1888. 

At a meeting of the Society, held at Philadelphia, January Gth, 1888, 
the following resolution was adopted : 

R$$olv€dy That the President of the American Philosophical Society be requflBted 
to address a letter to all learned bodies with which this Society is in official rela- 
tions, and to such other societies and individuals as he may deem proper, asking 
their co-operation in perfecting a language for learned and commerciu purposes, 
based on the Aryan vocabulary and grammar in their simplest forms ; and to that 
end proposing an International Congress, the first meeting of which shall be held 
in I^nuon or in Paris. 

Accordingly, I have now the honour of transmitting it for your consideration, 
and to invite your co-operation in accomplishing the object to which it refers. 
In order that the views of our Society, which have led to the adoption of the 
resolution, may be understood, I have obtained permission to send herewith copies 
of the Reports of the Special Committee to which the subject of a plan for a 
universal language had been referred by the Societ}'. 

You will perceive that the resolution of the Society does not go so far as what 
was advised by the Committee, but the subject is of such large interest that it is 
eminently worthy of the fullest investigation. I therefore ask for it your early 
and favourable consideration, and request that your action may be communicated 
to me, and, if favourable, whether you would prefer the holding of the Conference 
in London or in Paris, and also indicate the number of Delegates each Society 
should send. 

On receipt of action by the different bodies with which we are in correspon- 
dence, I will make the call for the Conference. 

Ver)* respectfully yours, 

FRED FRABY, President. 

To tht President of the Philological Society, 
London J England, 

The above letter was based on the " Reports of the Com- 
mittee (D. G. Brinton, Henry Phillips, Jr., Monroe B. 
Snyder) appointed October 21, 1887, to examine into the 
Scientific Value of Volapuk, presented to the American 
Philosophical Society Nov. 18, 1887, and Jan. 6, 1888." It 
appears therefore that this Committee was not, as implied in 
the letter itself, appointed to consider '* the subject of a plan 
for a universal language" in general^ but the '' scientific 


Talae" of one particular proposal. The Reports of the 
Committee, however, far exceeded the terms of the reference. 
After a preface in which the desirability, indeed almost the 
necessity, of an international lan^age in view of the veritable 
Babel now existent in the transactions of local societies 
received by the American Society, and therefore specially for 
learned purposes, the Committee proceed to examine the 
"reqairements of such a tongue to merit the recommenda- 
tioQof '' the American Society, and then rather briefly, and 
mifortunately not always quite correctly, reviewing Schleyer's 
scheme for a Universal Language termed Yolapiik, and 
finding it " plainly evident '' that their own scheme and his 
^are in absolute opposition,'^ they state that they *' cannot 
recommend Yolapiik as that which is suited to the needs of 
modem thought.^' Finally, they proposed a resolution 
slightly more extensive than that contained in the letter just 
read, which however was reduced to its present state in the 
discoasion ^ich ensued on the presentation of their report, 
as explained in a second or supplementary Beport of the 

§ 2. Thb Nature of the Inyitatiow. 

Now the letter "invites" our "co-operation in accomplish- 
ing the object to which" the resolution "refers," that is, "in 
perfecting a language for learned and commercial purposes " 
0* ordinary intercourse," together with "an international 
scientific terminology," having been eliminated from the 
fesoltttion as originally proposed by the Committee) with the 
distinct limitation that it should be "based on the Aryan 
vocabulary and grammar in their simplest forms." This 
last restriction, as appears by the reports, excludes Yolapiik 
altogether, and would direct the deliberations of the proposed 
"International Congress" towards the consideration of an 
entirely new scheme, intended to oust Yolapiik, and to pro- 
claim it entirely unsuited for " learned and commercial 
purposes," and to accept the invitation would consequently 
imply that we accepted the limitation to Aryanism and 
therefore rejected Yolapiik. 


Now Yolapiik is the only scheme which has ever numhe 
its adherents by the hundred thousand. Complete Introd 
tions to it have been published in every European langua 
including Turkish and Hungarian, its grammar has b 
briefly explained in twenty-one languages, and the fou 
edition of its Dictionary, published since the date of 
American invitation, contains over 20,000 words. If, th 
any scheme of a Universal Language is to be considered 
all, Yolapiik has the first claim for attention, instead 
being peremptorily excluded. Several other schemes, vi 
different bases, have been hatched by the altogether un 
pected warmth of the reception accorded to Yolapuk, i 
theoretically would have also to be considered, as well 
the unhatched scheme which is proposed by the Commiti 
and which I suppose we are invited to " perfect.'* 

By the kindness of Mr. Henderson, author of lAngui 
am able to lay most of these new schemes before the Sooi< 
They are as follows : * 

I. On a Latin basis. 

Mr. Henderson. Lingua. 1888. 
Anonymous (Bamberg). 1887. 
Yolk und Fuchs. Die Weltsprache. 1883. 
Lauda. Kosmos. 1888. 

II. On a basis chibflt Eomancb. 

Samenhof (under the name of Dr. Esperanto). International I 

guage. 1888. 
Bcmbard. Lingua Franca Nuova (chiBfly on an Italian basis). 1 
Menet. Langue universelle. 1886. 


Steiner's Pasilingua. 1885-8. 

lY. Symbolical. 

Maldant. Langue Naturelle. 1886. Subsequently withdraw! 

fayour of Yolapiik. 
Janne Damm*8 Praktische Pasigraphie, which need not be oonsiden 

Y. Yolapiik improtbd on a new plan. 

Prof. Georg Bauer s Spelin. 1888 [pronounce Spay-linn, with ac 

on the last syllable, not Spellin*^. 
To which I add Dr. £. Miiller's Lecture, Dot Phantom der Weltiprt 
(The Phantom of a Universal Language), 1888, argping agi 
the possibility of our ever having one, and well worth reading. 



At the oatset of my remarks I may state that I shall 
condade by proposing that the Philological Society respect- 
fully decline the invitation of the American Philosophical 
Society. This invitation is to take part in deliberations for 
"perfecting^' a scheme which is not so lar advanced as to 
assame a discussible form, but is vaguely stated to be " based 
OQ the Aryan vocabulary and grammar/' as if there were 
sock things in existence. There are certainly very various 
vocabularies and grammars of the languages termed Aryan, 
mataally unintelligible, so that the very scheme itself would 
We to be patched up in the heat of a discussion. A scheme 
must have been well thought out, well tried, widely approved, 
before it is ripe for the discussion of a congress. Last year 
Bach a preliminary meeting of the favourers of Yolapiik 
assembled at Munich, and appointed an Academy, of which 
the Inventor of Volapiik, Herr Schleyer, is president, but M. 
Serckhoffs, of Paris, director. This academy, now consisting 
of tw^enty- seven members representing fifteen countries,^ is 
preparing for an international congress at Paris, on the 
occasion of the universal exhibition to be held there next 
year, at which it will probably be reconstituted. If then the 
Congress proposed by the American Society also meet in 
Paris next year, there will be the most open and possibly far 
from friendly rivalry. 

}3. Thb Two Pbelimikart Conditions fulfilled bt Volapvk. 

There are two preliminary points in forming a universal 
language : first it must be .invented, and secondly it must be 

First the invention must be by one man, well acquainted 
^th the contrivances for conveying thought in numerous 
languages, and such Herr Schleyer is reported to be, his 

^ These are Belgium, Denmark, Germany, Portugal, France, Austria, Knsna, 
Holland, Ei^land, North America, Roumania, Spain, Sweden, Syria, Italy {Le 
Volapiik p. 178). The work of the Academy is divided into six parts — 1. 
^pbabet ; 2. Word forms (radical, non-radical, and compound) ; 3. Order of 
vordi in a sentence ; 4. Grammar (declension, conjugation, prepositions, adverbs, 
^•) ; 5. Examination of false words in the dictionary ; 6. Formation of new 
^wtda (ibid.). 


terminations to substantiyes and verbs Yp. sol gentleman, lord, ruler, iolum greater- 
gentleman, etc., sbliin greatest gentleman, etc. [Hungarian ember man, embereb^ 
more human ; drdog Satan, ordogebb more Satan-like]. 

*' From the Latins and Sclaves (Poles, Russians, Servians, Slovenes, Czechs) tiio 
absence of the article. 

** Further I took from Latin its brevity and logic. 

" From Latin and German I borrowed the free order of words : [which the 
director of the Vp. Academy, M. Aug. Eerckhoffs, is trying to do away with.] 

'* From the Greek the abundance of participial forms. 

<* From the Chinese the simple radicals. 

<*From the Swedish the sharp distinction between reflective and reciprocal 
verbs [Pr. iU s'aimentf Germ, tie iieben tick might be either they love themselves 
(reflective) or they love one another (reciprocal), Vp. lofomMok, and Idfomt 
balvotik respectively, Sw. vi roa ots we amuse ourselves, de berdmtna hvttrandre 
they praise each other ; such so-called reflective verbs as Fr. iU $e battent, Germ. 
tie schlagen tick they fight, do not exist in Vp., for to translate ich tehlngt mieh 
mit lAm, that is, I fight with him, by flapobok ke om — 1 beat myself with him, 
would be mere nonsense, and should probably be komipob ke om.] 

** From the French, the logical form of phrases. 

** From the Russian the reflective -ok for all three persons of the verb [the 
Russian form is not ok, but «ya, except after vowels, when the a is omitted, for 
all persons and tenses, as umibdyu I wash, umibdyuty I wash myself ; ymibdem 
we wash, ymibdemsya we wash ourselves ; in Vp. respectively vatvkoh, ratikoboky 
vatHkobSf vatHkobtok], and the genitive in -a [in the second declenaion, as tton an 
elephant, slond of an elephant.] 

**From German and Turkish the dative in -0 [Germ, der Mann the man, 
dem Manne to the man, Vp. man mane^ but the e is short and unaccented in 
German, and long and accented in Vp. ; in Turkish there are properly no cases, 
but affixes which give the required meaning, if the word end in a consonant the 
dative uifix is written h and pronounced «A, if it end in a vowel the dative affix is 
written yh and pronounced yah, thus ev a house, eveh to a house, bnbd a father, 
babayah to a father], and from the last (Turkish) the pronoun kirn who P [which 
has the same form in Turkish]. 

'* From the Italian the accusative in -t {tuttifratti). [But there is no case* 
termination in Italian, and here -t is simply a masculine plural form ; in Turkish, 
however, -1 is the affix of the accusative case]. 

**The t of the plural is common to Vp. and Spanish, French, English 
Portuguese, Latin [occasional], Greek [occasional]. Butch, Rhetoromanic and 

§ 17. Conclusion. 

A careful examination of Vp. leads me to the conclusion 
that it IS well adapted for the purposes for which it was 
intended, and displays great ingenuity in its construction. 
At the same time Spelin seems to me simpler, eaBier, and 


more adapted for speech. We have at any rate two uniyersal 
languages, both on a non-Aryan basis, both highly ingenious, 
both eminently suited for their purpose, both having the 
ebaracters of living tongues, thoroughly compact and 
organic, without the slightest indication of patching or break 
down. Whereas such proposals as are ayowedly formed on 
an Aryan (generally a Latin or Romance) basis have the 
appearance of mere makeshifts, or of jargons so dear to the 
hearts of the Reporters. But Yp. alone has at present the 
ear of the public, and is in possession of a vast organisation 
highly interested in propagating it and making it become 
as its name implies "the language of the world." Vp. 
therefore has the chief claim on our attention, and all those 
who desire the insubstantiation of that "phantom of a 
nniversal language '^ which has flitted before so many minds, 
from the days of the Tower of Babel, should, I think, add 
their voice to the many thousands who are ready to exclaim 
Ufom-oH Volapiik, long live Volapiik ! 


Philosophical Society. 

Hence I recommend the Philological Society not to accept 
the invitation of the American Philosophical Society to take 
psrt in their proposed Congress, for reasons which may be 
thus summarised. 

First, because the subject is not one which can be properly 
dealt with in a Congress, even if a complete programme were 
laid before it for consideration. 

Secondly, because the invitation is one-sided ; and while 
It 18 by no means clear from the Reports what is meant by 
"the Aryan vocabulary and grammar in their simplest 
forms," it is also by no means clear, a priori, that an Aryan 
D^is is desirable, and this would be conceded by acceptance. 

Thirdly, because there already exists a Universal Language, 
^^okpiik, which has a large number of adherents in all 
countries of the world, and which is completely elaborated in 
PUl. Trani. 1S88-90. 7 


grammar and vocabulary, but has been formed entirely ' 
out reference to Aryanism. 

And lastly, because the whole value of a Universal Lan{ 
consists in its general acceptance, while the attempt to 
an opposition scheme by the aid of all learned Societies, 
an incompatible basis, would, if in any respect succe 
materially impede the progress of Yolapiik, and would pos 
altogether defeat its object. 

I therefore beg leave to move : 

" That our Hon. Sec., Dr. Fumivall, be instructed pol 
to acknowledge the invitation of the American Philosop 
Society, and to say that the Philological Society of Loi 
having duly considered the invitation and the reports 
with it, have resolved to take no action in the matter.'' 

P.S. — This resolution was seconded by Prof. Bieu, 
supported by the Hon. Sec., Dr. Fumivall, and the Chair 
Mr. H. Bradley, and passed unanimously, and the papei 
ordered to be printed in extenso and widely circulated. 

By GusTAVUS "Wilczynski. 

[Rwd at the Phil, Soe,*8 Meeting on Ut June, 1888.) 

This Vocabulary was collected by Mr. Gustavus Wilczv 
who is the head of a firm carrying on large merca 
business at the Pailon in Ecuador, which brings him 
close and intimate connexion with the natives of the int 
from whom he buys the country produce, etc. The tril 
Cayapas is a pure and unmixed one, difficult to approac 
white men, although fairly peaceable. 















Eyebrows \ 

and I 

Eyelashes ) 




















































Dios apa 

Dios yaya 










































By Whitley Stokbs^ D.C.L. 

It is now nearly twenty years since the late Hermann Ebel, 
while recasting the Grammatica Celtica, called attention, in 
Euhn and Schleicher's Beitrage, vi. 222, to a class of Old- 
Irish neuter nouns which had the following characteristics: 
(1) in the nom. sg. there was no umlaut; (2) the gen. sg. 
ended in -e, which caused umlaut ; (3) the ace. sg. was 
identical with the nom. sg. ; (4) the nom. and aco. pi. ended 
in '6 ; (5) the dat. pi. ended in -t(, the f causing umlaut ; 
(6) many of these nouns were identical with Greek, Latin, 
Old Slavonic, and Sanskrit stems in 8. Thus teg^^reyo^t 
let A^Tjeit. latus, mag^Skv. mahds. He hence inferred that 
we had here neuter stems in s, the existence of which in 
the Celtic tongues had previously been denied. Take, for 
example, teg or tech ' house ' : 

Nom. Ace. 
Dat. Loc. 

Nom. Ace. 



Nom. Ace. 




Old-Iei8h Old-Celtic Gbbbk 

teg, tech 'tegos r4yos 

tige *t€ge808 r4y€os 

tig *tegi Tryc* 

Latin Old-Slatoicic 

latus nebo 

laterifl nebese 

d& tbeg, d& thech 
dk tige 
dib tigib 






•tegesa r^yta 

•tegeson rtyiotv 


latera nebesa 

latenim nebesti 

Here in most of the cases in the singular and the plural 
the agreement, especially with Greek, is close. Ebel notes 
in particular the formation of the oblique cases from a stem 
in -f«, the nom. sg. being a stem in -08. The dative sg. of 
the Irish forms has not yet been explained. Ebel, indeed, 
would deduce tig from an Old-Celtic ^tegesi^ireyeL But 
^tegesi would have become in Old-Irish iigiy and it seems more 


IHelj that we have in iig a formation after the analogy of 
the i-Btems. Compare the declension of the Lithuanian 
debes-, of which Schleicher says that it is partly after the 
analogy of the t-stems, partly after that of the ya-stems ; 
only the gen. pL has remained consonantal. The dual of 
Irish stems in « is obscure. One would have expected in the 
nom. and ace. tige from ^tegese. Probably teg, tech is due to 
the analogy of the o-stems, in which the nom. dual is in Old- 
Irish identical with nom. sg. The dat. dual points to an 
Old-Celtic instrumental in -bin (from *'bhin), just as the dat. 
plural points to an Old-Celtic instrumental in 'bis (from 
*'bhi8). The gen. dual is obscure to me. 

The Old-Irish words which Ebel referred to the «-declen- 
sion were eight in number, viz. teg (house) =t^09, nem^ 
(heaven), leth (side)=Lat. latua, mag, niach (field)=Skr. 
fMhas (great ^), sliab (mountain), I6g (price), glUn (knee, from 
*g\iUnos), and diin (fort). To these in the Grammatica Celtica, 
p. 226, he added die (ex *rftyflw=Lat. dies), gn6 (ratio), -gu, in 
d\'gu (reiectio), and ro-gu, to-gu (electio) (^gus), and, lastly, 
the comparatives mda (more), ferr (better), latgiu (less), etc. 

To these discoveries of Ebel, Thurneysen, in Euhn's Zeit- 
8clirift, xxviii. 153, added two more, viz. sid (elf -mound), 
which seems cognate with liSo9, aSdea, Noven-«Mfes, and tir 
(land), from *terso8, cognate with Lat. terra from ^tersa, and 
Osc. teerum from *tersom. 

But there are certainly nine, and probably more, other 
Old-Irish nouns belonging to the d-declension. 

Here follow what Germans call belegatellen of the nouns 
just referred to : 

1. ag N. (a bovine animal) .i. bd, O'Cl. 

8g. nom., ag m^lh, Sc.M. 7 ; ag allaid 'cervus,' Conn. 

gen. turcreic aige loige meich conafosair (* the proportionate 
stock of a calf of the value of a sack with its accompaniment'). 
Laws II. p. 254, 1. 30. 

* Ebel equated nem with Gr. vi^s and Slav, neho, aBsuming that here, as else- 
where, m stood for infected b. Bat the modern Breton {n)env shows by its 
Biudised e that the primaeval Celtic form was nemost which in form is = Skr. 
n^nuu (roTerence). Compare O.Ir. netned (el. sacellum) = Gaulish nuneton, 

* Cf. Skr. makt (the earth) and mdla (fieM), from *mahUi, with oompensatory 
kngthening (Biihler). 


dual n. da ag dec (twelve cows), LL. 295'', 25. 

ace. astaid da n-ag dibh, Rev. Celt. v. 200. 

pi. n. aige ocua mucca, Sc.M. 6 ; aige alta LH. 19^. 

gen. benna na n-aige (the antlers of the deer), LL. 67^ 18. 

dat. alma d'aigib alta, LL. 67*, 42 ; forma haigib, LL. 67*, 19. 

ace. dosennat na aecht n-aige (they hunt the seven deer), 
TBF. p. 138. 

This word seems to belong to the root ag, whence arf», Lat 
ago, Skr. ajdmiy and the Old-Ir. atom^aig (adigit me). 

2. all N. ' cliff, rock.' 

Sg. nom. all n-ghine (rock of purity), Ffl. Jan. 6, 

gen. oc cluchi for bru inn aille (playing on the edge of the 
cliff), Lism. fo. 20% 2. 

dat. no leicthe fon aill a mblegon (their milking was cast 
under the cliff), LL. 115*. 

ace. con-ecmaing a tul immon n^all (so that her forehead 
struck on the rock), LTJ. 109*. 

dual ace. Uir da n-all (between two rocks), 0*Don. Supp. 

pi. dat. essarcain cind fri hallib (dashing a head against 
rocks), LL. 176*. 

ace. atraacht am-muir impi suds, co ndemai alle dimora impe 
imacuaird (the sea rose up around it, and made vast cliflb [of 
water] all round about it), LU. 26*. 

In all initial p may have been lost, and // may represent 
original &. If so, it is cognate, not only with Germ, feh^ 
but with Gr. iriKKa [from *7r€Xaa] " \ldo^, Hesych. and 
with Vedic pdshya^ Skr. pdshdna, which come respectively 
from *palsia and ^palsdna (Fortunatov, Bezz. Beitr. vi. 217). 

3. au, 6 N. ' ear,' * cup-handle.' 

sg. nom. au ab aure, H. 2, 16, col. 90. 

gen. au-nasc (* earring') .i. nose aue (ring of an ear). Conn. 
meilid smit ind aue itir a da mir (he grinds the lobe of the 
ear between his two fingers), Corm. B. s.v. brL 

dat. aircB (' temple ') .i. ar auifn hd anair arfhas (before an 
ear, in front of an ear it grows), Corm. 

ace. corici a hou, LU. 59% 40. fri hd supra : dnasca dir 
imma 6 (earrings of gold round his ear), LU. 92*, 19. sechi 


traigid etir a 6 J a beolu (seven feet between his ear and his 
lips), LL. 106^ 28. 

dual nom. it 4 a da n-o imma chend (they are his two ears 
round his head), LIT. 89% 23. imomm-loiscet mo da n-o 
pruIl(Tiiy two ears bum me greatly), Corm. B. s.y. prull. da 
aw ibid. 8.y. dabach. 

pL nom. ni bitis hoe for inaib hi tua (there were not at first 
handles on cups), Corm. A., s.v. dabach, =/}f bitis oi for na 
hfnaib artus, Corm. B. 

dai uas aiiib na n-ech (over the horses* ears), LTJ. 114% 39. 
eo cetheoraib auaib (leg. auib?)^ 'with four ears,' LL. 249% 
(where the numeral shows that in Middle Irish au became 
feminine), ina auibh, as t*6aibh, Book of Lismore, 43% 1. 

This word is exactly in meaning, declension, and gender the 
Old Slav. uehOf gen. ucese. It is also the Lat. aus in auS'Culto. 

4. delg N. 'thorn, brooch,' deic, Ml. 51% 8. 
8g. nom. tnani be a ndelg and (unless the thorn be there). 
8g. incanC delg n-iarind (a brooch of iron), LTJ. 96% 

gen. bla deilge dae (exemption of brooch on shoidder). Laws 
^n. 290. do fuascalad a deilge (to loosen his brooch). Bawl. 
B. 612, fo. 36% 

dat. dia luirg ros-toma is dia deilg (with her staff and with 
ier brooch she marked it out), LL. 161% 51. 

ace. atchiu delg n-and olladbol de 6r (I see there a huge 
'>*'Ooch of gold), LU. 91». 

J^L nom. noi ndelce 6ir (nine brooches of gold), LU. 94. 
^Si (leg. delge) iaimd a finna (his hair [like] pins of iron), 
^^. 202% 

fiat, de delgib scidch (of thorns of whitethorn), LU. 89*. 
dec. im deich ndeiici (leg. ndeilce) derca diorda (round ten 
'^ti gilded brooches), LU. 83% cen delgce indib (without 
^^**ooches in them), LU. 93. 

Of delg (=W. daloy dal,^ Com. delc^ gl. monile) the only 
^On-Celtic cognates appear to be A.S. ielgan (gL virgultum), 

^ mat data g€l hmdoll (like the fang of a boleheaded leech), B. B. Mabinogion, 
^- 119; mal dal eleheren (like a gadfly's sting), ibid. 118. For these quotations I 
indebted to Prof. Bh^s. 


5. dess * god/ 

8g. nom. de88 (.i. deua) imriada duib^ .i. dia do redigud duA, 
or ai ('may a god make smooth [the way] for you ! ' saith she), 
LU. 122^ 33. A later form dee, taken, apparently, from the 
oblique cases, occurs in the nom. sg. twice in LB. in tiwi dee 
na pagan (art thou the god of the pagans ?), 193*, roc&ibn'ged 
aingliu bar ndee^ai (your god has been fettered by angels), 
176*. We also find dea ; dorumhiatar ba dea m drafcc i mlxn 
in demun (they thought that the dragon wherein the devil 
dwelt was a god), LB. 72*'. 

gen. ni coir duib adrad donti-aea dar^gabaabar deilb dee (' it 
is not meet for you to worship him to whom ye have given a 
god's form '), LB. 176^ 

pi. nom. M dee Donand .i. M mew Bream meic Elatkan 
(Donu's three gods, that is, Bress son of Elathu's three sons), 
LL. 30^. ni hinand fda bea no belra na delb na dee adartha do 
chined dib recheli (not the same, moreover, is usage or lan- 
guage or form or worshipt gods of one tribe of them and 
another), LB. 149^ 40; Batar 6 andee [leg. dee'] in t-ms 
cumachta 7 andee in t-cea trebaire (dee were the mighty people 
and andee the cultivators), LL. 75**, 33. 

gen. amail robu mdthair dee indt Anu sic Buanand erat 
mdthair na fian (as Anu was mother of gods, so Buanand 
was the mother of the champions), Corm. s.v. Buanand. 
Bendacht dee 7 andee forty a ingen (the blessing of gods and 
non-gods (be) upon thee, maiden!), LL. 75**, 31. adrad na 
ndee mbatb mborb (worship of the dumb, stupid gods), LB. 182*. 

dat. dena idpairt ddr hdeeb-ni (make offering to our gods), 
LB. 182*. mina dema buden idbairt dom dheib-se (unless thou 
thyself make offering to my gods), LB. 4*. Nocon-JTiHaim- 
ae ain, or Longinua, fognum da bar hdeeib brece-ai, LB. 182* (* I 
cannot do that,' saith L., 'service unto your false gods'). 

ace. robu maith didiu roa-biathad-ai na dee [.i.] decs (it waa 
well, then, she used to nourish the dee i.e. decs), Corm. s.v. Ana< 
do thungu-aa mo dee dia n-adraim (I swear by my gods whom I 
adore), LL. 63*, 6. Bentar afhiacla aaa chind, olin Uerrig^ . . . 
na hadrand na dee, LB. 182* (* let his teeth be struck out ol 
his head,' saith the satrap, 'since he doth not adore the gods'). 


Am Celtic d represents both d and dh, Ir. deaa may be cognate 
either with Gr. ^€9 in a'0€<T'<f>aTo<: or with Old-Latin iaa for 
*daB in /ases * lares/ gen. pi. larum. For the vowels compare 
kth and kitus. The Old-Ir. desa may he^=:dhe8-8 or des-s, as 
6r. /it)9y /i€t9 from /it;^-?, /i^i^^-?* I am uncertain as to its 
gender. Dee and amf^^ remind one of the Yedic deca^ adeva. 

6. glenn N. ' valley.' 

gen. grian gel Qlinne Huissen (white sun of Glenn Uissen), 
Fel. July 8. Colnuin Olinde Delniaic, F6L Nov. 5. 

dat. Olind da lind lethan (from the valley of two broad 
kkes, Glendalough), F^l. June 3. • nglind Teribinti, LB. 46*. 
ace. isin nglend ngaibthech (into the valley perilous), LU. 30\ 
ga glend na satnaisce, LL. 69% 29. 
pi nom. Old-Irish doubtless, glinne, Mid. Ir. glenda, 
dat. dor&ntd colUce sl^ibe dona glindib (giinnib, L.B.), (moun- 
tains have been made of the valleys), F^l. Prol. 240. Mid. 
Ji*. glennaib. 

ace. tar maige, tar midglinni, setid maige midglinne, LU. 
i06» 106^ 
This word, W. glgn, seems peculiar to the Celtic languages. 

7. griuid N. * cheek.' 

Bg. nom. gruad (gl. mala), Sg. 14*. a ngruad n-aile, LU. 
90^ 1 

f^n. do ind a grimde^JAj, 108*: corcair , . . aatnail gruddi La- 

^*"nda, LU. sian a gruadi gormchorcrai, LL., cited by Windisch. 

ace. /or a gruad aechtair (on his cheek outside), LU. 79*, 39. 

dual nom. da ngriiad, LU. 126*, 23, gen. i cechtar a da 

9^udd, LU., cited by Windisch. 

pi. nom. inna gruade (gl. conuexa), Ml. 96°, 9. 
gen. innan gruade (gl. genarum), Ml. 39®, 14. 
dat. dona gruadib (gl. genis, gl. maxillis), Gild. Lor. 114, 
124, turgbaitferbafora (g)ruaidib tar cilbrethaib (blisters arise on 
his cheeks after wrong judgments), LH. 34*, 1 (Goid. 164). 
ace. frisna gruade, Ml. 39®, 15, eter forbru J gruade (be- 
tween eyebrows and cheeks). Ml. 39®, 12. 
The primary meaning of grdad seems to have been some- 


thing convex. It may be cognate with Eng. great, OHG. 
grosz, urdeutsch *grauia, as Skr. ganda cheek (from ^garnda^ 
*granda), with Lat. grandis; as Lat. mala, niaxilla with 

8. hond, and, N. ' stone.' 

sg. nom. is M in lia • . . iss-ed hond . , . in clock is si, 
i.e. the lia is he (masc), hond is it (neut.), the clock is she 
(fern.)/ Corm. s.v. adba othnoe. 

gen. adba uath uinde, Conn. A,^=adba huath uinne, Corm. B. 

If this word has lost initial p, we may equate it with Lat. 
pondm, which may have originally meant 'stone.' Cf. the 
use in English and German of stone and stein for a weight. 
The connexion of pondus with pendo is not certain. 

9. og N. * egg.' 

sg. nom. og, Sg. 8^ 10. 

gen. clock i n-inad ugi, leg. uge (a stone in place of an 
egg), Cogad Goedel, p. 100. roiarfacht acHu in uige (he 
asked tidings of the egg), Fled Duin na ng^dh, p. 24. 

ace. no idrgind ^n aith im og (I used to attack the fierce 
bird for (its) egg), LL. 154*. 

pi. nom. infikt uigi no casai lib? (have ye eggs or cheese P), 
LB. 136% 17. 

dat. Ian di uighib gid (full of goose-eggs), Fled D.G. 16, 20. 

ace. cechoen uo-caithfed na huige (every one who should 
consume the eggs), ibid. p. 24. 

The connexion of this word with A.S. Ag N., Old-Norse egg 
(whence Eng. egg is borrowed), and the Argive co/Sea (where 
Curtius regards the 13 Qa=F) is by no means clear. 

10. sal N. * sea.' 

gen. tonna sdile serbruada (bitter-strong waves of sea). 

ace tar sal sairde (over the eastern sea), Ffl. March 5. co 
sal smanMch (unto the streamy sea), F^ Aug. 25. co riacht 
tar sal side, F^l. Sept. 10. 

* Flor te iM of tfat pioaoiuu to denote the gender of nouns compare the A.S. 
^ .WaWwr, ooL MO), Ui8u* AiTiH Um iUf, 


This is somewhat doubtful, as the gen. sdile may possibly be 
^1 mis-ipelt for adili, gen. sg. of the io-stem sdile. If sal is 
^1 really an x-stem, it may be compared with Gr. ad\o^. 

11. ten 'fire' ; in composition : ru-then *ray ' ; ten-chor * tongs.' 

flg. nom. ruthen, LU. 28*. 

dai tein, ruthin, Windisch, Worterb. 817, 751. 

accar thein^ Sanct. p. 14 (leg. ar then?), ruiihin, BawL 
B. 612, fo. 6b, 1 (leg. ruithen ?). 

pL nom. ruithni (leg. ruithne), LL. 248*. 

dat 00 ruthnib grene, LB. 6^. ruit/mib, Bawl. B. 512, fo. 
5b, 1. 

ace ruthni (leg. ruthne), Three Hom. 4. 

The declension of these words is still doubtful. The plural 
forms point to the ^-declension, but the umlauted forms in 
the ace. sg. belong to the fem. o-declension, and fmthen in 
Early Middle Irish is certainly fem. If ten be a stem in a, it 
may stand for ^tepnas, and be identical with Zend tafnahh. 

12. t&ib N. ' side.' 

Sg. nom. congaihther idib et aircMnn and (side and front are 
comprised in it), Wb. 21^ 6. 

gen. isind achsaill tdibe deiss lau (in the armpit of Jesu's 
right side), LB. 251», 68. 

dat. assa thdib, Wb. 20*, 13, ina thoeb Has, 6n taib, Windisch 
**^orterb. 832 ; bale bee sin for tdeib slebe Oliuet (a little stead, 
^•^at, on the side of Mount Olivet), LB. 40^. 
^cc. la Mby fri tdib, ibid. 

4ual nom. rundgabaat ar h da thoib du ditin ar n-inme don^ 
^Afii, ML 67*, 14 (our two sides were to protect our internals). 
^this noun in Middle-Irish went over to the o-declension. 
"*^us we have gen. sg. tdibh, pi. dat. toebaib, LL. 248^ 3 and 
^ild. Lor. 79, ace. pL toeba and toebu. Its cognate in Welsh 
^ tu, pi. tuoedd. 

Besides these, there are several nouns which were probably 

^^Btems, but which, owing to the fewness of ancient examples, 

^nnot be quoted as such with certainty. Such nouns are : 

^airenn 'rock,* pL bairne; elic *fame'=/c\€09, Skr. gracaa; 


cHl 'blood/ Lat. cruor: ing, dat. sg. ing, Colm. h. 18=Skr. 
anhas, Lat. angof\ Gr. a;^09; U 'colour '=Lat. livor. Clear ex- 
amples of weiterbildungen of x-stems are dis (age) from ^atces-tu^ 
Skr. dt/H8 ; ^es (heat), from ^testu, ^tepstUy ^tepes-tu, Skr. lapaa ; 
and/oilua (manifest), from ^awlnes-tu, Zend qarenahh. 

So far we have dealt with «-stems in Old and Middle-Irish. 
Traces of the ^-declension are visible in modern Gaelic. Thus: 

gleann M. (valley), gen. glinne, 

gruaidh F. (cheek), gen. gruaidh^. 

leath F. (side), gen. leithe, 

I6gh (reward), gen. Idighe. Four MM. III. 1920. 

magh (plain), gen. tnaighe, 

neamh M. (heaven), gen. neimhe. 

sal M. (sea), gen. sdiie, 

sliabh M. (mountain), gen. sliibhe. 

Ur M. land, gen. tire. 


There is in Modern, and also in Middle, Irish a large 
number of nouns ending in -ach or -echy which in the singular 
are declined like o-stems, but in the plural like 8-stems. So 
according to Schleicher the German grab is an a-stem in the 
singular, but the pi. grabir (now grdber) belongs to the 
8-declension. Examples of the nouns referred to are : 

airenach (forefront), sg. gen. airinig, dat. airinuch, pL airinigi, 
LU. 99^ 

apach (entrails), pi. nom. abaighe, gen. abbaige, dat. qpaigib, 
Togail Troi, p. 127. 

aslach (temptation), sg. gen. in mi-aslaig (malae persuasionis). 
Ml. 28^ 7, dat. aslug, asluch, Ml. 26°, 9, pi. dat. aslalilgib, 
Patr. h., cona aslaigib, LB. 180*, 253% ace. aslaigi^ F^l. Ep. 198. 

aurddrach (phantom), pi. nom. aurdraigey Gl. 500, urtroige 
Corm. B. s.v. meisi, gen. fo chossaib aurddrag, LU. 60*, 6, 
dat. aurdraigib, Gl. 50, urtroighib^ Corm. B. s.v. meisi. 

brollach (bosom), sg. dat. brolluch, LL. 144% 15, ace. dar 
brolkch, LL. 87% pi. dat. brollaigib, Togail Troi, 1. 1538. 

buarach (cowspansel), pi. dat. buairgib, Battle of Moira, 316. 

cathach (trespass), pi. caiihc/ie, Laws iv. 114. 


eobbch (fleet), sg. gen. eoblaig, dat. eobluch, Trp. 66; pi. 
dat. mur-choblaigib, Trp. 206. 

coiraeh ( ), pL dat. cosraigib, Tog. Troi, 1721. 
erUlach (girdle, womb), 8g. dat. crisiuch, Saltair na Hann, 
1645 ; pi. dat. crialaigib, Togail Troi, 1659. 

e&aeh (cup), sg. gen. c&aich, dat. aco. ctioch, pi. nom. cuache, 
LU. 113^ 

cumrechj euibrech (bond), sg. dat. cumriuch^ pi. ace. cuibrighe, 
0*a S.V. tratrach, dat. cuibrigib, LB. 176». The Old-Ir. 
nom. pL is cuimrecha, whence we see that in this noun the 
change in the pL to the ^-declension is not older than the 
Hiddle-Irish period. 

cumtach (covering), sg. dat. eumtuch, pi. dat. cumtaigib, 
Windisch, 460, pL ace. cumdaige, LB. 73*. 

domnach (church), sg. gen. donmaig, dat. domnuck, pi. n. 
domnaige, Trp. 168. 

domnach (Sunday), sg. gen. damnaig, dat. domnuch ; pi. n. 
domnaige, LB. 47*. 

Henoch (blasphemy), sg. gen. ecnaig, LB., pi. ace. ecnaige, 
I^B. lb. 

eriaeh^ irtaeh (refection), pL nom. erdaige^ LU. 73**, 7, ace. 
*'»a herddaige-siy LB. 73^. 

^tach (garment), sg. gen. ^taig, ace. ^iach, pi. nom. ^taige, 
g^tx. 4tach, dat. itaigib, Wind. Wort. 631. 
jfdlbach (rampart P), pi. ace. /albaigi, LU. 80^ 12. 
^asach (precedent), pi. dat. fasatgib, Trp. 566. 
Ja»aeh (wilderness), sg. dat. faaach, F^l. clxxxvii., pi. dat. 
fi^aigib, LU. 118^ 

Jdtbach (sods), sg. gen. fdtbaig, LL. 97% 97^ 120% pi. 
f^tbaige, LL. 59, 51. 

ghmrach (bridle P bitP), pi. nom. glomraige, LB. 232% 21 ; 
^at. glomraigib, LL. 110*. 

goethiach (marsh), sg. dat. goithluch, MI. 33% 3, pi. dat. 
Qoethlaigib, LB. 227% 8. 

intech (scabbard), sg. dat. intiuch, G.C. 230, LU. 68% 82^ ; 
ace. intech, LU. 82% pi. dat. intigib, Togail Troi, 1716. 
liiihrach (bolt, bar), pi. ace. litthraigi, LB. 172*. 
mullach (crown of the head, summit), sg. dat. mulluch, pi. 
n. muUaighe, O'Don. Gr. 87. 


dena^h (assembly, fair), sg. gen. denaig, ace. denach, pi. 
dat. denaigib, LU. 78**. 

ochtrach (excrement), Ml. 129^ 2: pi. nom. octarche (gL 
purgaraenta), Wb. 9*, 7. 

ordlach (inch), sg. gen. or-loigh, pL n. ordiaige, orlaighij 
Laws, iii. 334. tri hordlaige do bhuain do bhod JEmaitin Mairth 
(three inches were struck off Edmond Mortel's penis), Annals 
of Ulster, A.D. 1498.1 

otrach (dung), sg. dat. otruch, pi. dat. otraigib, LB. 202*. 

sidach (elf), pi. n. sidaige^ Windisch, Wort. 773. 

sonnach (palisade), sg. ace. sondacA, H. 2, 16, coL 379, pi. 
ace. sondaighe, ibid. col. 377. 

tenhchf tellach (hearth, household), sg. gen. tellaig^ dat. 
tenlug, LIT. 19^ aco. tellach, pi. nom. tellaigi, Bk. of Fenagh, 

timthach (array), pi. dat. timthaigib, LL. 58*. 

urtlach (lap), pi. nom. urtlaige, F^L xxxii. 26. 

The declension of this class of nouns in the plural seems, 
as Windisch has suggested, due to the analogy of teg, tech, 
and mag, mach. So the change in Middle-Irish of the fern, 
d-stem riin (secret) from the a-declension to the ^-declension 
is due to the analogy of dUn and gl&n. 


The only unadulterated example in the British languages of 
a stem in simple 8 is "Welsh ti (=t€7€09), pi. te (for tei=:^teg^8a^^ 
which differs in accentuation from reyea), now written t^/, pi. 
taL AH the other substantives, which were originally «-8tems, 
form their plurals by adding, either directly to the singular or 
to the old plurals in -i, terminations, like -oedd, -au, -on, properly 
those of the i-declension, the ti-declension, the fi-declension. 
Thus in Welsh din (fortress), pi. dinion ; dt/dd M. (day), pi. 
dyddiau ; glin M. (knee), pi. glinyeu, gliniau ; glyn M. (glen), 
pi. glynoedd; grudd M. (cheek), pi. grudgeu, gruddiau ; ma F. 
(place), pi. maoedd; ne/TA, (heaven), pi. ne/oedd; tan M. (fire), 

^ See the facsimile in Gilbert's National MSS., part iii. No. IxxriL 
' See Bh^, Mevue Celtique, tI. 49 note. 


pi. tanau; tir M. (land), pi. tiroedd; tu M. (side), pi. tuoedd; 

wy M. (egg), pi. wyau. So in Cornish deth (day), pi. de]yotc ; 

tyr (land), pi. iyryow, and in Breton dez M. (day), pi. diztou ; 

tdn (fire), pi. idniou. 

In dim-on, gltni-au, gruddi-au, tyry-ow, idni-ou, compared 

with the Irish d&ine, gluine^ gritaide, tire, *tine (in rui-ihne)^ 

we seem to have the old plural -t (ex •esa), with the addition 

of 'On or -au {-ou). So in dyddi-au, de^y-ow, dizi-ou, though 

the corresponding Irish form is not quotable. 

Stems in N8. 

Besides the stems in simple 8, the Celtic, like other Indo- 
Earopean languages, has stems in ns. Of these the clearest 
example is the Old-Irish noun mi * month,' which was thus 

SiNO. Dual. Plub. 

Nom. mi d& mis mfo 

Gen. mis dk mis mis-n 

Dat. mis (dib misaib) misaib 

Acc' mSs-n a& mis ' misa 

This noun agrees well with the Lat. mens- in the gen. pi, 
vutmrn, and the Ionic fiek from */li€K9. 

Besides mi we have the Ir. comparatives in -m (protoceltio 
•w, Lat. -tor, -tW) and -a (protoceltic -d«), which Ebel held 
to be stems in ns. But of these stems no oblique case appears 
in the oldest MSS., except perhaps in meitis ri, LL. 208*= 
^^tiiher fri * as big as,' and the adverb he\u% ' moreover,' 
lU. 110*, 36, generally beus or beos, which seems the petrified 
<^inparative of an adjectival stem beo- cognate with the Latin 
^erb beOy the adverb be-ne, and the adjectives bellm (for 
*fe-«-/««), be-ni-gnus. In daer (the youngest) from *yavias' 
fe^M, and sinser (the eldest), from ^seniaS'tero-s, we have 
traces of an 8-formation. 

The British stems in na are exemplified by mis ' month,' 
^hich corresponds with one of the oblique cases of the Ir. mi, 
and possibly by the comparatives in -acA (Bret. 'Och), which 
fieems to stand either for -ass, -ans — the ch coming from 88, ns, 
as in the prep, ^trach^^trans, G.C. 680^-or for oh — the ch 
coming from h, and this from yowel-fianked s. 


IN ANGLO-FRENCH. By the Rev. Prof. Skeat. 

In the Transactions of the Philological Society for 1882 I 
published a hand-list of some English words borrowed from 
Anglo-French, together with their forms as actually found 
in Anglo-French texts ; adding just a few native English 
words which I had observed as being quoted in such texts. 
My excuse for doing so was the utter absence of any such 
list with proper references. 

The list was not very complete ; nevertheless, in attempt* 
ing to add to it from time to time, I have found it much 
more complete than might have been expected. In hundreds 
of instances I have turned to this list, only to find that a 
word which I thought I had not previously noticed has been 
sufficiently recorded already. This is so encouraging that I 
venture to believe that it will not be found at all an easy 
task to form a long third list, supplemental, that is, to the 
former one and that now ofiered to the reader. At the same 
time I admit some imperfection. I have not been able to 
bestow the time upon the subject which it deserves. I only 
ofiered the former list by way of a stop- gap ; but as no one 
else (to my knowledge) has done much to help us in this 
matter during the past six years, I venture to print some 
more examples, with references, for the use of students. 

As before, I give chiefly Modern English words, with only 
a small sprinkling of Middle English words of especial 
interest. I give the Anglo-French forms as they occur, with 
notes of the part of speech where necessary. Thus, s.v. 
abash, the form csbahis, marked pp., is the past participle 
singular, whilst esbat/ez, marked pp. pL, is the plural of the 
past participle. The abbreviations are the same as before. 


pt. s. meaning past tense singular, third person ; and pL pL 
meaning past tense plural, third person. 

Not all of the words in the present tense are now noted 
for the first time ; but such is the case with at least three- 
fourths of them. In other cases, it seemed desirable to add 
further references to those given already. The references 
are new ones in every case. Of the Black Book of the 
Admiralty, I have only examined the first volume, which 
gives the more ordinary sea-terms. Of the Roman de Rou, 
I have only examined a small portion, and I only give a 
few words ; the language, in fact, is not Anglo-French, but 
belongs to the continent. In short, I merely ofifer the list 
for what it is worth, and hope that those who could have 
done the work far better than myself will pardon my pre- 

In the references the following abbreviations occur : 

B.— Britton ; ed. F. Morgan Nichols, M.A. 2 vols. Oxford, 1865. 

Cited by the volume and page. Late thirteenth century. 
B.B.— Black Book of the Admiralty ; edited by Sir Travers Twiss. 

6 vols. Record Series. The references are all to volume i. 

(1871), which is cited By the page. 
C.A.— Chasteau d'Amour, by R. Grossteste ; ed. M. Cooke. Caxton 

Society, 1852. Cited by the line (or by the page and line). 

Thirteenth century. 
F.C.^French Chronicle of London ; ed. G. J. Aungier. Camden 

Society, 1844. Cited by the page. Written about 1350. 
W.— The Legend of Fulk Fitzwarin; printed at pp. 277-415 

of B. de Coggeshall Chronicon Anglicanum ; ed. J. Steven- 
son. Becord Series, 1875. Cited by the page. About a.d. 

Lit.— Literae Cantuarienscs, vol. i. ; edited by J. B. Sheppard. 

Record Series. Cited by the page. The date of the letter is 

given in each instance. 
L-K.— Le Livere de Beis de Brittanie, etc. ; ed. J. Glover. Becord 

Series, 1865. Cited by the page. 
^•^.•—Le Prince Noir; ed. F. Michel, 1883. Cited by the line. 

About A.D. 1386. 
^.^Roman de Bou ; by Maistre Wace. Ed. Dr. H. Andersen. 

2 vols. Heilbronn, 1877-9. Cited by the line from vol. ii. 

PhiL Trans. 1888-90. 8 


B-W.— Royal WiUs; ed. J. Nichols, 1780. Cited by the pa^ 

The date of the will is noted in each instance. 
V.H. — Vows of the Heron ; printed in vol. i. of Political Poei 

ed. T. Wright. Record Series, 1859. Date, 1838. Cited 

the page. 
W.W. — William of Wadington's Manuel des Peches; ed. F. 

Furnivall, 1862. Cited by the line; or, when necessary^ 

the page and line. 
Y./. — Year-books of the Reign of Edward I.; years 12 and 

Ed. Luke Owen Pike. Record Series, 1885. Cited by t 

page. Date, 1338 and 1339. 
Y.g, — The same, continued: years 13 and 14. Record Seric 

1886. Cited by the page. Date, 1339 and 1340. 


Abash ; esbayez, pp, pi, F.C. 

76 ; esbahis, pp. 8, V.H. 9. 
Abatable, adj. abatable, £. i. 

204 ; ii. 83. 
Abetment, abbettement, %. F.C. 

Abetting, abet, %. L.R. 230. 
Able, able, B. ii. 5. • 
Abstinence, abstinence, a. C.A. 

Acceleration, acceleraciun, «. 

W.W. 9741. 
Accompt, accompte, «. (account), 

P.K 97. 
Accused, acuse, pp. W.W. 9892. 
Accusers, acusurs, pi. W.W. 

Achievement, achievement, V.H. 

Acolyte, acolyte, Lit. 398(1331); 

accoUtz,^?/. R.W. 123 (1392). 
Acquire, acquist,^^. *. P.N. 383. 
Admiral, admiral, E.B. i. 3. 
Adventurous, aventurous, F.F. 

Advocate, aduocat, W.W. 4658. 
Aery; of. eyros(= nests of hawks), 

Lit. 486 (1332). 
AfFeored, affeure, pp. (valued), 

Y./. 215. 

Affiance, affiance, L.R. 142. 
Af iuid (alarmed), afiue, pp. Li 

126 (1324); esfraez, R. 367 
Age, eage, %. R. II. 
Ague, la fieure ague, W.T 

10299. . 

Aim, 8. esme (supposition), \ 

Aim, V. esmer (to estimate), \ 

Air, eir, «. R. 49. 
Alliance, aliaunce, «. L.R. 241 
Almoner, aumoner, W.W. 478 

almoner, W.W. 4876. 
Amass, v. amasser, W.W. 517 

(com^ together), P.N. 226. 
Amerciable, adj. amerciable, 

i. 88. 
Amerced, amercie, pp. Y./. 5. 
Amorous, adj. (loving), amen 

W.W. 6226; amoureusesj^.j 

V.H. 5. 
Anchor, ancre, B.B. i. 26. 
Angel, B. angel, W.W. 10041. 
Anise, ». anise, W.W. 11311. 
Anniversary, anniuersaire, W."\ 

1766 (p. 201). 
Annual, annuele, adj. L.R. 76 
Annuity, 8. annuite, Y.f. 109. 
Apostle, lapostle, L.R. 250. 


Appeases, apese, pr, «. W.W. 
10559 ; appeyser, r. L.R. 
Appellant, appellant, B.£. i. 

Appurtenances, apurtenences, pi. 

LR. 244. 
Arbalester (crossbow-man), ar- 
blaster, L.R. 270 ; arblasters, 
pi. F.F. 295. 
Aititersy juges arbitres, £. i. 

Archdeacon, ercbedeakne, F.C. 

Archer, archers, pi. L.E. 136 ; 

F.C. 77 ; F.F. 295. 
Arf^nt (in heraldry), argent, 

F.F. 349. 
Arms, armes, P.N. 313. 
Arras, sale darras, E.W. 72 

(1376); arras, 132 (1392). 
Array, $. array, Y.y. 103 ; R.W. 
181(1399); arroi, P.N. 109. 
•Anived, pp. arivez, P.N. 145. 
Arson, arsoun. F.C. 5, 6. 
Artificial, artificiel, B. ii. 133. 
Artillery, artillerie, B.B. i. 148. 
Assailed, asailerent, pt. pi. F.C. 
77 ; assaiUer, v. W.W. 2243. 
Assart, v. assartir, B. ii. 68. 
Assault, assaut, «. F.C. 77 ; P.N. 

400 ; F.F. 322. 
-Assembly, assemble, s. L.R. 178. 
Assent, assent, «. L.R. 142, 310 ; 

B. ii. 244. 
-Assenting, pres. pt. asentaunt, 
P.C. 58 ; assente, pr. s. 
(assents), B. i. 114. 
^^eessor, assessor, W.W. 4658. 
"^^^Bets, assetz, Y.y. 3 ; cf. assetz 

^.enough, P.N. 205. 
"^^soil, assoillent, pr. pi. sub/. 

II.W. 49 (1361). 
■^^sotted, assote, pp. (s= be- 
witched), L.R. 138. 
-**-B8iimption, asnmpcioun, L.R. 

Attire, 8. atirs, pi. F.F. 374. 
Attorney, attoume, Y/. 3, 5. 

Audience, audience, B. ii. 94. 
Auditors, auditours, s. pi. F.C. 

87 ; Y.ff. 41. 
Authorized, auctorize, pp. B. i. 

Aver, averir, v. L.R. 98 ; averer, 

Y.f. 13. 
Averment, averement, «. Y.f. 

Award, award, «. F.F. 328. 
Azure, asur, F.F. 282. 

Baboon; ef. babewynes, pi. ( = 

grotesque figures), R.W. 132 

Bachelor, bachelor, P.N. 193. 
Bacon, bacun, W.W. 2384; 

bacons, i?/. F.F. 315. 
Badges, bages, pi. R.W. 68 

Bag, bagge, s. Y.f. 245. 
Bales, 8. pi. balles, B.B. i. 82. 
Balingers (ships), balingers, B.B. 

i. 4 ; balangers, ib. 
Banner, baniere, P.N. 817. 
Banneret, 8. baneret, P.N. 193. 
Bar ; barres, pi. B.B. i. 328 ; 

(bars of gold), R.W. 183 

Barbican, barbekane, C.A. 599. 
Bargain, 8. bargeyn. Lit. 462 

Bargained, bargene, pp. Lit. 348 

Barge, barge, B.B. i. 417 ; barges, 

8. pi. F.C. 74. 
Barony ; barunies.. pi. L.R. 352. 
Batelle (small boat), batil, F.F. 

376 ; batels, pi. B. ii. 345. 
Battery, baterie, 8. (beating), 

Y.f. 67. 
Battle, bataille, P.N. 316. 
Bayed, baerent, pt. pi. (barked), 

L.R. 78. 
Beadles, bedeaus, pi. R. 851. 
Beasts, beastes, 8. pi. L.R. 334. 
Beauty, beaute, R. 550. 
Benediction, benediction, Lit. 

216 (1327). 


Bcnison, benisoun, F.C. 76 ; 

benison, R.W. 100 (1381). 
Bemars, berners, pi. F.F. 386. 
Besant, besant, V.H. 2 1 ; besantz, 

pi. F.F. 386; besanz, W.W. 

Bcver (drink), boivre, «. F.C. 46; 

beiure, K. 3236. 
Bible, bible, R.W. 139 (1392). 
Bier, biere, E. 294 ; bere, W. W. 

Bill (in law), bille, «. F.C. 58. 
Binnacle, babitacle (dwelling), 

C.A. p. 115, 1. 39. 
Bise (north wind), bise, R. 

Blasphemed, pp, blasf emc, W.W. 

Blasphemy, blasfemie, B. ii. 213. 
Blue, blu, 8. R.W. 36 (1360) ; 

blew, 84 (1361). 
Board; overboard, outre bord, 

F.F. 397. 
Bobance, bobaunce, «. (boasting), 

F.C. 36. 
BoU, V. builir, R. 942. 
Border, bordure, R.W. 73 (1376); 

F.F. 331. 
Borsholder, borghesaldre (de 

Birchilton en Thanet), Lit. 

428, 436 (1332). 
Bowels, boeles, pi. F.C. 45. 
Braches (dogs), brachez, pi. R. 

Bran, s. bren, B. i. 27. 
Brunches, 8. pi. braunches, R. 

600; branches, W.W. 11088. 
Brand, brand (sword), R. 323. 
Brandish, brandir, R. 3947. 
Brattice, brctesche, R. 1296. 
Bray, v. braier (to cry as an 

infant), W.W. 4458; brait, 

pr. 8. (cries as a heron), V.H. 

Bream; bremes, pi. Y.g. 177. 
Brooch, broche, B. ii. 11. 
Brothel, cf. bordel {id,\ W.W. 

Bruised, brusc, pp. B. i. 123. 

Buckle, bocle, «. R.W. 189 

Bugle (horn), bugle, F.F. 837. 
Buoy, boye, B.B. i. 46. 
Bushel, 9. bussel, F.C. 45; B. L 

But, V. ; bute, pp. R. 628; butez, 

pp. pi. (pushed), L.R. 138; 

bota,^/. 8. (pushed), F.F. 897. 
Buttery, botellerye, R.W. 129 

Button, botun, W.W. 11668. 

Cables, cables, pi. B.B. i. 98. 
Caldron, 8. caudrun, W.W. 1742 

(p. 201). 
Cape, chape, «. W.W. 2658; 

L.R. 208. 
Cardinal, cardinales, «. pL L.R. 

Cark, carker, v. (to load), P.N. 

Carol, 8. karole (dance), L.R. 

Carpenter, carpenters, B.pL F.C. 

Carry, v. ; carie, pp. L.R. 850. 
Cathedral, chathedrales, adf.pL 

L.R. 206 ; ^eglise cathedrede, 

R.W. 31 (1360); B. ii. 206. 
Cavern, caveme, F.F. 378. 
Ceiling, ceel (tester of a bed), 

R.W. 51 (1361); celure (id.) 

73 (1376). 
Celestial, celestiel, R.W. 177 

Cemetery, cimeteire, R. 828; 

cymitere, B. i. 28. 
Cendal, cendal, W.W. 10004. 
Censer, encenser, R.W. 31 

(1360); sensures, pi. R.W. 

220 (1400); encensers, pi. 

B. i. 214. 
Certes, certes, F.F. 857. 
Certification, certificacion, Y./. 

5; Y.a. 314; certificacioun, 

B. ii. 217. 
Certify, v. certifier, Y./ 5; oerti— 

fiez,pp. B. ii. 103. 


Chafe; se chaafeient (warmed 

themselves), W.W. 4788. 
ChaUce, chaliz, R.W. 24; W.W. 

7315; B. i. 214. 
Challengeable, chalengable, B. 

ii. 360. 
Chamberlain, chamberleyn» L.R. 

126; chamburlein, W. W.5691 ; 

chamberlene, pi. R, 807. 
Chancel chancel, W.W. 6808; 

R. 331. 
Chancellor, chanceler, L.R. 312. 
Channel, cbanele, B. i. 218. 
Chantry, «. chaunterie, B. i. 317; 

chanterie, Lit. 100 (1323). 
Chapel, chapele, L.R. 256. 
^plain, 8. chapeleyn, L.R. 148 ; 

cbapellein, Y./. 139. 
^laplet, cbapelet, R.W. 51 
( 1361) ; chapelet de rose, F.E. 

^pter-house, cbapitle. Lit. 42 

largcrs (dishes), chargours, 
li.W. 24. 

barter, chartre, «. F.C. 40; Lit. 
e8 (1322). 

^asables, chesibles, R.W. 48 

^cer, sad, mome chere, F.F. 

Xekker (chess-board), eschekker 
imprinted eschelker), E.F. 324 ; 
cschecker, 374. 
^eqaered, chekere, pp, R.W. 25 

::ie8S, echeks, W.W. 1531 ; 

esches, W.W. 4106; eschekes, 

F.F. 324. 
tievalier (knight), s, chivaler, 

P.N. 498. 
Kdeftain, chiefteyn, L.R. 334 ; 

cheuetaignc, R. 672. 
Iiine, leschine, F.F. 299. 
'^ivalrous, cheualerus, R. 968. 
Rivalry, chevalerie, R. 274, 

F.F. 333 ; chivalerie, P.N. 

98; LR. 166; Y./. 321. 
^oice, 8, chois, R. 890. 

Christianity, crestienete, W.W. 

4114; crestiente, R. 1980. 
Ciclatoun, siclatun, W.W. 5470. 
Circumstance, circumstance, 

W.W. 10359. 
Circumvention, circumuenciun, 

W.W. 5092. 
Claim, 8, ; cleyms, pi, B. i. 20. 
Clasps, claspes, pi. R.W. 181 

Clergy, clergie (men), R. 615. 
Closet, closet, R.W. 182 (1399). 
Coasting, costeant, pres, pi, F.F. 

Coat, cote, «. B. i. 64. 
Coat of mail, cote de maille, 

R.W. 221 (1400). 
Coffins (baskets), coffins, C.A. 

Cogitation, cogitasiun, W.W. 

1139; cogitaciun, 1143. 
Cognisance, conissaimce, 8. Y./. 

16, 17. 
Collar, coler, R.W. 155 (1397). 
Collusion, colusion, F.C. 40 ; 

collusion. Lit. 396 (1331). 
Combat, v, ; combatirent, pi, pi, 

P.N. 174. 
Comet, commete, L.R. 82 ; 

comete, L.R. 130. 
Comfort, cunfort, 8, R. 234. 
Command, comand, 8, C.A. 860 ; 

R. 1075. 
Commissary ; comissaries, pL 

F.C. 89. 
Commodity, comodito (profit}, 

B. ii. 69. 
Commons, communes, P.N. 244. 
Communion, communion, W.W. 

681 (p. 422). 
Compass, 8, compas, C.A. 709. 
Compassed, compassez, pp, pi, 

C.A. 641. 
Compiled, compilai, 1 pL 8, 

W.W. 12726. 
Complain, compleindre, v. R.W. 

128 (1392). 
Conception, conceptiun, W.W. 



Concubinage, concubinage, £. ii. 

Concubine, «. concubine, B. i. 

120, 232; ii. 242; F.C. 3. 
Coney ; Conies, coniys, pi, B. i. 

Confederation, confederacioun, 

B. ii. 42. 
Confirmation, confirmaciun, 

W.W. 7207. 
Confused, confus, pp, C.A.. 730. 
Conjunction, conjunctioun, B. ii. 

Conjured, cuniure, pp. W.W. 

3613; I conjure thee, je te 

conjur, F.F. 283. 
Conquer; conquirent, pt. pL 

P.N. 173. 
Conqueror, conquerour, F.C. 35. 
Conquest, cunquest, «. E. 111. 
Consanf^iinity, consanguinite, 

W.W. 5230. 
Consent, consent, s. B. i. 44. 
Consistory, consistorie, F.C. 54. 
Conspiracy, conspiracie, sing, 

F.C. 40. 
Contagion, contagiun, W.W. 

Contec= contest, L.R. 306. 
Continuance, continuance, B. ii. 

Contrariety, contrariete, B. ii. 

Contrarious, contrarious, F.F. 


Contrite, contriz, adj. pi, W.W. 

Contrition, contriciun, "W-W. 

Copes, copes, pL R.W. 150 

Copy, copie, «. F.C. 51 ; Lit. 

408 (1331). 
Coral, coraU, «. R.W. 180(1399). 
Cord, corde, «. R. 991; F.F. 309; 

cordes, pi. F.C. 87. 
Cordwainer, cordewaner, F.C. 11. 

Couch, couche, s. F.F. 382. 
Count (earl), counte, F.F. 823 ; 

pi, countes, P.N. 120. 
Counterpane (counterpart of a 

deed),cuntrepan,W.W. 10646. 
Counterpane (quilt), cutepoint, 

«. R.W. 36 (1360); quilt 

poynt, 100 (1381). 
Countour (accountant?), B. i. 

Courageous, coragous, F.F. 821. 
Coursers (horses), pi, courseis, 

P.N. 263. 
Courteous, curtois, P.N. 85. 
Courtiers, curteours, L.R. 168. 
Covenant, cuuenant, K. 863. 
Covered, covere, pp, R.W. 156 

Coverlet, coverlet (#w), R.W. 100 

(1381) ; coverlitz, pL 181 

Coverture, coverture, Y./. 73. 
Covine=treachery, L.R. 104. 
Coward, coward, F.F. 298 ; V.H. 

Cowardice, cuardie, R. 1497. 
Cramped (disabled), crampoz, 

pp, pi. B. i. 90. 
Cratch (crib), creche, W.W. 259 

(p. 417). 
Crests, crestes, pi, R.W. 82 

Crime, crime, B. ii. 844 ; B.B. 

i. 324. 
Crocket (ornament for head), 

croket, W.W. 3305. 
Crooks, pi, croks, W.W. 4565. 
Crosier (of a bishop), croce, R. 

Cross, croce, L.R. 148; croyz, 

L.R. 186. 
Crucifix, 8. crucifix, R.W. 184 

(1392); L.R, 82. 
Cruel, adj. fern, cruelle, P.N. 115. 
Cruets, cruets, pi, R.W. 26 

Cull (gather); coilli, pp, L.R. 

Cure = charge, L.R. 150. 


Cumnt (price), coraunt, adj, B. 

Curtains, cnrtejns, ph II. W. 5 1 

Cudrions, qnissyns, pi, R.W. 35 

Custom, costume, %. E. 285; 

costume, L E. 162. 
Cutler; ef. cotel (knife). B. i. 37. 
Cypress, cypres, E.W. 154 


Bagger, dagne, B.B. i. 316; 

dages, j»/. E.W. 157 (1397). 
Danegeld, L.E. 180. 
Dance, r. danser, V.H. 1 9. 
Danger; fors de lur dangler (out 
of their power to harm), E. 
Date, date, «. B. i. 271. 
Deacon, deakene, W.W. 2179; 
deknes, pL E.W. 123 (1392). 
Dean, t, den, L.E. 256. 
Debar, debarrer, B. i. 305. 
Mate, debat, «. Y./. 65 ; L.E. 

decease, deces, E.W. 23. - 
^^eceive, deceivre, r. W.W. 2896. 
decretals, decretals, pi. E.W. 31 
• (1360). 
dedication, dedication, F.F. 302. 
■*^^face, deface, pr, 8. attbj. Lit. 

128 (1324). 
^^f active, defective, adj.fem. B. 
j,^ i. 205 ; ii. 152. 
^^finition, difinicioun, B. ii. 263. 
""^flowered (as meadows), def- 
flouris, pp. pL (despoiled of 
j.^^ flowers), V.H. 3. 
"degraded, pp. degrade, L.E. 146; 
,^ desgradez, pi. B. i. 200. 
^elay, delai, L.E. 128. 
:Oelight, %. dclit, L.E. 150. 
^^eny, denye, pr. s. B. ii. 156. 
J^eodand, deodande, B. i. 16, 39. 
X)ereiii ; cf. disreyne, pp. B. i. 

I)e8cants (modes of song), des- 
caunz, r.F. 398. 

Descry, v. descrire (to describe), 

W.W. 10320. 
Desert, desert, s. (wilderness), 

E.W. 37 (1360). 
Desparplia, pt. s. a dispersed, 

L.E. 182, 296. 
Despise, despiser, v. L.E. 294. 
Despiser, despisour, B. ii. 830. 
Despoil ; despoille, pp. L.E. 202. 
Detains, pr. s. detient, W.W. 

Detractors, pi. detractors*, W.W. 

Dialogue, dialoge, «. W.W. 1918. 
Diapered, diapreez, E.W. 78 

Dickers (of hides), dikers, B.B. 

i. 140. 
Diete=food, L.E. 116. 
Dignity, dignete, s. L.E. 146. 
Diligence, diligence, 8. F.C. 77; 

Lit. 374 (1331). 
Diligent, diligentz, pi. Lit. 298 

Diminution, diminocion, a.'W.W. 

Disarray, 8. desarroy, P.N. 483. 
Discharge, 8. descharge, B.B. i. 

Discoloured, descoloree, jB>p. F.F. 

Discomfited, pp. disconfitz, P.N. 

Discomfiture, 8. disconfitore, 

L.E. 132. 
Discontinued, discontinue, pp. 

Y.f. 103. 
Discord, descord, 8. L.E. 162 ; 

discord, L.E. 164. 
Discordant, descordaontz, pi, B. 

i. 2. 
Dislodged, pt. 8. refl. se deslogea, 

P.N. 372. 
Disloyalty, desleaute, L.E. 354. 
Disours (story-tellers), disours, 

F.F. 293. 
Displayed, pp. pi. desplaez, L.E. 

336 ; pp. 8. desplae, B. i. 



Bisseisedy disseisi, pp, Y/. 201. 
Disseisin, «. novel disseisine, Y./. 

6 ; B. ii. 156. 
Disseisor, disseisour, B. ii. 291. 
Dissension, «. dissencioon, L.B. 

Distinction, destinctinn, W.W. 

4598 ; distinctiun. C.A. 1480. 
Distrainable, destreynables, pL 

B. i. 299. 
Distress, «. destresse, F.C. 4 ; 

distresse (distraint). Lit. 406 

(1331); destresce, B. ii. 48. 
Disturbance, dcsturbance, L.R. 

292 ; destourbance, B. ii. 28. 
Diversify, diversier, B. ii. 3. 
Diversity, «. diversite, Y./. 19. 
Divine, «. deuin, W.W. 2980. 
Divorce, divorce, «. L.R. 204 ; 

B. ii. 264 ; devorce, B. ii. 

Document, document, W.W. 

Dole (grief), duel, F.F. 297. 
Dolorous, doleruse, /. W.W 

1347; L.R. 168; R. 1120. 
Dolour (grief), dolour, «. L.R 

Dominical, dominical, L.R. 330 
Donor, donour, «. B. i. 220 ; ii 

Double, adj. doble, C.A. 1631 

8. le double, F.F. 336. 
Dowry, dowarie, «. R.W. 20 

B. ii. 132, 236 ; douwarrie, B 

ii. 76. 
Dragon, dragun, «. L.R. 224. 
Draper, draper, «. F.C. 91. 
Dredge, v, ; draggcnt {aUo drag- 

guent), pr, pL B.B. i. 156. 
Dub, r. addubber, L.R. 320; 

adubba, pt s. F.F. 825. 
Ducbess, duchesse, F.F. 401. 
Ducby, «. ducbee, L.R. 156. 
Dungeon, «. dongon, C.A. 622. 

Eagle, egle, «. L.R. 248. 
Easement, esement, Lit. 


Eclipse, «. eclips, L.R. V 

eclipse, 326. 
Edifices, edifices, $. pi. 

ings), B. i. 214. 
Edify, edefier, r. (to bi 

ii. 251. 
Effusion, effnsioun, B. i 
Eisel, eisel (vinegar), C. 
Embezzle ; " aussi enti 

sang [sans] rien ei 

enbesstller com jeo les 

elle;" R.W. 155 (13 
Embowelled, enbowele, 

Emir, amiraud, L.R. 29 
Emperor, emperour, L.I 
Empress, emperice, 

11914; L.R. 170. 
Enamelled, enamellez, / 

69 (1376). 
Encline, encliner, v. 

Encumbrance, encum 

W.W. 11544. 
Endenture, endenture, 
Endited, enditerunt, pt. 

dieted), Y./. 19. 
Endorsement, endoseme 

Endowed, endowe^ pp, B 

Endure, endurer, v. C.A 
Engage; engaga, pL «. 

pledge), L.R. 164. 
Engender; engendra,^?/ 

Enlarge, enlarger, v. B. 

F.F. 287. 
Enquire; enquerant, pt 

Enrich; enrichist, pt, 

Enrolment, enroullemei 

166; enrouellement, 
Enticement, enticbemeni 
Entirety, enterite, Y. 

entierteez, pL B. ii. 7 
Entrails, entrailles, L.! 

entrayles, F.F. 318. 



Entreat; cf. entreter de, to treat 

concerning, F.C, 48. 
Entiy, entree, «. R. 574. • 
Enveloped, envolapez, pp, pL 

F.C. 38. 
EnTenom, envenimer, r. R. 112. 
EoTiron; envirounerent, pt, pL 

L.R. 196 ; envyrona, pt, «. 

F.F. 280. 
Envy, envie, «. (malice), P.N. 93. 
Epiphany, «. £piphaiiio« L.K. 1 30. 
Equipment, eskippement, £.B. i. 

Equipped, eskippez,* B.B. 

Escheater, «. escbetour, F.C. 88 ; 

Escrow, escrouwe, B. ii. 71. 
Escutcheon, escucbon, R.W. 67 

Esplee; espies, pi. X.g. 307. 
Espouse ; espusa, pt. s. E. 622 ; 

espose, /?/?. L.E. 164. 
Espy ; espye, pp. F.C. 36. 
Eaqoire, esquier, R. 1418 ; es- 

qoiers, pi. L.R. 346. 
Establish, establisse, 1 pr. i. 

R.W. 184 (1399). 
Estres (inward parts of a house), 

estres, pi. F.C. 85. 
Estur= fight, L.R. 182; estour, 

F.P. 303. 
Ewer, 8. ewer. R.W. 27 (1360); 

ewers,/?/. R.W. 24 (1360). 
Exaltation, exaltation, L.R. 252. 
Excusable, escnsable, B. ii. 228. 
Exile, r. ; exilia, pt. s. L.R. 1 04. 
Expedient, expedient, R.W. 141 

^^penses, expensez, pi. R.W. 

Exploit, esplait, «. L.R. 340. 
Exsequies (funeral), exequies, 

R.W. 145 (1397); L.R. 190. 

Face to face, face a face, C.A. 

Eail, without, sanz faille, P.N. 


Faint ; ef. iemte,f.pp. (feigned), 

W.W. 11145. 
Famine, famine, W.W. 12268, 

L.R. 144 ; famyne, F.C. 79. 
Fardel, «. fardel, L.A. 549; 

faidelx, pi. B.B. i. 396. 
Farmer, former, s. L.A. 220, 

317; B. ii. 138. 
Fealty, fealto, R. 964. 
Fee simple, fee simple, Y./. 339. 
Fee tail, fee tayle, B. i. 310. 
Fermented, fermente, pp. W.W. 

Fess (in heraldry), fes, F.F. 

Fever, fevres, L.R. 156. 
Fierce, adf. fiers, R. 656; fiere, 

/em, F.F. 322. 
Final, final, adj. L.R. 98. 
Fine, adj. fyn, P.N. 318. 
Finials, finols, pL R.W. 47 

Flail; cf. flaele, pp. (beaten), 

W.W. 5676. 
Flame, 8. flamme, L.R. 144 ; 

flambe, F.F. 383. 
Flank, flank (side), F.F. 398 ; 

flanc, R. 1883. 
Fleur-de-lis, fleur de lis, V.H. 7. 
Float, r. floter, F.F. 369; 

fiotant, pres. pt. L.R. 78. 
Florins, 8. pi. florenes, L.R. 332; 

florins de or, Lit. 210 (1327). 
Flotsam, floteson, B.B. i. 82. 

[The quotation is — ^'ceulx qui on 
trouve sur la mer tonnel ou pippe de 
vin, flotants balles de marchandises, ou 
autre chose quelconque comme Jlut$' 

Foil (leaf of a book) ; foile. 
Cursor Mundi\ pt. v. p. 5 ; 
foil, W.W. 4156; foyle (a 
leaf), F.F. 292; foiles (leaves), 
B. i. 371. 

Foison, fuyson, 8. P.N. 425. 

Folly, folie, 8. R. 443. 

Forage, forage, F.C. 80. 

Forcer (box), forcer, W.W. 1746 
(p. 201). 


Forclose ; pt. suhf. forcloreit, 

L.R. 258. 
Eorest, forest, «. E. 515; L.E. 

Forjudged, forjuge, jE|p. B. ii. 42. 
Fork (of a tree), fure, R. 602. 
FortaUce, fortolesce, R. 1295. 
Fortresses, fortelets, L.R. 352. 
Fort«, fortz, pL F F. 342. 
Foss, fosse. Lit. 62 (1823) ; F.F. 

284 ; fossez, pL B. ii. 67. 
Foundation, fundation, R.W. 71 

Foundered, enfounda, pt s. L.R. 

186; enfoundry, pp, (said of 

a ship), F.F. 372. 
Frail (basket), freelle, L.A. [i.e. 

Liber Albus], 229. 
FraUty, freletee, R.W. 66 (1376). 
Freight, «. fret, frette, B.B. i. 

Freight, r. freter, fretter, B.B. 

i. 112. 
Frenzy, frenesi, W.W. 11954. 
Fret, 8, (in heraldry), frett, 

R.W. 151 (1397). 
Fry (of fish), fry, B.B. i. 156, 


Gallop, 8. ; es galopz, pi, (into a 

gallop), R. 1624. 
Gauds (trinkets), gaudes, R.'W. 

182 (1399). 
Gay, adj. pi, guais, also gais, 

W.W. 3109 ; gay, pi V.H. 1. 
Glorify, glorifier, C.A. 101. 
Glorious, glorious. Lit. 212 

Gorge (throat), gorge, W.W. 

1466; R. 4084. 
Gourds, pi. gurdos, "W.W. 2554. 
Grafts, graffes, pi. B. i. 217. 
Grails (graduals), grayels, R.W. 

25 (1360). 
Grampus, grampais, B.B. i. 152. 
Grandeur, graundur,"W. W. 1962. 
Grantor, grantour, Y./. 161. 
Grave, adj. (heavy), grave, B. i. 


Grease, gresse, W.W. 52 

grece, F.F. 315. 
Grew (Greek), griu, C.A. 11 
Griddle (utensil for cooki 

gredil, W.W. 1744. 
Grievance, greyaunce, Lit. 

Griffins, grifPons, pL R.V. 

Grocer, groser, F.C. 91. 
Guildhall, gildhalle, 8. Y.y. 
Gules, goules, F.F. 295. 
Gutter, goter, L.A. [i.e. I 

Albus], 584. 
Gyves, gives, pL F.C. 89. 

Habergeon, haubergon, F.F. 
Habitations, habitacions,/?/. 

Hamlet, hamelle, Y./. 17; hi 

letz, pL B. i. 253. 
Hanapers, hanapers, pi. I 

102 (1381). 
Harbingers, pi. herberieura 

Haste, 8. haste, F.C. 80 ; I 

29 (1360). 
Hatches (of a ship), hac< 

B.B. i. 30. 
Haughty, hauteine, /. (hi 

C.A. 629; hauteyn, F.F. 
Hearse (frame over a b< 

herce, R.W. 45 (1361); 

Heir, heir, R. 657. 
Hermitage, hermitage, "V^ 

Heron, heron, V.H. 4 ; ha 

Hideous, hisdus, R. 944 ; hid* 

fern. F.F. 379; hidouses 

L.R. 336. 
Hobelers (horsemen), hob* 

pi. F.C. 89. 
Hoe, howe, W.W. 1451. 
Horrible, horrible, F.C. 3; "VI 

1068; orrible, P.N. 305. 
Hotchpot, hochepot, B. i. 

ii. 74, 79. 


Eounngs, honces, pL E.W. 35 

(1360). . 
Humiliatioii, bumiliaciun, W. W. 

EosbflndiT, hosebondrye, Lit. 

356 (1332;. 
Hvpocrisy, ypocrisie, W.W. 


Hypocrite, ypocrite, WW. 325 1 . 
Hyssop, ysope, W.W. 8219 (p. 


Idiot, idiot, Y.y. 109. 

Ignorant, ignorantz, pi. E.W. 

Illainines, illomine, pr. «• C.A. 
680;, pp,/em.'F,¥. 
Impertinent (irrelevant), imper- 
tinent, Y.y. 281. 
Imploring, emplorant, pres. pt, 
W.W. 12569; emploraunt, 
F F. 393. 
Impossible, impossible, B. i. 

239. ^ 
ImpOTerished, enpoveriz, pp, pi, 
F.C. 39; empoveretz, Lit. 426 
Imprisoned, emprisonee, L.R. 

324 ; emprisonne, BB. i. 34. 
Incomparable, incomparable, 

It W. 164 (1397). 
Incontinence, incontinence, 

W.W. 1307. 
"Inconvenience, inconvenience, 

5. i. 205. 
•*^crease, «. encrez, B. i. 218 ; 
J. ^ncrees. ii. 238. 
'^^credulities, incrcdulitez, pi, 
. W.W. 7290. 

-^dented (in heraldry), endentee, 
. F.F. 349. 
Eduction, enduccioun, B. i. 228; 

induction, Lit. 186 (1326). 
^Xiifinity, infinite, W.W. 10968. 
^'^form, enibrmer, v. Lit. 66 

•-^habit, enhabiter, R.W. 93 

Iniquity, iniquite, C.A. 1119; 

W.W. 3989. 
Ink, ynk, B.B. i. 404. 
Innocence, innocence, W.W. 

Insensed (informed), ensensez, 

pL B. i. 32. 
Inserted, inserteez, pi, E.W. 162 

Institution, institucion, Y./. 27 1 ; 

institution. Lit. 186 (1326). 
Intent, entente, W.W. 2127. 
Inter, enterrer. Lit. 522 (1332). 
Intercessors, intercessurs, pL 

W.W. 9877. • 
Interlaced, enterlasce, j>p. W.W. 

8055 (p. 429). 
Interment, enterrement, R.W. 

23; enterement, L.E. 158. 
Interpreted, interpreta, pt. b, 

W.W. 1192. 
Intrusion, intrusioun, B. ii. 3. 
Inveigled, en-vogly, pt. %. 

(blinded), L.R. 114. 
Invention, invencioun (a find- 
ing), L.R. 344. 
Isle, lisle. Lit. 80 (1322). 

Jack, seint iake (St. James), 

W.W. 7867. 
Jangle, iangler (to chatter as a 

magpie), W.W. 1096. 
Jasper, jaspre, R.W. 27 (1360). 
Jaundice, iauniz, W.W. 3885. 
Jelly; cf. gele (cold), W.W. 

Jeopardy, in, on jupardie, Y./. 

171 ; en jeupartie, B. i. 318. 
Jet, 8. get, R.W. 182 (1399); 

geet, F.r. 359. 
Jetsam, gettesone (casting over 

of goods), B.B. i. 96 ; geteson, 

170 ; gctteson, 126. 
Jew, iu, 8. W.W. 2841. 
Jewel, juel, F.F. 385; ioueles, 

pi. W.W. 11845. 
Jollity, joliete (mirth), P.X. 

Joust, V. iuster, W.W. 4250. 


Joustcrs, m8tur8,/?/.'W.W. 4244. 
Jousts, jousstes, pi, F.C. 62 ; 

justes, B. i. 125 ; jostes, F.F. 

Juggler, jogelour, F.F. 347 ; 

iugelurs, pi W.W. 3675. 
Jugglery, jogelerie, F.F. 347. 
JustiGable, justifiable, R.W. 163 

Justified, justifia, pt. i. Y.y. 


Kerchief, keverchief, R.W. 100 

Lace, 17. lascer, L.R. 170 ; laciez, R. 1521. 
Lagan, lagan, B.B. i. 84, 150, 

Lantern, lanteme, B.B. i. 16. 
Larceny, larcine, F.C. 59. 
Largesse, largesce, C.A. 740. 
Launch, v. launcier (to throw a 

dart), P.N. 270 ; cf. lanche, 

8, (a lance). V.H. 9. 
Lautid (forest), lande, R. 5 1 1 ; 

launde, F.F. 284. 
Lay people, la laye gent, W.W. 

Lecher, lechur, W.W. 2315. 
Lectern, leitrun, R. 297. 
Legend, legende, R.W. 31 ( 1 360). 
Lepers, lepres, pL R.W. 153 

Lien, lien (bond), B. ii. 41. 
Lilies, lilies, pL R.W. 227 

Limehounds, liemicrs, pi. R. 

Limitation, limitacioun, R.W. 

139 (1392). 
Limner, lymnour, L.A. [Liber 

Albus], 715. 
Lists (for a tournament), lices, 

B.B. i. 318. 
Litter, littero (bed). L.R. 86; 

litere (carriage), P.N. 369; R. 

Lizards, lesartes, ph F.F. 378. 

Lodmanage, lodmanage 

age), B.B. i. 104;.lodem: 

Loveday, jour damour, F.I 
Luces, luces (pikes, fi^sl 

Y.y. 177. 
Lunatics, lunatics, pi. 


Mail-bag, male (a bag), 

Mail, black, maille (pie 

money), W.W. 10780; I 

(halfpence), B. i. 29. 
Maimed, mahaigneez, pp. 

i. 90 {see also 98, 100 

Malicious, malicius, pL R. 
Malignity, malignete, 

Malison, maleicon, C.A. 1) 
Maltalent (ill-will), mall 

F.F. 351; maltalent, h 
Mangled, demangle, pp. 

Mangonel, mangunel, R. 

magnels, pi, F.C. 79. 
Mansuetude, mansuetude, 

Manual, s. manuel, W.W. 
Marsh, mareis (Lat. ge 

martscarum), Lit. 140; m 

F.F. 287 ; lusage ma 

(marsh customs), Li 

Master, mestre, W.W. 

mestre tour (master-t 

F.F. 380. 
Mattras, matrass, R.W 

(1381); materas. 181 ( 
Mazer, maser, R.W. 25 ( 
Mean time, in the, en le 

temps, B. i. 351. 
Memorial, memorial, s. R. 

Menials, servants meignalz 

219 (1400). 
Mesne, writs of, brefs de 

B. i. 255. 


\ Mine, r. miner (to undermiDe), 
Lfi. 306. 
Minen^ miners, pi. W.W. 7665. 
Miiutrel, menestral, F.E. 348; 

V.H. 9. 
IGnstrelsy, menestralsie, F.F. 

IGsnl, miseal, E.W. 71 (1376). 
^litigation, mitigacioun, B. i. 

104; ii. 215. 
Moat (eminence), mote, E.F. 

Mocked, moka, pi. s. F.C. 3 ; 

mokant, pres. pt. F.F. 340. 
Moil; cL moiller (to wet), L.A.. 

[liber Albua], 724. 
Mortars of wax, mortiers de cire, 
ft.W. 98 (1381); morters de 
cire, 147 (1897). 
Motes (notes on a horn), meotz, 

FJ. 378. 
Morement, meouement, W.W» 

I Mule, muyl, Lit. 296 (1329) ; 
mule, K. 3069. 
Mullets (in heraldry), molets, 

/»/.RW. 181 (1399). 
Multitude, multitude, F.C. 78; 

LR. 132. 
Murage, murage, B. i. 75. 
Murdered, murdriz, pp. pi. R. 
1246 ; mordrirent, pL pi. R. 
^Urmur, «. murmure, Lit. 410 

"■•Urrain, murine, L.R. 168 ; 
^ morine, F.C. 39. 
"^lise, r. ; musant, pres. pt. 
J. (looking about), K. 2031. 
"^nskets (hawks so called), 
^ muskez. Lit. 486 (1332). 
^jrrh, mirre, W.W. 12064. 
^^jstery (trade, craft); cf. mester 
(employment), C.A. 1697. 

^^akers (drums), nakaires, F.C. 


T^ecessary, necessane, Y./. 117. 

^on-tenure, nontenure, Y.y . 28 1 . 

Note; nous fasoms la note (we 
make the note), Y./. 187 ; 
note (note of music), F.F. 

Nouch, noche, R.W. 50 (1361). 

Obit, obit, R.W. 98 (1381). 
Obstinate, obstinat,W.W. 1 1339. 
Octaves, uitavos, L R. 146. 
Official, official, s. (?), F.C. 54 ; 

8. Lit. 178 (1326). 
Opportunity, oportunito, W.W. 

Orlok; orlokes, pi. (rowlocks), 

L. A. [Liber AlbusJ, 235, 237, 

Ostrich, ostruce, R. W. 67 (1 376). 
Outhees (outcry), huteys, B. i. 

Outrage, utrage, L.R. 102 ; C.A. 

Outrageous, outrageus, pi. 

(rash), P.N. 166; utraious, 

L.R. 1 08 ; utrageoses, pi. fern. 

B. i. 94; outrageux, pi. m. 

V.H. 18. 
yes ! , oyez, B. ii. 39 ; B.B. i. 

Oysters, oistres, B.B. i. 156. 

Packets, pacquetz, pi. B.B. i. 

Painted, jB>p. pointe, P.N. 318. 
Painter, peinteur, C.A. p. 117, 

1. 107. 
Pair, s. peire, F.C. 89 ; paire, 

R.W. 139 (1392). 
Pale (stake), pel, W.W. 2566. 
Palsy, paralesi, W.W. 10434. 
Pannage, pannage, B. ii. 69. 
Paradise, paradis, W.W. 2138 ; 

V.H. 13. 
Parson, parsone, W.W. 4414. 
Parsonage, personage, Y./. 7. 
Paste, past, W.W. 7400. 
Paten, patyne, R.W. 09 (1376). 
Patriarch, patriarc, L.R. 244 ; 

patriarch, W.W. 5584. 
Patrimony, patrimonie, L.R. 276. 


Patronage, patronage. Lit. 42 

Pause, 8, pose, R. 1814. 
Pa vise, pavois, B.B. i. 314. 
Paw, powe, F.F. 383. 
Peaceable, pesible, B. i. 343. 
Peak, the (in Derbyshire), le 

Peeke, F.F. 288. 
Peel (baker's), pael (a frying- 
pan), Liber Albus, 261 ; paiel, 

675, 719; paele, W.W. 1742 

(p. 201). 
Penant (penitent), penant, L.E. 

Pennon, penon (flag), R-W. 68 

(1376); penun, R. 2681. 
Pension, enpension, Lit. 100 

(1323) ; pensioun, B. ii. 88. . 
Perform, performer (to provide), 

F.C. 71 ; performir (to per- 
form), R.W. 41 (1360); Lit. 

214 (1327). 
Perjure, se perjurent, pr. pi. 

W.W. 2917. 
Persecution, persecution, F.C. 8. 
Physicien, phisicien, B. i. 34 ; 

fisicien, W.W. 10301. 
Pie (magpie), pie, W.W. 1096. 
Pierced, pierca, pt. 8, F.F. 366. 
Pilgrimage, pelnmage, C.A. p. 

116, 1. 55; pelerinage, L.R. 

138 ; pelnnage. Lit. 200 

Pill (to rob), piller, v. B.B. i. 

. Pitoh, ». peiz, W.W. 5416. 
Pitcher, picher, W.W. 7580. 
Piteous, piteous (kind), W.W. 

Plains, *. pi. plaines, C.A. 1534. 
Plank, planche, R. 366. 
Plant, V. planter, B. i. 288. 
Plumes, plumes, pi, R.W. 67 

Plunged, ploungee, pp. f- F.C. 

87 ; plunga, pt. «. (sank), 

W.W. 569 (p. 421); se plunge, 

pr. 8. B. i. 241. 
Plurality, pluralite, B. ii. 144. 

Poignant, poignant (] 

W.W. 7378. 
Poison, poysoun, B. i. 3' 
Polished, poliz, pp, % 

Pollards (clipped coins), ] 

F.C. 27. 
Pomps, pompes, pi. W.'V 
Pontage, pontage, B. i. 
Popinjays, papejayes (] 

R.W. 85 (1355). 
Porpoise, porpais, B.B. i 
Portcullis, portecolyz, F 
Porter, portour, Lit. 40 

porter, F.F. 339. 
Posnet, pozonet (little p< 

Possessor, possessour, B. 

ii. 275. 
Postern, posteme, F.F. 2! 

Potence (staff), potenc 

Power, poair, P.N. 145. 
Preached, preche, pp. L 
Premises, premisses (f 

things), B.B. i. 6. 
Presumptive, presumpti 

Prey, praye, F.C. 79 ; i 

Priest ; cf. prestre, W.\ 
Princess, princesse, R 

Prioress, prioresse, Y./. 
Procuracy, procuracie (] 

attorney), Lit. 158 (1 
Procurator, procuratour 

Lit. 158 (1325). 
Procurer, procurour (su 

B. i. 32. 
ProflPer, 8. profre, F.F. 2 
Proverbs, proverbes, pi 

Prowess, proesce, P.N. 6 

esse, F.F. 367. 
Prudence, prudence, C.i 
Psalmist, psalmistre, 




Publican, publican, W.W. 10141. 

Pumshable, punisables, pL £. 

Purify, purifier, v. W.W. 12237 
{m 12166). 

Puipresture, purpresture, £. i. 

Pursue, puiBuer, F.C. 76 ; pur- 
sore, B. L 93 ; pursiwre, P.F. 

Puitenance, apuitenanoes, pi. 

Quaintly, queintement (well), 

F.C. 47. 
Quartered, quartere, pp. F.C. 

Quay; keye, B.B. i. 126; la 

kaye seint Paul (St. Paul's 

Wharf), Lit. 432 (1332); 

kayes,^/. Lit. 48 (1321). 
Quilt, quilte, R.W. 74 (1376). 
Quires, quaiers,^?/. R. W. (1360). 

My, ralier, v. R. 1618. 
Havishment, ravissement, Y./. 

348; Y.y. 147. 
Kay (striped cloth), draps de 

large raye, Lit. 40 (1318). 
Becord, t?. recorder, P.N. 41 ; 

recorde, pp. Y./. 23 ; W.W. 

Kecreant, recreant, F.F. 345. 
Rectify, rectifier, W.W. 65. 
Regretted, regretoit, imperf. %. 

P.N. 858; regreta, ^^. «. F.F. 

^ins (bridles), redncs, pi. R. 

Pleased, relesse, pp. L.R. 

^main, remayne, pr. s. suhf. B. 

^medy, v. remedier, R.W. 146 

Repair, s. repaire (resort), R. 

^pentance, repentance, W.W. 


Replication, replicacioun, B. i. 

Reply, V. replier, Y./. 7 ; replia, 

pt. s. 353. 
Rere-suppers, rere -supers, pi. 

W.W. 5785. 
Resemblance,resemblance, W. W. 

Reservation, reservacion, Y.y. 

Residue, s. la residue, R.W. 39 

Resign, resignerai (I will resign), 

L.R. 148. 
Retreat, to sound the, soner la 

retrete, B.B. i. 427. 
Respited, respiterent, pt. pi. F.F. 

Revels, reveaux, pi. P.N. 474. 
Reverence, reverence, L.R. 210; 

C.A. p. 124, 1. 311. 
Reward, 8. reward, R.W. 86 

Reviled, reuilie, pp. W.W. 

Ribaldry, ribaudrie, W. W. 3464. 
Roast, V. rostir, R. 941. 
Rolls, rolles, pi. Y.g. 73. 
Ruby, rubie. Lit. 456 (1332); 

R.W. 37 (1360). 

Sacrilege, sacrilege, W.W. 6628, 

6630 ; Y/. 69. 
Samite, samyt, R.W. 31 (1360); 

F.F. 287. 
Sandal (?) ; cf . lit de sandal, R.W. 

35 (1360). 
Satin, satyn, R.W. 32 (1360). 
Saucers, sausers, pi. R.W. 24 

Savour, a. sauur, W.W. 1950. 
Scorch; escorchie, pp. (flayed), 

R. 567 ; escorchez, L.R. 

Scorned, eschamierent, pt. pL 

F.F. 348; eschamissant, ^r<f«. 

pt. W.W. 3233. 
Scribe, scribe, B.B. i. 404. 
Scruple, scruple, W.W. 11322. 


Scrupulous, scrupulus, W.W. 

Scupper ; cf . escopirent, pr. pi, 

(they spit), W.W. 8202 (p. 

431); escopirent, pt. pi, (spat), 

C.A. 1123. 
Season, seson, R.W. 34 (1360); 

sesone, F.F. 277. 
Sequesterers, sequestrers,!?/. F.C. 

Serviceable, servisable, F.F. 

Signet, signet, R.W. 80 (1361). 
Skirmish, ». escarmuche, P.^. 

Slaves, esclaves, pi, B. i. 214. 
Soiled, suillez, pp, (defiled), 

W.W. 5416. 
Sorcerer, sorcier, B. i. 42. 
Sorceress, sorceresse, F.C. 3 ; 

sorceresce, B. i. 42. 
Sot, B. soot (idiot), B. i. 243. 
Sound, *. soun, F.F. 291. 
Special, especial, Y./. 55. 
Specialty, especialte, Y/. 53. 
Spencers (dispensers), b, pi. de- 

spensier, pi, R. 806. 
Spicery, especerie, B. i. 96 ; 

W.W. 1948. 
Spices, especes, pi, F.F. 333. 
Spite, in, en despit, P.N. 482. 
Spoils, ^espoilles, *. pL C.A. 

Spousals, espusailles, pi. W.W. 

Squash, esquacher, B. i. 314. 
Stall, estal, L.R. 148 ; estalles, 

pl.Y,/. 211. 
Stature, estature, F.F. 368. 
Staunch, v, estancher, W.W. 

825 (p. 424). 
Stencil ; cf. estencele (a spark), 

B. ii. 331 ; estenceler (to 

sparkle), R. 1584. 
Stipends, stipendies, pi, R.W. 

219 (1400). 
Stoutly, estoutement, F.C. 91. 
Stray, «. estray, B. i. 67 ; ii. 252 ; 

V. estray er, i. 216. 

Strife, estrif, F.F. 285. 
Strive, v. estriuer, W.W 

L.R. 76. 
Stuff, «.e8tuf,R.W. 1811 
Stuffed (well supplied), e 

pp,pl. F.C. 81. 
Stunned, estonee, pp. T.'. 
Sturgeon, estorgon, B. 

estourgeoun, 66 ; sti 

B.B. i. 152. 
Subtle, sotil, C.A. 1671. 
Succession, successioun, 

Succour, V. securer, F.i 

socnTTuz,pp. P.N. 466 ; 

pp. W.W. 1473. 
Suffragan, s. suffragan, 

Suit (petition), suete, F.C 
Superfluity, superfluite, 

Surfeit, sorfet, W.W. 113 
Surgeon, surgion, B. i. 34 
Surround, surunder, v. (to 

L.R. 144 ; soronde, 

(superabounds), C.A. 

cf. souroundee, «. (a 

L.R. 340 ; suroundez, 

(floods), L.R. 330. 
Syllable, Billable, Y/. 

sillabe, B. i. 102. 
Synagogue, synagoge, 


Tabards, tabertz, pi, F.F. 
Tabernacle, tabernacle, 

37 (1360). 
Tablet, tablet, R.W. 1 33 ( 
Tabour, tabour, F.F. 

tabours, pi. F.C. 76 ; 

Tail; in fee tail, en fee 

Y./. 123; in tail, en la 

Tapestry, tapicerie, R.W 

Turge, tarche, C.A. 666 ; 

B.B. i. 314. 
Taste, «. tast (feel), B. ii. 



Tawny, tanno, R.W. 25 (1360). 

Temperance, temperance, W.W. 

Tenoar (meaning), tenour, F.F. 

Tennagant, tervagant, W.W. 

Testers (of a bed), testers, R.W. 
181 (1399). 

Tierce, houre de tierce, F.C. 

Tinkle, r. tincler, W.W. 4084. 

Throne, throne, C.A. 638. 

Torches, torchez, pi. F.C. 84. 

Toneh, toukier, v, V.H. 11. 

Tournaments, tumeimenz, W. W. 
4207 ; toomementz, B. i. 

Towel, towaill, R.W. 71 (1376). 
Trailbaston, traylebaston, F.C. 

29. [Note. — It seems to have 

been applied to the offence 

(stick-carrying) by certain out- 
laws ; see Eot. Fat. 33 Edw. 

I.] Also traillebaston, Lit. 

374 (1331). 
Prance, traunce, F.C. 4. 
^'j^mscript, transcript, Y.^. 255. 
transactions, transaccions, R.W. 

162 (1397). 
(Vansfigured himself, se trans- 

figura, W.W. 6769. 
^i^anslation (removal), transla- 

cion, F.C. 33; translacioun, 

B. i. 259. 
^x^versable, adj. traversable, 

T.y. 31. 
^^^eacherous, tricherus, W.W. 

^x^asury, tresorie, Y.^. 255. 
^»aty, traitie, P.N. 416. 
^*ips, s, pi. trippes (dances), 

W.W. 4305. 
'^^ruce, les truwes, pi. F.C. 92 ; 

le truwe, s. F.C. 46 ; treu, «. 

V.H. 7. 
^runk (a box), trunk, Libor 

Albus, iii. 415 ; (of a tree), 

trunk, W.W. 11090. 

Tunicles, tunicles, pi. R.W. 150 

Turrets, turettes, pi. F.C. 49. 

UtiUty. vtiHte, W.W. 1314, 

Vagrant (?), wakerant (wander- 
ing), L.R. 126 ; {and see 

wakcrours, B. i. 181). 
Vainglory, vaineglorie, L.R. 

Valley, ualee, R. 518 ; valeys, 

pi. F.F. 277. 
Vanguard, avantgarde, P.N. 253 

(cf. vandites^sloressAdf L.R. 

308) ; la vant garde, F.F. 

Variable, variable, R.W. 177 

Veil, veyl (a sail), F.F. 371. 
Velvet, velvet, R.W. 48 (1361) ; 

69 (1376) ; velwet, 130 

(1392). . 
Venge, uengier, v. R. 1709. 
Verified, verifie,jDp. W.W. 3396. 
Verdict, verdit, B. ii. 44. 
Vemicle, vemicle, R.W. 152 

Vessel (ship), B. i. 16; B.B. i. 

Viand, la viande. Lit. 72 

Vice- Admiral, vis admirail, B.B. 

i. 428. 
Vicious, vicious, B. ii. 83. 
Victualled, vitaillee, pp. /em. 

F.F. 371. 
Vigorous, vigorous, F.C. 52. 
ViUenage, vilenage, Y.^. 219 ; 

B. ii. 13. 
Vines, vignes, pi. V.H. 1. 
Viol, viele, F.F. 359 ; fioles, pi. 

F.C. 76. 
Virginity, virginito, W. W. 3054 ; 

C.A. 673. 
Visors, visors, pi. W.W. 4258 ; 

cf. YjBUTCQZj pp. pL (masked), 

F.F. 344. 

PhU. Trans. 1888-90. 


Vivers (fish-ponds), vivers, B. ii. 

Volume, volum, R.W. 25 (1360). 
Voyages, voiages, pi. B.B. i. 


Wages, wages, pL F.C. 83. 
Waits (watchmen), gueites, F.C. 

Waiver, *. weyver, B. ii. 39. 
Warrener, garrennier. Lit. 406 

Warrior, gueireour, F.F. 278. 

Wassail-cup, nn hanap dargent 

appellez wassail, R.W. 115 


F.C. 5 ; weymente, pr. *. F.F. 

Wimples, wimples, pi, ; also 

gympeus, /?/. W.W. 1494. 
Wivern, wyvre, Boll of Arms, 

ed. Sir H. Nicolas, 1828, p. 

Wreck, wrek de mer. Lit. 410 

(1331) ; wrek, B. ii. 252. 



Beetle- broiced. — This curious expression is purely of 
English formation. There is nothing similar in any Teu- 
tonic language. The first known instance is in Piers Plowman 
1362, and from c. 1400 onward, it is very common. Much 
later, in 1532, we find beetle brotcs, with beetle treated as a 
separate word, attributive or adjective. Finally Shaks., 
apparently having a passage of Sidney in his eye, made out 
of this a verb for the nonce in the well-known passage in 
Hamlet. Frequent quotation and allusive use of Shakspere's 
word has in modern times established his nonce word as a 
recognized verb, whence a ppl. adj. * beetling crags,* etc. 

The etymology is difficult. No valid phonetic objection 
can be taken to the view of Prof. Skeat, that in Langland's 
bitvl'brouiced we have the adj. />//<*/ applied by Layamon and 
Ormin to * cutting, sharp-edged' weapons, which undoubtedly 
roprt^sents an O.E. bUol (not bitol) biting, tnofdax. To 
attribute * biting * to swords is a common and obvious 
metaphor. But it is a long way from this to the idea of 
'projecting or overhanging* or even to * sharp-ridged/ where 

'beetle-browed/ — DR. J. A. H. MURRAY. 131 

there is no evidence of any such transition of sense, nothing 
whatever hut the two extremes in * bitel swords ' and Mtel' 
brouwed. And there is the historical difficulty that no 
instance of bite/, in any sense, occurs during the 160 years 
that intervene: the word is apparently gone; it has even 
disappeared from the later text of Layamon, in the passages 
parallel to the two in which it occurs in the earlier. 

For these reasons I give up bitel * biting,' and turn to the 

two words now spelt beetle meaning respectively ' mallet ' 

and ' coleopterous insect,' both of them also spelt bitel, bytel 

in 14th c, and both forming later parasynthetic compounds, 

like beetle-browed in the form of beetle-headed, beetle-eyed 

(z=beetle-blind), etc. The choice between these depends 

much on the original sense of beetle-browed. I do not know 

the modem meaning of the word ; I never used it ; and I 

have not been able to meet with any person who does attach 

any definite living sense to it. Most people tell me 'Johnson 

says so and so,' or ' Ogilvie explains it so and so.' Johnson 

explains it as * Having prominent brows,' where one would 

like to ask what * brow ' means. In M.E. brow is only ' eye- 

hrow ' ; there is no such sense as the modem ' forehead, 

froM* which appears not long before Shakspere's time, and 

first in Scotch. Beetle-browed thus expressed some peculiarity 

of the eyebrows : but with one exception to which I will 

revert anon, the instances from 1362 to about 1500 afford no 

help as to its sense, except that it was a term of reproach : 

' bitel-brouwed and baber-lipped,' ' say, bittle-browed bribour ! ' 

'these betyll browyd bycheys,' *a crooked hooked nose, 

heetyll browde,' illustrate the common run of quotations. 

But when we come to Perciv all's Spanuh Diet. 1591, we 

find some light: Cfjunto, beetle-browed, tortus, which 

MiNSHEU 1623 expands into * Cejimto, that hath bushy eie- 

hrows, beetle-browed, or the hairs of the eye-brows meeting.' 

The latter point now illuminates a passage in the Troy-book 

of 1400, which I have just excepted from tho common run : 

Till 3824— 

Grete Ene and gray, with a grym loke .... 
Bytell-browet was tho bueme, Ja^ ahoue met ; 

132 'beetle-browed.' — dr. j. a. h. Murray. 

where we now see that the last three words mean * his eye- 
brows met above.' 

Cotgr, in 1611 has ' Beetle-browed sourcilleux ' ; and 

* Sourcilkux, having very great eye brows; frowning, or 
looking sowrely ; surlie or proud of countenance.' Thus, we 
gather that the meaning of beetle browed was * having large 
shaggy eyebrows.' In these circumstances, one does not see 
how the reference could be to the mallet 'beetle/ which 
might have given the idea of a heavy projecting or bumpy 
forehead ; and I had concluded that it was to some real or 
fancied peculiarity of the insect ' beetle ' that we must look. 
Incidentally mentioning these conclusions to Dr. F. Chance, 
he at once gave them his adhesion, and furnished me with 
strong corroboration of them, in the fact that in Fr. tbe 
bushj/ antennae of some beetles are called their aourcib or 
eyebrows, and that sourcils de hanneton ' cock-chafers' eye- 
brows ' is actually the name given in mod. Fr. to a kind of 
fringe made in imitation of the antennae of these insects. (See 
Littr^.) If this is possible in French, of course it was also in 
Eng. ; and makes it probable that ' beetle-browed ' meant 
simply 'having eye-brows which in their roughness, bushiness, 
or projection of their hairs' were compared to the short tufted 
antennae or ' sourcils ' of certain beetles. 

I have said that from beetle-broiced, ' beetle ' was taken as 
a distinct word still qualifying ' brows.' It occurs first in 
Sir T. More Con/ut. Tindaie, 1532, 'Tindall . . . hath so 
narowly and so long pryed vpon them with betle brows and 
his bruttle spectacles of pride and malice, that,' etc. ; and a 
good instance is (1562) Haywood's Prov. and Epigr. 115 — 

* I rather would a husband wed, With a beetoU brow, than with a 

beetell head.' 

By Sir P. Sidney beetle brotvs were attributed to a mountain : 
Arcadia (ed. 1622) p. 35 — * A pleasant valley, of either side 
of which high hills lifted up their beetle brows, as if they 
would over looke tbe pleasantncsse of their under prospect.' 
Jo. Weever in tbe Mirror of Martyrs (1601) has * tree- 
gurnisht Cuinbriacs loftie mountains, Did over-shade me with 


* BEETLE-BROWED.' — ^DR. J. A. H. MURRAY. 133 

their beetle browee.' In the latter of these the tree-fringed 
orsbaggy ridge overhanging the valley, seems to be meant. 
In Sidney there is a direct reference to eye-browa in the 
'o?e^looke' of the context. But it is to be remembered 
tbat in Lat. supercilium ^ eye-brow ' is also * a brow or pro- 
jecting ridge of a mountain/ and it is possible that there is 
an idea of mperciliousness in the high hills lifting up their 
beetle brows as if they would overlook the scene below. 
From one or other of these I think Shaks. took his passage 
(of 1602) in Hamlet i. iv. 71— 

The dreadful summit of the cli£fe 
That beetles o're his base into the sea, 

i.e. (in Sidney's phrase) ' lifts up his beetle brows/ where I 
think there is more than the mere idea of projecting or over- . 
banging; i.e. possibly either an allusion to the vegetation 
wbich fringes the margin of the cliff like a shaggy eyebrow, 
or a fig. sense, like ' lookes supercilious,' or perhaps, as in 
Cotgrave, 'looks grim or sullen,' frowns or scowls. Scowling 
IB a frequent sense of beetle-browed in 17th c. 

In the first appropriation I know of Shakspere's phrase, in 
Joseph Hucks' Poenis, 1798, 

Oh ! hie thee to the bleak cliffs shaggy steep 
That beetles o'er the hoarse resounding deep, 

I think that the shaggy steep catches the right idea of 
* beetling,' which is not so clear in Scott's appropriation in 
Lady of the Lake, ii. xxxi. 

On the verge which beetled o'er the ocean; 

or in Byron's (Corsair i. vi.) — 

Where his watch-tower beetles o'er the bay; 

Dor with subsequent writers, to whom beetle is simply 'to 
project,' 'tower aloft over a valley,' etc. If beetk-browed 
referred, as now seems evident, to the antennae of a beetle, 
' beetling crags ' have got far enough away from this. 

I need hardly add that Beetle is itself ultimately identical 
with bitel ' biting, mordax* In occurs in the Oldest Glosses 
(in Sweet O. E. T.) as ^bitula blatta,' or rather in dative 

134 'behaviour.' — DR. J. A. H. MURRAY. 

*bitulum blattis/ and in later ones as ^biiela, mordiculus/ 
where mordiculus is given as a specific insect's name in a list 
of such, and hitulay bitela is thus at once fixed in sense, and 
etymology. It is doubtless the def. form se hitula^ bitola, 
bitela of bltol (not bitol) biting, nwrdax, which survived as 
the name of the insect, while the adjective sense 'biting' 
perished soon after 1200. The lengthening of the Vowel in 
later times may be due to confusion with the two forms of 
beetle 'mallet/ in O.E. bietl, bytly with long vowel, which 
was sometimes shortened in M.E. before the two consonants. 
Hence, as the mallet was both beetle and bittle (still dialectal), 
it was natural to make the insect both bittle and beetle (where 
also bittle is still dialectal). But the vowel might be 
lengthened independently : cf. weevil : — O.E. trtJiY, tcifel 
' (Sievers), evil, O.E. yfel; and the still more pertinent leetle 
for little^ and Scotch tneikle (meekle) for mickle. 

Behaviour. — The suffix is not etymological, but analogical. 
If we had reason to suppose that the earliest forms behavour, 
behaver, represented an earlier behavure (as phonetically they 
might, for -our is quite common for -ure in 16th c), it would 
be easy to believe that the analogy was press : pressure (or 
seize : seizure) : : behave : behavure. But there is no example 
of behavure ; and a much stronger analogy ofiers itself. 
The M.E. word Aver, ar6'^r,=0.N.F. aver, aveir, for which 
Gaxton substituted ai*otr=Pari8ian avoir, was used in sense 
of 'having, possession.' It was very naturally associated 
by Englishmen with their native Have, and written haver, 
havoir, havour, havor, havyoure. (See Diet. Pt. II. 8.v.). 
Hence, as have had its haver, havour, havyoure, behave 
received its behaver, behacour, behavyour. By a curious 
coincidence this corresponded to, and could only be 
strengthened by the pair of synonyms, demean^ demeanour. 
Demeanour is how you demean yourself, and behavour how 
you behave yourself. But demeanour itself is curious, and 
only of the same ago (Caxton) as behavour. Here we have 
an early spoiling de menu re, so that the word may represent 
an O.F. dvmeneiire, but as there is also demener, demesner, it 
is j)os8ibly one of the infinitive noims like dinner, supper. 

' behaviour/ — DR. J. A. H. MURRAY. 135 

refresher, trover^ of which there are so many examples in 
legal language : I think nm-demeanour {^mesdemener) is 
probably one of these, but I have not at present materials 
to decide the point. In any case the spelling -our in de- 
meanour, and mis-demeanoury is not etymological, but of 
the same class as that in behavour, Behaviour(e did not 
entirely supplant behaver, behavour till near 1600 ; the 
origin of the -i- which began in the simple haviour, is 
not clear, for if we have words like sav^iour, on one side 
which might have influenced it, we have others like favour , 
favour, which one would have thought would have been felt 
more analogous to havour. 



[Mead at a Mating of the Fhaologieal Society, November 2, 1888.] 

It is difficult to get accurate information about the ancient 
laogoage of Mexico, but I find that a book was published at 
^aris in 1885 which is much more satisfactory than anything 
I have previously met with. 

The title is, Dictionnaire de la LangueNahuatl ou Mexicaine, 
par R^mi Sim^n ; and it is a handsome quarto volume. 

The sounds are not very well explained ; the usual vague- 
ness comes over the author when he attempts to deal with 
phonetics. Still, the following seem to be some of the more 
^teresting facts about this curious language. 

The word nahuatl or nauatlis properly an adjective, meaning 
Well-sounding, sensible, suitable, neat. Used substantively, 
it means the harmonious language, ue. Mexican. It is from 
the root naua^ to move in cadence. 

The language came to be written in the Roman alphabet 
tK>Trowed from the Old Spanish. The letters used were the 
following : a, c, f , e, h, i, /, w, n, o, p, qu, t, u, x, y, z. The 
Climber of these letters is only 17, and even of these symbols, 
^ome are superfluous. C and qu both had the sound of k 
t>efore a, o, and u ; whilst g and z meant the same thing. C 
t>efore € and i had the sound of Eng. 8 in «m, just as in the 
Pxench ce, cL There was also no particular difierence between 
^ and I, nor between o and m. Where some people said ocelot!, 
otliers said ucelutl} 

Diphthongs are : auhy ei, or ey, tiei, ia and ya, yo or yu, ue, 
**»• The old texts follow the rules of the Spanish alphabet. 

The number of consonants is surprisingly small. There 
^^ no such letters as 6, d, /, g, j, r, or v. There is but one 
^bial, viz. j9, which had to do duty, in words taken from 
Spanish, for b and/as well. Thus the name Felix became Pelix, 

1 So OlmoB, p. 198. 
PUL Tram. ISSS-SO. 10 


There is but one dental, viz. t ; hence the Spanish 2 
became Tiaz in Mexican. 

We should notice that Mexican adopted the three voice 
checks, k, t, and p, but rejected all the related voiced soui 
viz. g, d, and b. This peculiarity is very striking. 

There is no r; hence / had to take its place, and the Spai 
Martin became, in Mexican, Maltin. We find, however, 
Spanish name Pedro. 

The most surprising thing is the treatment of /, m, an 
X, though one of the commonest sounds in the langu 
especially in the curious combination tl, could not be i 
initially. Hence the Spanish Lorenzo became, in Mezi 
Olenzo. The double /, or //, was sounded as two distinct 
much as in the Ital. cahal-lo ; never as in modem SpanisI 

Initial m became so weak that it practically disappears 
pronunciation ; hence the word milli^ a field, was often ; 
nounced il-li. Hence, to our astonishment, we learn 
Mexico was often pronounced without the initial m, vi2 
Exico. We shall see presently that this peculiarity 
mainly confined to the city of Mexico itself. 

Similarly, the final n was frequently suppressed ; jus^ 
in modern English, our infinitive mood sing is from the 1 
sing-en, N was always suppressed before a following c, 
(or y), tZy or u, 

I have also found another book which gives much fiir 
help. This is the ' Orammaire de la Langue Nahuatl. 
Mexicaine,' composed by a Franciscan named Olmos in 1< 
and edited at Paris by the same editor as before, viz. £ 
Simeon, in 1875. This book is written in Spanish, 
forms a Mexican Grammar; the Introduction and Notes 
in French, by the editor. There is an account of 
orthography in ch. 6, p. 196, but it says very little al 
the pronunciation. However, Olmos explains that the ; 
nunciation varied in different parts of the empire. Hen< 
was that the people of the city of Mexico dropped the in 
m of Mexico, which was pronounced in other places. Ag 
he notes that, though there is properly no e^-sound in 
language, the women often used this sound in place of i 


tome oombinationSy but it was considered bad. I strongly 
suspect that the symbol u sometimes stood for E. tc, and that 
it was this sound of w which the women turned into v ; re- 
minding us of the Cockney vine for tcine. A larger number 
of words b^o with ua, ue, or ui ; the u was here probably a 
w. He is quite explicit as to the sound of x, viz. that it was 
precisely the E. x ; his example is the Lat. dixi^ and he says 
that x=:c+8. In the Mexican Diet, this is left vague.^ 

The explanations in the Dictionary are sometimes doubtful ; 
bat, if we compare them with the excellent account of Spanish 
pronunciation in Forster's Spanische Sprachlehre (Berlin, 
1880), we can make out that the symbols ^ and z both 
represented the sound of the French and English z in zone. 
The choice of which symbol was to be used depended, 
apparently, upon the position of the sound in the word ; the 
f being mostly initial, and the z final. 

There were three compound consonantal symbols, viz. tl, ch, 
and tz. The tl seems to have been the common E. tl in battle. 
The ch is the E. ch in much, or the equivalent mod. Span, ch. 
The sound of tz is unintelligibly described ; it is said to have 
an affinity with ch. If it was the voiced ch, it was just our 
English y; for which Spanish has no symbol. 

The aspirate h, only used before or after u, had the pro- 
nunciation of ' the guttural g,' whatever that may mean. It 
was also used as equivalent to the Span. j\ This statement, 
compared with remarks in Forster, indicates that h resembled 
the mod. Span.y or the G. ch. 

Examples of tl occur in atl, water ; tletl, fire ; tlalli, earth ; 
^tl, a mountain ; tetl, a stone. The E. ch occurs in chantli, 
a house, etc. The Mexican spelling of Montezuma is given 
as Moteuhfoma. 

Compound words are very common, and may be of consider- 
able length. In forming compounds, part of the termination 

^ The author of the Dictionary says it is like the Portuguese x in Alexandro 
K-aUxandri?), He probably means the E. »h in shall. This was certainly a 
common sound of the Span, x (cf . Xeret with E. sherris) ; but Olmos is so 
^lidi, that I think we are bound to believe that he means what he says, 
'^bablv the pronunciation yaried, or the Spaniards could not give the sounds 


of the initial word is dropped ; especially final tL Thus froi 
teotl, a god, and colli, a house, was formed teocalli^ a temple 
a word used several times by Prescott. From atl, water, an 
otli, a road, was formed aotl, a canaL From quauitl, a tre 
necutlif honey, and gayolli, a fly, was formed quauhnecugayoh 
a bee that lives on trees ; much as if we put the words tre 
honey, and Jly together, and should thence evolve the compoui 
trunfly. However, Mexican was not content with meiel 
shortening the component words. The shortened form wi 
sometimes modified as well. Thus the word totoU, a he 
joined with tetly a stone, produced the compound totolh-te^ 
not totol'tetl ; in accordance with the rule that final / (exce] 
in tl) becomes Ih unless a vowel follows (Olmos, p. 200). 1 
becomes //. Verbal roots end in vowels, and are not truncate 
A * hen-stone,' by the way, means ' an egg.' 

Of course, it is interesting to see what light is thro¥ 
upon the pronunciation of Spanish by Mexican. I thii 
we may safely conclude that, at the time when Mexico 
was first written down by Spaniards, especially by tl 
Franciscan Olmos between the years 1528 and 1547, tl 
Spanish g and z both had the sound of our z in zone. 
and qu were both like k in king. C before e and i had tl 
sound of 8 in sin. LI had the mod. Italian, not the mo 
Spanish soimd. X was still like our x in mix ; but probab 
soon became sh in the Spanish pronunciation of Mexici 
words. Ch was our ch in much, as it is still. S and j bo 
resembled the mod. Spanish y. 

It is not necessary to say anything of the grammar ; tl 
student has only to consult Olmos. But I note just a fc 
things of interest. 

Plurals may be formed in several ways. The Spani 
word angelo, an angel, was borrowed, with a plural in 4 
or -me'y i.e. either angelo-tin or angelo-me. But the mc 
interesting point is the formation of plurals by redup 
cation. Thus the plural of tlatolli, a discourse, was ti 
tlatolli, discourses (Olmos, pp. 32, 33). 

Some descriptive adjectives end in -atl. Thus from Mexi 
was formed Mexicatl, a Mexican (pi. Mexica, by droppu 


the il) ; id. p. 35. The E. agential suffix -er answers to 
Ifexican -iti; thus from tlaquay he eats, was formed tlaqua-ni, 
an eater, p. 43. A favourite diminutive is -tzin ; as Pedro, 
I^eter, Pedrotzin, Peterkin, p. 69. 

The verbal conjugations are intricate. The standard form 
is the third pers. sing, of the pres. indicative, to which ni 
(I) IB prefixed for the first person, and ti (thou) for the 
second. Thus we have tlaquay he eats; ni-tlaqua, I eat; 
ti-Uaquay thou eatest. All verbal bases end in one of the 
vowels a, i, or o; p. 78. 

There are numerous prefixes and suffixes ; and compound 
words are often of great length. 

A FEW Mexican words. 

It has been already noted that, in forming compound 
words, such a sound as ^/ is dropped, medially. Thus 
^(hcaUiy a temple, is for teotl-calli, lit. god-house. I see 
no way of accounting for our camo except by help of this 

Cacao is merely the Spanish spelling of the Mexican 
word ; and there is not, exactly, any such word in Mexican. 
The right word is cacahuatl or cacatiatl, the name of the 
cacao-tree. Now when this word is compounded with atl, 
water, the compound becomes cacaua-atl, i.e. cacat^a//-water, 
a drink made from cacao. Perhaps the Spaniards analysed 
this, in their ou>n way, as representing cacaua followed by 
«^/, and thus evolved a form cacaua (Span, cacao), which 
had no existence in the original language. Indeed the 
peculiar form cacao suggests that they probably did even 
^orse, and got their cacao out of the original word cacauatl 
itself, by assuming that atl meant water, and so might be 
dropped. Either way, they dropped an essential part of 
the word, and adopted only a part of it. 

It thus appears that the right word for cacao, in Mexican, 
^ cacauatl, which is a simple original word, according to 
the above-named Dictionary. In Murray's Dictionary it is 
resolved into caca-uatl, explained by 'caca-tree.' The Mexican 


Dictionary recogniseB no uatl^ but gives the word for 'tree 
as quauttl, which in composition becomes guauh^ whether it 
precede or succeed the word with which it is compounded.^- 
Examples are : no-quauh, my stick (lit. my bit of tree) ;^ 
quauh'ticpac, upon a tree ; so that I have failed to verify thiiiMP 
so far. 

The word for chocolate presents no difficulty. The Mexican.^ 
word for ' chocolate ' is chocolatl, explained as * aliment fait,«H 
en portions ^gales, avec les graines de cacao et celles de I'arbre^ 
appel^ pochotl* ^ Chocolatl cannot be further analysed ; it^ 
has no connection with cacao^ as is usually so recklessly"^ 

Of other Mexican words in English, the chief are ehilU^^ 
ccpal, jalapf ocelot^ tomato ; rarer words are axolotl, chinampaj^ 
and coyote, 

Chilliy less correctly chili^ is a name given to the pod ot 
seed of capsicum. In Pineda's Span. Diet. ed. 1740, s.v. Axi^ 
we are told that * Axi [is] the natural pepper of the West 
Indies, generally so called by the Spaniards^ because this was 
the name of the islands where it was first discovered ; for in 
the language of Cuzco in Peru they call it Uchu, and in 
Mexico Chili,' Chilli is merely the Mexican word for pepper. 

The Mexican copalli is the name of a tree ; and secondarily 
the name of the resin, or the varnish made from it. In 
Spanish it was shortened to copal. A certain northern province 
of Mexico was called Copalla, i.e. abounding in copal-trees; 
from copalli, the tree, and tla, abounding in. 

Jalap took its name from the town where it was found. 
The Spanish spelling of this town is Jalapa or Xalapa, The 
Mexican name was Xalapan, lit. ' sand beside the water/ from 
xalli, sand ; atl, water ; and pan, a postfix meaning * upon.' 
These three words, in composition, became xal-a-pan, by the 
method already illustrated. Cf. Olmos, Grammar, p. 63. 

Ocelot is the Mexican ocelotl, a tiger; see the note from 
Clavigero, in my Etym. Diet. Ocelot is the French spelling 
of Bufibn. He conveniently dropped the /, for though the 

^ Fochotl, a fine tree, the Bomhax eeiba; the drink made from it is called 
poehoU ; and the joice from the roots is a febrifuge. 


inal //is common in English (as in battle) ^ it must be puzzling 
to a Frenchman. This is amusingly shown by the author of 
the Mexican Dictionary, who tries to give an idea of the 
aoand to French readers by comparing it with the English 
eoitkf bat remarks that it has a ' more explosive ' sound. He 
evidently thinks that the t in castle is sounded in English ; it 
was an unlucky example, because battle, cattle, nietal, and 
numerous other words were at hand. 

Tomato is the Mexican tamatl, a tomato ; in Spanish it was 
called tomate, substituting e for /. In English it became 
kmatOf doubtless because we thought that Spanish words have 
an inherent right to a final o. Yet Spanish possesses such 
words as Juente, gente, from Lat. fontem, gentem. Most 
languages blunder when they borrow. 

Axolotl is the name of a curious reptile found in the 
lake of Tezcuco. It is duly given in Murray, who says 
that it is the Aztec name. But we can find out its etv- 
mdogy. It is derived from atl, water, and xolotl, a page, 
servant, slave. It means, literally, 'water-servant.' The 
name is connected with Mexican mythology. A being 
called Xolotl, lit. 'servant,' contrived to become a divinity 
by escaping death. This he did by taking to flight. He 
first changed himself into a kind of maguey or aloe, thereby 
becoming a mexolotl, or servant of the maguey (derived 
from metl, maguey, and xolotl), and secondly into an axolotl, 
or servant of the water. He thus eluded Death, and became 

Chinampa, ' the native name of the floating gardens once 
common on the Mexican lakes. They were carefully con- 
structed rafts on which plants were cultivated.' — Ogilvie's 
Dictionary. This is quite right. The Mexican chinampa 
incant, first of all, a raft ; and secondly, a floating garden on 
^ raft. It is derived from chituimitl, an enclosure, especially 
^ enclosure among reeds, and the suffix pa, signifying ' to- 
wards' or ' for' ; hence, a thing fitted for an enclosure among 
i^eds, a raft. Chinamitl, in composition, di*ops tl, as noted 
above ; hence the form chinam{i)pa. 

Coyote is a name for the American prairie-wolf, Lyciscus 


latrana; but is properly the Mexican wolf, Cants oehrqpuB^^ 
The Mexican name is coyotl. 

Popocatepetl is the well-known name of a volcano iik^ 
Mexico, which usually amuses people by its odd look. YeW 
its etymology is simplicity itself. It merely means 'smoking^ 
mountain/ and is compounded of the verb popoca, he smokes^ 
hence, to smoke, and tepetl, a mountain; the compounded, 
words being unaltered in composition. 

Prescott mentions the maguey, and the pulque, or drink, 
made from it. The Mexican word for the maguey is metL 
Pineda, in his Spanish Dictionary, refers us to Acosta, Nat. 
Hist. W. Ind. lib. 4, ch. 23. In the index to Oviedo, ih» 
name maguey is said to be Cuban. Neither maguey nor 
pulque appear in the Mexican dictionary. Of course maguey 
cannot be Mexican, since Mexican has neither g nor gu, 

Azteca is a plural substantive, meaning the people called 
by us Aztecs, It is derived from Aztlan, the name of the 
place which they at first occupied. 

Anahuao is the name of the province in which Mexico 
was situated. It means the country of lakes, lit. ' beside the 
water ' ; from atl, water, and nauac near. 

The Spanish word petute denotes a kind of mat. It is 
borrowed from the Mexican petlatl, a mat on which the 
Indians used to sit or recline. 

English Words Borrowed from the West Indies. 

The following is an attempt to group some of the West- 
Indian words according to the countries or islands to which 
they belong. I give the references to R. Eden's Book on 
America (ed. Arber), and to other sources. 

I may here mention that the fullest English account I can 
find of Columbus's First Voyage is one printed in vol. v. p. 
591, of an excellent Collection of Voyages, printed in London 
in 1732, and known as 'Churchill's Collection.' This is a 
translation from the original Spanish account by ' Antony de 
Herrera,' who died in 1625. We thus learn that, on his first 
voyage, Colombus discovered (1) San Salvador, on Friday, 


Oct. 12, 1492 ; (2) Conception Island, on Oct. 15 ; (3) Fer- 
oaodina Island, on Oct. 17 ; (4) Isabela Island, and eight 
small islands, which he called del Arena ; (5) Juana Island, 
now Cuba, on Oct. 28 ; (6) Hispaniola, i.e. Hayti or St. 
Domingo, on Dec. 6 ; all in less than two months. In Hayti 
he tmilt a small fort, and thence set sail for Spain, Jan. 4, 

The Spaniards first became acquainted with Cuba and 
Hayti, and thence drew several words. 

Hath and Cuba. — According to Eden, p. 166, Haiti signi- 
fies 'rooghe, sharpe, or craggie.' Among the first words 
learnt was canoa, a canoe, a Hayti word (id. 66, 94, 119, 140). 
Garcilasso says, in his Hist, of Florida, that canoa was the 
name in Hayti and the neighbouring islands (Monlau). It 
was also the name at Cartagena, on the coast of New Granada 
(Eden, 226). There were in Hayti several languages or 
dialects (id. 169). The next Hayti word mentioned by Eden 
is Yucca, spelt Iticca (p. 67, 168) ; and the next maize, which 
lie calls maizium (67, 116, 118, 159). Cacique belongs here 
also; Eden gives a Latinized form cacicus (72), pi. cacici (89, 
128) ; also cazicua (76) ; and cacique (223, 237). Here also 
belongs the word hurricatie ; the plural is spelt by Eden 
ftiracanes (p. 81) ; and in another place furacanas and haura- 
chanas (216). The Hayti name for the iguana is given as 
ittanna (85, 167) ; elsewhere it is spelt i/uana (220). The 
Hayti name for 'potato' is given as botata (131); also battata 
(159). Another word is manati, the name of a fish (171) ; 
alao spelt manate (231, 232). The Hayti name of cassava is 
given as cazabbi (159, 168, 175, 215) ; see Cassava in Murray. 
Another word which is certainly Haytian is guaiacum ; this 
we are told by Monardes, as translated by Frampton, in his 
Jojifull Newes, fol. 10, back. This agrees with the fact that 
9^a is an article, or common prefix in that language (Eden, 
P- 168). As regards guava, Span, guayaba, guayava, I sup- 
ine it is what is meant by " the fruite cauled guannaba, 
somewhat lyke vnto a quynse," in Eden, p. 100, in speaking 
of Hayti. Again, at p. 131, we come across a Darien fruit 
^Ued guaiana, clearly an error for guaiaua. There was 



also in Hajrti a tree called capeia (Eden, p. 174) ; this i^ 
the mod. Span, copey. Our barbecue is from Hayti barbaeoa^ 
according to Tylor, as quoted by Murray. It is givi 
as barbacoa in Pineda's Spanish Dictionary; and, in th^3 
glossarial index to Oviedo (not very accurately compiled.^ 
and without references), we are told that barbacoa belong:^ 
to the language of Cuba and Hayti. It may be obeerved 
here that, whilst there were both in Hayti and Cabc^ 
several different languages, or perhaps dialects (Eden, pp. IT, 
169), we learn, on the other hand, that the language of Cuba 
resembled that of Hayti. The Spaniards made Hayti their 
head-quarters, and the usual starting-point of their expedi- 
tions ; hence it may easily have happened that a word which 
they picked up there was transplanted by them to other 
countries, even at a great distance. For example, the name 
of the plant called the maguey is often said to be Mexican; 
but this is impossible, since Mexican has neither g nor gu^ 
and, in fact, the Mexican name of it is nietL The index to 
Oviedo says that maguey is Cuban, which is much more 
likely. I suspect it was also the Hayti name, as it is said 
to be common over America within the tropics, and the 
Spaniards must have known it long before they found Mexico. 
To these we must add the word hammock. Webster shows 
that it became known to Columbus on his first voyage, and 
it is therefore probably a Hayti word. The index to Oviedo 
says it belongs to Cuba and Hayti. Herrera mentions it in 
connection with Columbus' discovery of the island which he 
named Femandina, near Cuba. It seems to have been 
known also in Cuba, and perhaps in the island of Cozu- 
mella (Eden, p. 192 ; cf. p. 230). 

I conclude that the following words, being all the best 
known among the West-Indian words, are from some one of the 
languages of Hayti : barbecue, cacique, canoe, casMva, guaiaeum^ 
guava (?), hammock (P), hurricane, iguana, tnaize, manaH, potato, 
tobacco, yucca ; also the Span, copey, and perhaps maguey. Of 
these, maguey is said to be Cuban ; and so are barbecue and 
manati. According to the index to Oviedo, the Span, papaya 
is also Cuban ; in English, this is the papauhtree. This is 


oooertain; in Webster's Diet, it is said to be Malay ; Ogilvie 

lays the name came from Malabar ; whilst Pineda says it is 
'a fruit in India/ and refers us to Gemelli, vol. iii. lib. 1, 
cap. 8. How can we decide P (See Papayer in Littr^.) 

Under anatta (also commonly annotto, the name of a 
dye), Murray says it is ' perhaps from the native American 
oame.' This can hardly be doubted. It gave its name to 
Amuftta or Annotto Bay, which is on the N. coast of Jamaica. 
I find in Churchill's Collection of Travels, v. 561, the 
atatement concerning the dye called rocou at Cayenne, that 
thia is an Indian name, " and it is called anotto in the Spanish 
American countries.'' It may safely be located in Jamaica. 

Whether tobacco is Haytian or Caribbean, I cannot as yet 
diaooyer. It seem to be one or the other. 

Caribbean. — ^The next language of which the Spaniards 
hA some experience was Caribbean. From this they ob- 
tained the word which we spell cannibal; which see in 
Murray. Another Caribbean word is Span, piragua, £• 
pirogue (Littr^). Colibri, now used in French as the name 
for a humming-bird, is said to be Caribbean. This seems to 
l)e confirmed by the remark in Churchill's Collection of 
Voyages, v. 650, ed. 1732, where we find, in a description 
of Uartinique, one of the French Caribbean Islands, the 
following : " Another diverting object is the vast number of 
those very little birds, by the French called colibria, but by 
the English humming-birds, flpng about from tree to tree." 
Perhaps also macaw, said to be the native name in the Antilles. 
Hence, my list of Caribbean words includes cannibal, colibri, 
^"^ocaw, pirogue. These words, when added to those of Mexican 
ongin, give all the principal words that I can find, derived from 
North American languages, excepting words borrowed from the 
N. American Indians. Perhaps we may add mahogany. I can 
nowhere find any locality for this word, beyond the note in 
'debater that mahogany is the South American name. We 
should rather expect the name to belong, like the wood, to 
Honduras and Campeachy. 

South America. — The principal S. American words are 
^nizilian and Peruvian, of which I have given a list in 


a fonner paper.^ The Spaniards also took a few woi 
from the N. coast of S. America, where the languages, ok=: 
some of the languages, were much the same as the Oarib-^ 
bean. One such word is the Span, cayman, an alligator^ 
Frampton, in his tr. of Monardes, fol. 73, back, mentions 
it in connection with Cartagena. Littr^ (s.y. caiman) giye». 
acayouman as the true Caribbean form, on good authority* 
There are three islands all called Cayman to the S. of Cuba. 
The locality of the quadruped agouti seems to be Guiana; 
but it was also very common in the Bahamas and Antilles 
islands. In an account of Quito, there is mention of a kind 
of rabbit which the natives call cuyes ; Gent. Mag. 1752, pp. 
447-450. In Peruvian, it is called coy ; see Garcilasso de la 
Vega, Hist Peru, bk. 8, c. 17. 

Caoutchouc is said by Littr6 to be Caribbean ; I have been 
informed that it is a Quito word, which perhaps agrees. At 
any rate it is not Brazilian, though imported thence. It is 
certain that curare or wourali is a Guiana word; see my 
Supplement. Cayenne is a place in F. Guiana, and Tolu is 
in New Granada. As to sapajouy a monkey, it belongs to F. 
Guiana. " Guiana has vast numbers of monkeys, of divers 
sorts, among which is that sort called by the Indians, and 
after them the French, sapq/ous ; " Churchill's Collection of 
Voyages, v. 549. I therefore propose, as a list of words 
belonging to the north coast of South America, the follow- 
ing: agoutiy caoutchouc, cayenne, cayman, cuye (Peruv. coy), 
sapq/ou, tolu, tcourali. Some of these words may have 
been in wider use ; probably cayman was a general word in 
the W. Indies. It may be particularly noted that, though 
many different words are mentioned in Eden as having the 
signification of * boat ' and ' king,' the Spaniards kept to the 
names canoa and cacique, which they had learnt in Hayti. 

^ Add the Brazilian eapivara (see Murray] ; and fnanioc\ also Ciuhew-nut, see 
arajou in Littr6. Also petunia^ from the Brazilian petun^ tobacco ; see petun in 
Littre, and petunia in Ogilvie. Copaiba^ a balsam, is also said to be Brazilian. 
And see buccaneer in Murray, and couguar in Littre ; both are Brazilian. 



Index of Mexican Words. 

tmgdoy angel, 140. 

Jnakuae, 144. 

Milf canal, 140. 

idl, water, 139, 140, 143, 144. 

AtUca^ Azllan, 144. 

eMy house, 140. 

tktaUliy house, 139. 

^olK, fly, 140. 

MMn, Martin, 138. 

mtly maguey, 143. 

Mixico, Mexieatl, 138, 140. 

mOli, field, 138. 

Moteuhgama, Montezuma, 139. 

Nahuatl, Mexican, 137. 

ntttia, to move in cadence, 137. 

nauac, near, 144. 

nteutli, honey, 140. 

Olenzo, Lorenzo, 138. 

0^', road, 140. 

Pedro, Pedrottin, 141. 
Pelix, Felix, 137. 
petlatly mat, 144. 
popoea, to smoke, 144. 
Popocatepetl, volcano, 144. 
quauitl, tree, 140, 142. 
quauhnecugayolli, 140. 
teoealK, temple, 140, 141. 
teotl, Qod, 140. 
tepetl, mountain, 139, 144. 
teil, stone, 139, 140. 
Tia%, Diaz, 138. 
tlalli, earth, 139. 
tlaqua, to eat, 141. 
tlatolli, discourse, 140. 
tletl, fire, 139. 
totoli, hen, 140. 
totolhtetl, egg, 140. 
xolotl, slave, 143. 

EiTOLisH Words derived from Mexican : — axolotl, 143 ; cacao, 
141; chilli, 142; chinampa, 143; chocolate, 142; copal, 142; 
coyote, 143; jalap, 142; ocelot, 137, 142; tomato, 143. (Span. 
f9UUe, a mat, 144. iVb^ Mexican: maguey, 144; pulque, 144.) 

English Words derived from West-Indian. — Hatti : barbecue, 
cacique, canoe, cassava, guiacum, guava (?), hammock (?), hurricane, 
iguana, maize, manati, potato, tobacco (?), yucca ; also Span, copey, 
145-7. Cuba : barbecue, maguey, manati, papuw-tree (?), 146. 
^axaica: anatta, annotto, 147. Caribbean: cannibal, colibri, ma- 
caw, pirogue, 147. Honduras: mahogany (?), 147. North Coast 
0? 8. America : agouti, caoutchouc, cayenne, cayman, cuye, 
sapajou, tolu, wourali, 148. Brazilian : acajou, buccaneer, capi- 
^ara, cashew-nut, copaiba, couguar, manioc, petunia, 148 (note). 



Rev. Prof. Skeat. 

[Itead at a Meeting of the Fhilohgioal Society , November 2, 1888.] 

CoREEcnoN IN **KoTE8 ON ENGLISH Ettmologt," Phil, Soc, Tti 

1888-90, p. 1. 

Cozier. LI. 8-11. Delete the sentence — " The nearest fo 
I can find . . . adduces no authority." And substituti 
'* The nearest form I can find in Godefroy is the O.F. cotiSi 
given under its oblique (and also later nominative) c 
causeor, of which he happens to have no instance." 

As the sentence stood, it might suggest that Godefroy I 
entered the word under a wrong heading ; which, howe^ 
I did not mean to imply. He has put it in its right pla 
though he does not always do so. — W.W.S. 

Blet, to become sleepy, as a pear. Given by Murray, w 
the etymology from F. blet, sleepy as a pear ; without c 
further account. Littr^ discusses it, and gives vari* 
etymologies. That from Icel. bleyta, to become soft, fir 
blautr, soft, seems worth notice. Cf. Swed. blot, wh 
Widegren explains by 'soft, yielding, pulpous, pulpy, n 
lient.' The sense 'pulpous' is to the point. Aasen nc 
that the Norse blaut, soft, is used of fruit that is not dried 

Buggy, a light vehicle. I cannot throw much light on t 
word, but I wish to note that it appears in French. Lit 
gives F. boghei, a light vehicle, without derivation ; but i 
probably the E. word borrowed. In Moisy's Diet, of Norn 
Patois I find: * Boc, petit cabriolet d^ouvert, boghei.* 
suggest that it may be related to the prov. E. buck, the b< 
of a cart or waggon, given in Murray. 

Chevron. I have omitted to give the exact Low Lat. fo: 
The theoretical Low Lat. accus. is *capnonem ; the nom. foi 
actually found are cabrio and cabiro (see Ducange) ; f 


eapro. The Span, forms are helpful. We find Span. cabrtOy 

a rafter, a beam, a chevron (in heraldry) ; closely allied to 

cnhriolf a beam, rafter, whilst the adj. cabrio means goatlike. 

The Low Lat. caprioius means both ' kid ' and ' rafter.' 

Bence the usual account of chevron is made clear. 

Cockney. I have shown, in the Supplement to my Diet., 
tlmt the M.E. cokenay should answer to a F. *coquM, Low 
Xat *coquinatu8. The only difficulty is that these forms do 
not occur. But we can get over this by supposing that an 
initial a has been dropped, as in so many other cases ; and 
then we get the O.F. equivalent *acoquini. This, spelt with 
two c's, is in Cotgrave, and precisely fits. Cotgrave has : 
**aecoquin^, made tame, inward, familiar; also, grown as 
l&zy, sloathfuU, idle, as a beggar." Lit. 'adapted to the 

Crenet, an open lamp, placed on a beacon or carried on a pole. 

I regret to say my etymology of this word is wrong. I have 

followed Roquefort and Matzner, and have mixed up two 

different names of lamps. The M.E. cresset is from the O.F. 

cresset with the same sense; and the O.F. cresset is a less 

correct form of crasset or craisset. Godefroy gives craisset, 

with examples, showing that it is precisely the Eng. cresset. 

Other spellings are craicety craichet, grasset, graset; and the 

&ct that it sometimes begins with g is of some importance. 

The right etymology is given by Ducange, under the Low 

Lat. crassa, fat, grease; which is the origin of our word 

grease. The craisset was so called because it was supplied 

with grease. It was an out-of-door lamp, without a wick. 

Gfrease and oil, and sometimes pitch, were poured into a cup, 

usually hoisted on the top of a pole; and the grease was 

then set on fire. The Low Lat. crassa is merely the fem. of 

Lat. erassuSy whence also the F. gras. This etymology of 

cresset is also given by Scheler, who takes occasion to say, 

8.V. creusety that cresset has nothing to do with £. cruse. It 

is also given by H. Moisy, Diet, de Patois Normand, 1887. 

The word which Roquefort confuses with cresset is the O.F. 

croissoly given by Godefroy under the spelling croisetd. This 

is rightly explained by Scheler, s.v. creuset^ as being (like £. 


crme) derived from the M.H.G. krdse (G. krame), a kind of 
pot. In this case the lamp was named from the cup into 
which the grease was poured. 

Daker-hen, a corncrake. According to Halliwell, it occurs 
in Elyot's Dictionary, s.v. Crex^ a.d. 1669. I find it in 
Cooper's Thesaurus, s.y. Crex, a.d. 1665. Cf. Lincolnshire 
dacker, to waver, stagger, totter, hesitate. Koolman thinks 
it is connected with the E. Friesic dakkern, to splash about, 
to move quickly and with noise. He quotes, from Kilian, 
M.Du. daeckeren, to fly or flutter about. Dack-er seems to 
be a frequentative verb, formed with the usual suffix -er from 
a base dak, expressive of quick motion. Gf. Cumb. dakerin', 
walking carelessly. North dakevy a dispute. See further in 

Day. I have omitted, in my Dictionary, to give the 
cognate words in Lithuanian and Sanskrit. The Goth, dags 
represents a primitive Teut. *daga'Z ; this corresponds to 
Lith. dagos, a hot season, dagd, harvest; Old Pruss. dagU^ 
summer; Skt. ni-ddgha, the hot season, ddha, a burning, heat. 
The form of the Aryan root is \/dheoh, appearing in the 
Lith. d^g-ti, to burn, Skt. dah, to burn. Thus the sense was, 
originally, * the hot time,' and probably originated in a warm 
climate. See Brugmann's Comparative Grammar, tr. by 
Wright, § 77, p. 67 ; Pick's Diet. i. 115, 631, ii. 578. The 
corresponding verb in Russian is j'eche, to bum ; whence j'eg- 
avitsa, a burning fever. 

Despot. The origin of the syllable dea- is, according to 
Gurtius, doubtful. Brugmann regards the first syllable in 
the Gk. SeairoTT)^ as representing an Indo-Germanic *deni8f 
meaning * of a house.' This is practically the same solution 
as in Benfey, who compares despot with the Skt. dampafi, 
' master of the house.' Cf. Lat. donius, and Gk. SifjLeip. If 
this be right, it reminds us of E. htM-band. See Brugmann, 
Comp. Gram. tr. by Wright, §§ 191, 198, 204. 

Drain. Besides the A.S. form drehntan, cited in my Diet., 
there is an A.S. dreahnian, in Cockayne's Leechdoms, iiL 72. 
23; see Bosworth. Eluge (Eng. Studien, xi. 511) holds 
that the diphthong was long ; and derives dr^ah-n^ian from 


a form ^dr^ag-e, an adverb corresponding to the adj. dryge, 
diy. He notices also the North Friesic druugh, a milk- 
straiaer; for which he refers us to Johansen, 28. 101 ; and 
tliu IB also from a Teut. base draug. Another related word 
is the G. irocken^ dry ; see Eluge. 

BraaoL Kluge separates M.E. dreem, dream^ in the sense 
of 'fision/ from the A.S. dr^am, music, glee. See his Etym. 
Diet, 8.Y. Traum* 

OriyeL a drudge, servant. In the last line of sc. 2 of Act 
IT. of Twelfth Night, the first folio has diuelL It has been 
proposed to alter the line to — "Adieu! goodman Drivel;" 
but there is no sufficient reason for this. It is only a guess. 
It it, however, worth while to say that the sense of drivel, 
also spelt drevil, was a drudge, a servant, a low fellow ; see 
Halliwell. It is one of the loan-wordjs from Dutch. Hexham 
has: *' ** Drevelen, to Trudg up and downe ; " and he also has 
the phrase "Drevel, a Scullion, or a Tume-spit," which 
occurs under '' Dreve, a Boxe on the year, a blow," appar- 
ently by a misprint. It is probable that he meant to give 
the M. Du. form for " scullion " as drevel; at any rate, such 
is the form in Kilian. Koolman gives the E. Friesic form 
as drd/el (entered under dri/el, an iron tool, which may be 
a difiTerent word). The Bremen Worterbuch has dracalj'en, 
to run up and down, formed from draven, to trot. I would 
not therefore derive this M. Du. drevel, as Koolman does, 
from the verb "drive," but from M. Du. draven, to trot, 
cognate with the G. traben, which see in Kluge. The Mod. 
Du. drevel is explained as ' driver,' but that may be due to 
popular etymology ; for Du. still uses draven in the sense of 
• trot.' If this be right, a drevil is a ' trotter up and down.' 

Duck. The A.S. form has not been registered. But it 
occurs as ditca, in the phrase diican sea^, i.e. duck's pool, duck- 
pool ; see Cartularium Saxon, ed. Birch, ii. 162, 1. 3. The u 
was long; see Stratmaun. We infer the existence of an 
origioal strong verb ^dUcan (M.E. donken), pt. t. *d€ac, pp. 
*do€en. Perhaps the pp. docen accounts for the occasional 
M.E. doke, in which the o may have been originally short. 
Cf. the O.H.G. strong verb iMhan (in Schade) ; E. Fries. 
PhU. Trui. 18SS-90. 11 


duk'dntej a duck (Eoolman). Hexham gives M. Da. docke 
to dive, as well as duycken. 

Dusk. In the Academy for Aug. 11, 1888, p. 89, I 
Logeman tells us that the A.S. dohx occurs as a gloss to t! 
Lat. furva. There is a related verb daxian in the Verce 
Codex, fol. 23, back ; according to Kluge, in Engl. Studie 
xi. 511. These seem to point to an A.8. *do8C as the origin 
of M.E. doskf Mod. E. dusk, Eluge assumes the A.S. foi 
to be *dtt8c, which he connects with Lat. fuscua ; from t 
Aryan *dhu8ku8. 

Dye. Kluge (Engl. Studien, xi. 511) acutely remarks th 
the A.S. diag, fem., dye, answers to Tout. *daugd' and Aryf 
*dhoukd ; whilst the Lat. fucua answers to Aryan *dAouh 
So also the A.S. verb dSag-ian, to dye, is cognate with tl 

Engle, Ingle, a favourite. (Du.) The account of this wo; 
by Nares sufficiently explains it. He shows that engle (al 
spelt enghkf to denote that the g was hard, not like g in angt 
is used in the Prol. to Cynthia's Revels by Ben Jonson, wi 
reference to the children who spoke that prologue. It was al 
used of a favourite boy ; as in Ben Jonson's Silent Woma 
i. 1. Nares is obviously right in supposing that engle is i 
same word as ingle, but he does not tell us which was i 
older form. We know, however, that en in English oft 
becomes in ; that M.E. enke is now ink, etc. The word seei 
to be no older than Ben Jonson, and I have no doubt th] 
like similar cant terms, it was merely borrowed from Dutc 
viz. from Du. engel, an angel, applied, first to singing bo] 
and then to favourites. The M.E. engel, an angel, seems 
have died out long before the sixteenth century, though 
was common at the beginning of the thirteenth centur 
see angel in Matzner. The forms angel, anngel, in t 
fourteenth century were borrowed from French ; where 
the A.S. and Du. forms were borrowed from Latin. S 
Angel in Murray. 

Esquimaux. I quote the following : " The native tribes 
New England were struck by this habit [of eating raw mea 
among the roving race of the far north, whom they call 


aocordiiigly Ssh'mantsic or * raw-flesh-eaters/ a name which 
they still bear in its French form Usquimaux." — Tylor, 
Anthropology (1881), p. 265. 

FiUow (2). I have followed the usual account, that fallow^ 
as q>plied to land, is the same word as fallow (A.S. fealu) as 
applied to deer. But they are rather to be separated. Cf . 
E. Friesic falge^ fallow-land, falgen^ to break up the surface 
of land. The O.H.G. feJgii means a kind of harrow, and is 
the same word as k..%.fealhy a harrow, only found in the ace. 
pL in the Epinal gloss, 1. 713 : " occas, fealga " ; cf. A.S. 
Vocab. 463. 20. Hence * naualia [error for noualia],f(Blging ; * 
Wright's Voc. 34. 22 ; cf. 35. 24. Thus the original sense 
of &llow-land was land broken up (on the surface) with the 
harrow. The O.H.G. felgey a harrow, is distinct from G. 
Jelge, a felloe of a wheel ; see Kluge {s,y. felge). 

Pilbert. I have suggested that filbert stands for ' Phili- 
hert's nat.' In Moisy's Diet, of the Normandy patois I find 
that the actual name there is noix de filbert 

nip. Defined in Ogilvie's Diet, as ' a mixed liquor con- 

nsting of beer and spirit sweetened, and heated with a hot 

VOD.' Egg-flip is much the same, with the addition of eggs. 

Iq the Diet, of the Norman patois by Moisy occurs the 

otmous assertion that this is a Normandy word. I translate 

the article. Flip, s.m. warm cider, with brandy and spices. 

-in English flip. The Eng. flip is a word of Norman origin. 

^e way to make this drink is indicated in the following 

passage from the Jersey Rimes {Mimes fersiaisea), p. 54. 

(This book, ed. M. A. Mourant, was published in Jersey in 

1865.) ' But drink then, master Philippe. Don't you find 

this cider good P Would you like our dame to warm it up 

and put in it a pinch of all-spice P ' Another quotation is 

given from Le Lexovien, March 2, 1870 : ' Some individuals 

entered the shop and asked for phlippe, a drink which is only 

known in our country, and is made of sweet cider, and 

hrandy, and spices, the whole heated together over the fire.' 

The speUing phlippe here given suggests an etymology from the 

Norman Phlippe, i.e. Philip. See the same work, s.v. PhlipoL 

Ihnik, The older sense of funk is a spark of fire, or the 



first kindling of a fire. The Prompt. Panr. has : " FUnke, or 
lytylle fyyr, IgniculuSy foculiis" The word occurs as fank in 
P. Plowman, C. 7. 335. In the phrase ' not a fonk,* Le. not 
a spark, not a bit, it occurs in Rob. of Brunne ; see Matzner. 
It is not found in A.S., but it may be a native word. Or it 
may be of Scand. origin, as we find Dan. funke, a spark; 
and funkle, to sparkle. The E. Friesic is Junke or funk^ a 
spark ; cf. Du. tonk, a spark ; ronk-doek, tinder, lit. spark- 
cloth. The M. Du. foncky later vonck, signified a spark; 
and Hexham gives " Votick, ofte Vi/er-doeck, burnt linnen 
for a tinder-box.'' He probably means the compound word 
Vonck'doeck. However, in the Sufiblk dialect funk means 
' touch-wood ' ; and I have no doubt that the phrase ' in a 
funk* meant, originally, in a glow, in a smouldering state, 
smoking like a bit of linen in the old-fashioned tinder-box, 
with which our ancestors were only too familiar. This 
explains how/w»A: also meant, as Phillips says in 1706, "a 
strong rank smell, particularly that of stinking tobacco;" 
the reference being to the glowing tobacco, not to the same 
when unlighted. Hence also, in the Gazophylacium Angli- 
canum (1689), we find "/w/l^^ an offensive smell ; " and 
Halliwell has the verb " to funk (1) to smoke, (2) to cause 
a bad smell." He also gives the sb. with the sense of ''great 
fear," which is now the commonest and almost the only 
meaning. The G.funke, a spark, is the O.H.G. /uncAo ; and 
the suggestion in Schade, that it is derived from the stem 
fun- in Icel./tiM-«, Goth. /on (gen./ww-tVw), fire, is reasonable. 
Cf. Goth. /<fm-«A:«, fiery. 

Gang. Brugmann (tr. by Wright), § 197, p. 166, connects 
Goth, gaggan, to go, with the Lith. zengiu or iingiu, I stride, 
I go ; and the Skt. jaiighd, the leg. Cf . Skt. janghdia, a 
rapid walker. 

Ghazul. Amongst Thackeray's Poems, we find three with 
the general title of *The Ghazul, or oriental love-song.' This 
is the Arabic ghazal, an ode ; lit. a thing spun, from the root 
ghazala, he span. See Richardson's Arab. Diet. p. 1050 ; 
and Devic's Supplement to Littr^, s.v. OhazeL 

Gooseberry. The earliest quotations I have yet found are 


the following, both from the O.F. grammar by Da Wes, pr. 
by T. Godfray ; and reprinted at Paris, along with Pals- 
grave's Diet. I quote from the reprint. " Oose-beiT^s, grois- 
ellee," p. 912, coL 2 ; " Qowsbery tre, groiselier," p. 914, col. 
3. The date seems to be ab. 1530. 

fliaie. It is remarkable that no satisfactory etymology of 

the Terb to graze, in the sense of ' to glance off with little 

injury,' has ever been offered. The fact is that the word 

lias Buffered a rather violent alteration ; the r was originally 

L The M.E. word is glacen, or glasen, and is given by 

Hatzner in his Diet. ii. 273. It can hardly be doubted that 

the change from glaze to graze has been brought about by 

confusion, or association, with the verb to rase, which is 

aometimes used in the same sense precisely. Cotgrave 

quotes the F. raser, 'to shave, sheere, raze, or lay leuell, 

to touch or grate on a thing in passing by it.' Johnson 

gives a quotation from South's Sermons — ' might not the 

bullet that rased his cheek, have gone into his head P ' 

To return to the M.E. glasen. It occurs in the sense of 

'glide' in Allit. Poems, ed. Morris, i. 170 — ' Her fygure fyn 

quen I had font, Suche gladande glory con to me glace,' i.e. 

glided towards me. But it also occurs in the sense 'to glance 

wide.' Thus in Guy of Warwick, ed. Zupitza, part i. 5067 

— *Anodur he thoght to smyte ryght: But hys swerde 

gbuedde lowe, and stroke upon the saduU-bowe.' Halliwell 

quotes this passage under the word glasedd. Still more 

clearly, in the Sowdone of Babylon, 1. 1208, we have : ' He 

smote as doth the dinte of thondir : It glafted down by his 

sheelde And carfe his stedes neke asonder.' Yet again, I 

have a note that, in the Lyfe of St. Edmund, Harl. MS. 

2278, foL 113, the following lines occur: ' Aboff the flood o 

litell wheel gan glace, the tother wheel glod on the boord 

alofflbe.' We thus have examples of a M.E. glacen or glasen, 

to glide, to glance aside, coming close to the meaning of the 

French raser; and I think it clear that our modem graze^ 

which has no exact equivalent in any known language, is 

simply the outcome of a confusion between these two words. 

Both words are, fortunately, quite easy to trace. The F. 


raser is due to the Lat. radere (pp. rasua)^ to scrape, whence 
was formed the Low Lat. rasare, to graze. The M.E. ghcen 
is from O.F. ghcier, Lat. glaciare, to slip as on ice ; from the 
Lat. glacies, ice. Godefroy gives numerous examples of the 
O.F. glacier, to glance, slip. It is remarkable that it has 
been superseded in Mod. French by the somewhat like- 
sounding word glisser, which is from quite a different root, 
namely, from the O.H.Q. ghtan, cognate with E. gUde. 

Oriddle, a pan for baking cakes on. The M.E. form is 
gredil in the Ancren Biwle. I have given it as of Celtic 
origin ; but there is always the chance that the W. word 
may have been borrowed from English. It would correspond 
to an O.F. gredil, but I cannot find that word in the diction- 
aries. Nevertheless, there was such a word ; for Moisy, in 
his Diet, of Norman patois, not only gives grMil, 8.m., as the 
Norman word, explaining it by the F. gril, a gridiron, but 
he gives two quotations in which gredil occurs. Thus, in the 
Comptes du Ch&teau de Gaillon, p. 355, there is an inventory 
of the sixteenth century, in which there is mention of 'xii 
pieces de landiers . . . et grediU, i.e. 12 pieces, of andirons 
and griddles. It is, of course, the same word as the O.F. 
greil, given in Godefroy, with the sense of * grating ' ; the 
fem. form greille is also in Godefroy, with the sense oi 
* griddle,' and he gives an older form gradi/ie, in which the d 
is retained. The origin is the corrupt Lat. craticulum, noted 
in Lewis and Short ; the correct form being the Lat. 
craticula, a grating, also 'a small gridiron' (Lewis and 
Short), from cratis, a hurdle ; answering to the fem. F. form 
greille. Thus the word is not of Celtic, but of Lat. origin. 
Qrill is a doublet of griddle, but from the fem. form instead 
of the neuter. Although Godefroy does not give the sb. gredil^ 
he gives the vb. grediller, to grill. I have already shown thai 
gridiron is from the M.E. gredire, a variant of gredil, due tc 
attempting to put a new sense into the suffix. 

Hastelets, part of the inwards of a wild boar. See Halli- 
well. In Wright's Vocab. 566. 10, we find : "Assacula, an 
haslelet." See also Matzner ; and the less correct forme 
haslet, harskL It is from the O.F. hmtelet, Mod. F. hdtelei 


in Littr^y and meant, origiDally, * a thing roasted on a spit/ 
The etymology is from the O.F. haste, a spit ; from Lat. 
kita, a spear. When we notice that harslet came to mean 
'a pig's chitterlings/ the connection with the Lat. hasta is 
sot obvioos. 

Hone. 1^0 reference has yet been given for the A.S. hdn 
in the Dictionaries. Yet it occurs, in the sense of * stone/ 
several times in the Charters. See Earle's Index to his 
Land Charters and Saxonic Documents. It is feminine in 
each instance. It occurs, e.g. in a charter of ^thelstan, 
A.D. 939, printed by Earle ; p. 174, 1. 4. 

Enrlyburly, a tumult. I wish to make a correction. I 
say, in my Diet., that the P. hurluburlu is a late word, later 
than Shakespeare. This is not so, as Littr^ gives a quotation 
for it from Rabelais. It is curious that Ihre's Diet, of 0. 
Swedish g^ves huller om buller as a made-up phrase, to 
express a state of the greatest confusion. The 0. Swed. 
bullra means * to make a great noise.' Hurly represents F. 
hurleTf O.F. huller^ to howl. The word is more or less imita- 
tive, and practically means * a howling and bellowing.' 

laveer, to tack against the wind. Used by Dryden, 
AstrsBa Redux, 1. 65. Also by Davenant and Suckling, ac- 
cording to a note upon Dryden 's line in Christie's edition. 
Borrowed from Dutch. Hexham gives : * Lav^ren, to saile 
npon and downe with a crosse-winde.' The G. lavieren is 
also borrowed from Dutch. The Swed. form is lofvera 
(Widegren, 1788) ; Dan. latere. These words appear to be 
borrowed from the F. loveer, aloveer, forms used in the six- 
teenth century; see Littr^, s.v. louvoyer, which is the present 
F. spelling. Again, the F. loveer seems to be formed in its 
turn from the Du. loeren, to luff. Hexham also gives the 
spelling loeviren for the Dutch word. The chief difficulty is 
to make out the mutual relationship of the words; and I 
cannot find evidence for deciding whether the latter syllable 
is French, or whether the whole word may not be Dutch, 
and made out of the phrase te loef veeren, to veer to wind- 
ward. In Phillips's Diet., s.v. veer, 1 find the phrase * to go 
loft Veering, i.e. at large, neither by a wind, nor directly 


before the windy but betwixt both, whea Bbe sails with H 
sheat veered out ; which is also termed quartering/ 

Leet. The difficulty of this word is well known. It 
not found earlier than the time of Edw. I. ; it is spelt lete i 
the Anglo-French of that period ; see Year-books, i. 297 ; i 
399, etc. Prof. Maitland thinks its use arose in East Anglii 
and it was probably a prov. E. word taken up into legal xm 
It certainly is not French ; and cannot be the Fr. lit, i 
strangely suggested in Stratmann. My own belief is that : 
is a different use or sense of the word which is still in use c 
leet in East Anglia. Halliwell, s.v. releet (which is tl 
wrong place to enter it), gives 'releet, a crossing of roads 
There is no such word. The East Anglian phrase is thret 
releet, or four-releet, according to the number of ways. No 
three-releet is a popular misdivision of threere-leet (A.S. J>rioi 
gel^tu), lit. ' exits of three,' i.e. three ways departing froi 
a common point. Here leet answers to A.S. gelcete, pi. gelAt\ 
a derivative of l^tan, to let go, dismiss, let depart. We hai 
closely related words in E. in- let, out-let^ properly in-lH 
out'leet ; in the Icel. i-ldt, an inlet, the vowel is long to tl 
present day. I think it is quite certain, etymologically, thi 
leet is a derivative of Icetan, to let, the senses of which are i 
very variable ; as it means ' to let go, to let a house, to caui 
to be done,' etc. Perhaps the sense of leet was 'a thin 
appointed.' I feel sure that it is merely the sense of tl 
word, and not its form, that is difficult to trace. The A.l 
form is clearly Icete, neut. sb. ; pi. i^tu. 

Lingo. ''I have thoughts to tarry a small matter in towi 
to learn somewhat of your lingo first, before I cross the seas 
—(1700) W. Congreve, Wai/ of the World, Act 3, sc. i 
Clearly a sailor's word; and not from the Ital. lingua, bi 
from the Port, lingoa, occasional form of lingua, a languag 
So in Johnson. 

Manito, a spirit, or fetish. In Cuoq, Lexique de la langt 
Algonquine (Montreal, 1886), I find: '^ Manito, sometime 
pronounced Manitou, spirit, * g^nie.' Kije Manito, Grei 
Spirit; Malci Manito, evil spirit, demon." The original 
in French ; I give a translation. 


luiboiity Karabou. The name Marabout is given to 
eertain saints or religious persons among the Berbers of 
Sorth Africa. It answers to the Arab, mardbit, quiet, still ; 
see Richardson's Arab. Diet. p. 1382, and Devic's Supple- 
ment to Littr^. In French the final t is not sounded, and 
the same name is given to the marabou-stork, the bird whence 
we obtain marabou feathers. It is said that the bird is so 
called because some hold it sacred as 'a saint.' See the 
Supplement to Dozy's Span. Etymologies. The habitat of 
the bird is tropical Africa. 

M a r casite, a kind of iron pyrites. F. marcassile, a word 
of Persian origin. In Hichardson's Arab, and Pers. Diet, 
p. 1395, it is spelt markashiahd, explained by ' the marcasite- 
stone,' and is marked as Persian ; it is also given as Persian 
by Yiillers. See marcassite in Devic's Supp. to Littr^. 

MerelleSy a game originally played with counters. Also 

spdt meriis ; and in Shak. nine-men's morris, Mids. N.D. ii. L 

98. Of F. origin. Cotgrave has : * Le Jeu des Merelles^ the 

boyish game called Meriis, or five-penny Morris ; plaied here 

most commonly with stones, but in France with pawns, or 

men made of purpose, and tearmed Merelles* The Mod. F. 

has marelie, which is explained to be the game played with 

counters called in Mod. French mireau, and in O.F. merel. 

There are thus two forms; O.F. merelle, fem., and O.F. merel, 

masc. The latter appears to be the original, and appears 

ftlso as marel, meaning a counter, a medal, orig. a bit of 

common metal, usually lead, which was used as a counter or 

ticket for various purposes, especially of calculation or as 

Touchers. The masc. form marel would make the pi. as 

^nareaux, and this is the particular form which appears in 

£ng. as morris. For information, see merel, s.m., and merele 

or merelle, s.f., in Godefroy ; and merallus, merellus, in 

Bucange. The O.F. merelier meant the board on which the 

game was played. The ultimate etymology is doubtful ; but, 

as the Lat. merallus sometimes meant ' a piece of money of 

small value,' and Ducange gives a verb merare, to distribute 

aloQS, I think it is highly probable that these words are from 

Lat. merere, mereri, to earn, deserve. It appears that these 


counters were actually given to chaplains as vouchers for the 
masses they had said. They could, of course, claim payment 

Moccassin. Said to be an Algonquin word. This I have 
verified. In the Lexique de la langue Algonquine, by an 
author named Cuoq, published at Montreal in 1886, at p. 
199, I find : ' Makkin^ chaussure (dont les Anglais ont fait 
moccassin)* Capt. Smith (ed. Arber), p. 44, gives: * Mock- 
asina^ Shooes,' in his list of Indian words ; see also p. 381. 

Moose. The Algonquin name is mons (with n, not ti). See 
Cuoq, Lexique de la Langue Algonquine, Montreal, 1886. 

Mulatto. Our mulatto is borrowed from Span, mulato. 
The usual etymology is from Lat. multis, a mule ; though the 
proper derivative of mu/us is Span, muieto, explained in 
Minsheu's Span. Diet. (1623) as meaning 'a he-colt of an 
horse and an asse.' But it is not at all clear that there 
is any connection. Minsheu gives mulato separately, and 
explains it to mean ' the sonne of a black Moore, and one of 
another nation.' I think the etymology given in Devices 
Supplement to Littr^ is far better ; it is closer both in form 
and sense. He follows Engelmann in deriving it from the 
Arab, mutcallad, explained in Richardson's Diet., p. 1528, as 
* procreated, begotten ; also a foreigner, not a true Arabian.' 
Devic says it is found with the sense of 'one bom of an 
Arabian father and a strange mother,' or ' one whose father 
is a slave and whose mother is free.' This agrees so exactly 
with Minsheu's definition that it can hardly fail to be right. 
The Arab, word is a participial form, allied to tcalad, a son ; 
Bich. Diet., p. 1656. 

Nenuphar, Nuphar. The yellow water-lily is botanically 
called nuphar, and the white one sometimes nenuphar. The 
account of nenuphar in Devic's Supp. to Littrfe should be 
consulted, but is not satisfactory. According to Viillers, the 
Pers. nufar, meaning a water-lily, is simply a contracted 
form of the older ntlupar, also spelt nilvpal, niiu/ar, nilufal; 
see Richardson's Pers. Diet., p. 1620. The E. nenuphar is 
clearly an adaptation of the Pers. nilu/ar, with the substitu- 
tion of n for /; and Devic notes that the form ntnufar is 


feond eren in Persian. The Pers. word is unoriginal, being 
borrowed from the Skt. nildtpafa, a blue lotus, this being the 
oommon kind of lotus. The Skt. word is compounded of 
nth, blue, and utpala, a lotus; see Benfey, p. 113. Utpala 
18 also a compound, the former element being the prep, udy 
oat; whilst the origin o{ pala is doubtful. Benfey suggests 
the root jMit, to move. I am indebted to Prof. Cowell for his 
kelp as regards this word. 

Hcrt. I have g^ven the old derivation of this word from 
a root NAS, to go to, to visit, as in Pick and Curtius. But it 
is DOW usual to follow that given by Benfey for the Skt. 
nUa, which is explained as being a contraction from ni'Sad-a, 
a place to sit down in ; according to which view, tie, i.e. 
down, is a prefix, to be compared with E. ne-ther^ the com- 
parative form from the same base ; and the real root is sed, 
to sit For the full explanation see Kluge, s.v. N> ' * and 
Doose, Introd. to Gothic, p. 45. 

lunbles, inward parts of a deer. Cotgrave has : 'Nomu^o 

(ftn eerf, the numblea of a stag.' The M.E. form is noumbles, 

Gawain and the Grene Knight, 1347; also twmbies, Wright's 

Vocab. 569. 20 ; see also Prompt. Parv. p. 360 ; and Way's 

note. From O.F. nambles, the same ; from Low Lat. ntim- 

bttlus, allied to Low Lat. numbile or numbUis, the loin, esp. a 

loin of pork. Numbulus is a curious corruption of lumbulus, 

a loin of pork; from Lat. Imnbtis, loin. It follows that 

numble is the dimin. form corresponding to loin. See Littr^ 

and Scheler; also Ducange. Numbles also appears as umbfes; 

hence our ' humble pie.' 

Farasang, a measure of long distance. The Gk. irapa- 
adrfpf^, so familiar to readers of Xenophon, is well known to 
be an adaptation of an older form of the Pers. farmng, 
explained by 'a parasang, a league,' in Richardson's Diet., 
p. 1081. Viillers suggests that the etymology is from Pers. 
far, put for fard, over against, and mng, a stone ; so that it 
meant ^up to the stone' which was used to mark the distance, 
flee the same Diet., pp. 1075, 854. The initial p is due to 
the Zend form (j)ara) of the prefix, for which later Persian 
substituted /• There is, however, a difficulty about this 



derivation. There is nothing to show that Pers. sang is an 
Old Persian word. The Aryan s becomes A in Persian ; the 
Pers. B is represented by Zend g, Skt. g^ Aryan k ; and thifi 
must be the guide to a discovery of the true etymology. 

Pile. Pile^ in the sense of 'stake/ is the A.S. pil^ borrowed 
from Lat. pUum, a pestle, a javelin, a stake. Lewis and 
Short tell us it stands (or pis-lum, {rom pisere, occasional fom 
of pinsere, to pound. The fact is rather that it stands foi 
*pin8'lom, as noted in Brugmann, Gomp. Gram., § 208. 

Pinfold. I have already given this word as being foi 
pynd'fold. A variant, without the mutated vowel, is th< 
M.E. pound/oid. I now find that the A.S. form is pund-fM 
though not given in the dictionaries. In some boundaries in i 
charter dated 961 we find: "of }>am putte on hacan pund'Jbid 
of heLcein pund'/alde,'' etc. — Gartul. Saxon, ed. Birch, iii. 309 

Plaok, a small Scotch coin ; a third of a penny. This i 
rather an old word. It occurs in A. Montgomery's Cherri 
and Slae, 1. 1153 ; pr. in 1597. Jamieson shows that it wa 
struck in the reign of James III., ab. a.d. 1483. It is some 
times derived from F. plaque, but this can hardly be right; for 
although this is the same word, we see from Cotgrave that th* 
F. plaque never had this sense. The fact is that both E. placi 
and F. plaque were borrowed from M. Dutch. Hexham give 
M. Du. placke, 'a French sous.' The Mod. Du. plak only keep 
the senses of ' slice ' or ' round,' or ' schoolmaster's ferula. 
See placard in my Diet., which is from the same source. 

Quip. I have given this as of Celtic origin ; but this i 
hardly probable. I now believe it to be simply a shortene< 
form of Lat. quippe ; cf. quillet (for quidlibet) and quiddity 
This is rendered almost certain by the use of the dissyllabi 
form quippy. ** Why ? Lucill lyude, who ever vsde Al 
fayners to detect With satyres sharpe, and quippiea round ; * 
Drant, tr. of Horace, Bk. 2, Sat. 1 : sign. F 1 (1566). 

Bail. I know of no example older than that which 
have given from Gower. I give the etymology from th 
0. Low G. regel, Swed. regel, a bar, rail. But it can hardl; 
have been borrowed directly. There must have been a: 
intermediate O.F. form ; and then the order of things woul 


be clear. The E. word would be borrowed from P., and the 
F. word from O. Low G. Now in Moisy's Diet, of Norman 
patois, he not only gives railes^, a set of railings, but be 
abo quotes the O.F. reilk, a rail, bar, as occurring in a 
Gompte de 1334, cited by M. Delisle in the Actes Norm, de 
la Ch. des Comptes, p. 69. Here is the missing link. 

Saoheat, a recall, or signal of recall (in hunting). See 
recheai in Nares, who derives it from the O.F. recept or recet. 
I believe he is practically right, and that it answers to an 
O.F. reehet, variant of recet But I suspect that this par- 
ticular use is from the verb to recheat, to play the notes 
ngnifying recall on a horn, orig. simply 'to recall.' Roque- 
fort has rechaiter^ recheter, to conceal, receive, draw back, 
hide; and Ducange, s.v. rec/mtare, has the note that O.F. 
reehaUer meant to receive secretly or hide. The receiver, 
who was said to be as bad as the thief, was called ' Gil qui 
Techaite cose embl^.' This verb recheter, variant of reccter 
(for which see Bartsch), is derived from O.F. recety a place of 
refuge, which is the original of the somewhat common M.E. 
^^^ty in the same sense. Receter answers to Lat. receptare ; 
which is therefore the original of recheat. For the change 
of c to chy cf. Low Lat. recheptar for receptor ; and the F. 
^heter from Low Lat. accaptare, 

Beel. The A.S. is hreol or hriol. See Kluge, in Eng. 
^tudien, xi. 512. He suggests an original *hroehil, hrehii^ 
(from hrdh'il), from an older */ironh'il, *hranh-il ; and com- 
Jwres the North Fries, raial^ a reel (Johansen, 13). If this 
be right, it may be allied to ring (G. Ring in Kluge). 

Seeat, Beat, a part of a plough. Sometimes spelt tcreest. 
'On the side [of the plough] is a piece of timber, which they 
call a tcreest ' [in the isle of Thanet] ; see Britten's Farming 
Words (E.D.S.), p. 113. Halliwell has: ^tcreesi, a piece of 
timber on the side of a plough, made to take on and off 
(Kent) * ; also * rest, the wood on which the coulter of a 
plough is fixed (MS. Lansd. 560, fol. 45).' There is a plough 
called * the Kentish turn-wrest plough ' ; Engl. Cycl. s.v. 
Plough. I once thought this word was connected with the 
verb to tcrest; but the initial w is due, I fear, to popular 


etymology. The A.S. word is rSoat, occurring in * DetUdUB^ 
sales r&)8t ' in the Corpus Glossary, 1. 656 ; ' Deniaky sole- 
r6o8t/ Wright's Gl., ed. Wiilker, 219, 5 ; ' Dentalia, sules 
r^ost/ ibid. 384, 43. The So is long, as shewn both by ProY. 
E. reest (see wreest above), and by the cognate O.SLQ. 
riostar (Schade). Schade proposes to derive it from the root 
seen in O.H.G. riutan, to grub up, Icel. rt/6Ja, to clear or rid 
the ground ; cf . O.H.G. riuti, cleared ground. See Bid, 

Bid, to clear ground (Scand.). It is worth noting that 
there are two verbs to rid in English. We have rid^ to 
deliver from an enemy, A.S. hreddan, cognate with G. retten ; 
and the Prov. E. rid, to clear ground, whence ridding^ a 
clearing (Swaledale Gloss., E.D.S.). The latter rttf is of 
Scand. origin, from Icel. rt/Sja, to clear, Dan. ri/dde, to grab up 
land ; cf. G. reuten, to grub up. Yigf usson thinks this word 
should also have an initial h, and that it is from the strong 
verb htyffSa, to strip, to unload, etc., which seems probable. 
Cf. also the Yks. royd, a clearing, in the Huddersfield Glossary, 
E.D.S. No. 39 ; Icel. rJ&Sr, a clearing, O.H.G. riuti, a clearing. 

Bill, a streamlet. I have given this word as Celtic ; but 
this is too risky. I do not find it in M.E. ; my earliest 
quotation is from Drayton. It may have been borrowed 
from abroad. The corresponding E. Friesic is rille (Kool- 
man) ; and Wedgwood compares the Low G. rille (Bremen 
Worterbuch). According to Koolman, it occurs in M. Dutch 
as ril. It seems to be a contraction for ridel, the diminutive of 
E. Fries, ride, ride, a stream. For the loss of d, cf. E. Fries. 
rilkn, contracted form of riddeln, to shiver with fever. The 
A.S. word for ' stream ' is ri^e or riB, preserved in Shotte-ry 
(Warwickshire), orig. Scotta-r^ (see Kemble) ; Child-rey, 
orig. Cilla-rfS (see Earle's A.S. Charters) ; also, perhaps, in 
the name of the river Bye (North Biding of Yorkshire). Cf. 
O.Sax. rith, a stream (Heine's Gloss, to Kleinere altniederd. 
Denkmale). The N. Friesic ride is also f*ie (with loss of d) ; 
see Outzen. The A.S. word is common ; see Grein and 
Toller. As to the vowel, it was probably long, because Leo 
(A.S. Names, p. 86) points out that "there are numerous 
streams in North Germany, bearing Reide as a nomen pro- 


prium" Halliwell g^ves " rithe, a small stream, usually one 
oocaaoned by heavy rain ; South" The A.S. rf6e probably 
stands for ^rtn-^e (Ettmiiller), i.e. the running or flowing 
fltream; from rtnnan, to run, flow; cf. run, a small stream, as 
in ' Boll's Bun/ and A.S. ryn^el, or runnel. I conclude that 
riU and runnel may be derived from the same root- verb, and 
mean the same thing. If this be so, rill is short for *rith'el, 
if we keep to the E. form. There is an interesting passage 
in iElfred's Metres, v. 20, where rt/ne and rf6e (there spelt 
ri/6e) occur in the same line : ' broc bi% onwended of his riht- 
ryne rySum toflowen,' the brook is turned aside, diverted in 
its rills from the right run or channel. 

Bother, an ox. M.E. ru^eren, pi., in Layamon ; A.S. 
Arj^cr, hrfSer. Hence Mother-ham (York), Rother-field 
(Sussex) ; and JRuther-ford. The M.E. forms rather, rutlier, 
answer to A.S. hrt/Ser, with short y ; so that the vowel must 
have been shortened. The base hrffS' probably stands for 
%«S-, with the usual loss of n before 'S, derived by muta- 
tion from the stem *hrunth' of the strong verb ^hrinth-an, A.S. 
hrind-an, to push, thrust ; see Fick, iii. 83 ; and cf. Goth./n- 
than, hinthan, with A.S. findan, *hindan. The word runt 
(q.T.) can be derived from the same stem, and the O.H.G. hrind 
from the stem hrinth^ of the same verb. 

In Toller's Diet, the A.S. word is entered under hrfSer (with 
i), and such is also the Kentish form in Sweet's O.E. Texts ; 
bat nearly all the examples shew the spelling with i/, which 
occurs, e.g. in the Blickling Homilies. Sievers gives the forms 
as * hrtfSer, hrfSer, subsequently also hrffSer* In Layamon we 
find rtrSer^n (pl-)> later text ropere. The spelling with o may 
have been due to French scribes, as in the case of M.E. sone 
for A.S. mnu. We should expect rather a Mod. E. form 
ruther, and this is, in fact, preserved in the name of Ruiher' 
ford, answering to an A.S. Hr^era-ford in Kemble. This 
name of Ruther-ford aflTords a parallel to Ox-ford \ cf. also 
HorB'ford (Norfolk), Swin-ford (Leicester), and Cat-ford 
(Kent), besides the shallow river called the Raven' s-bourne. 

Another theory sees in the initial hr a relationship to the 
Gk. xip-a^, E. horn ; see Schade. 



Ennt, a bullock ; sometimes, a heifer. (Du.) We find in 
Florio's Ital. Diet., ed. 1598, " Oiouenco, a steere, a runt, a 
buUocke; " and *' Oiouenca, a heyfer, a runt** It is borrowed 
from Dutch. Hexham has : " een Bund, Runde, ofte 0$, 
a Runt, a Bullock, or an Oxe.*' Also " Eundt-vkesch, 
Bullock-flesh, or Beefe." It is closely allied to G. Bind, ox, 
bullock; which see in Kluge. The O.H.G. form had an 
initial h, and took the form hrind. The E. Friesic word is 
rind or riind ; see Koolman. And see Bother (above), 

Eust. Dr. J. Wright informs us that the Yksh. diaL form 
of rust is rdst, and in the same dialect a mouse is mds. Hence 
in the A.8. rust, the u was long. In my Etym. Diet. I have 
already suggested that riist is a contracted form of ^rudst, 
the suffix 'St being added to the base rud-. The loss of d 
would cause the short u to become long H ; which is just 
what happened. Kluge also refers the G. Bost to the same 
base rud-; cf. A.S. rud-u, ruddiness, and E. rtiddy. This 
base agrees with the 3rd or past-plural stem of the strong 
verb riod-an, to become red. 

Scabious. An early mention of this plant occurs in 
Wiilker's Vocabularies, p. 609, 1. 36 : " Scabiosa, anglice 
scabiose.^' The etymology is obvious. 

Sequin. I have given the usual derivation, which takes the 
word back to the Arab, sikkah, a die for coins. It is worth just 
noting that this is the very word which occurs in the phrase sicca 
rupee, i.e. 'coined rupee'; which see in Yule's Hobson-Jobson. 

Sere, withered. The account in my Diet, is fairly correct. 
For further information see Brugmann's Comp. Gramm., tr. 
by Wright, pp. 95, 161 ; §§ 100, 185. The A.S. s^ar answers 
to a common Teut. *sauso-, which is cognate with Lith. sausas, 
O.Bulg. suchu, dry (Russ. sykhoi) ; allied to Skt. sere, dry, 
gosha, a drying up, gush, to become dry or withered. The 
form of the root is saws. The Lith. form, which I had 
not mentioned, is important. 

Sophy, a title of the Shah of Persia. This word occurs in 
Shakespeare thrice ; see Wright's note to Twelfth Nt. ii. 6. 
164 (Globe ed. 197), which is correct. A common explana- 
tion, found in Webster, is, that it is the same as the word 


alao spelt 9uft, from the Arab. «fi/t or sH/it/, which in 

Sichardaon's Diet, p. 946, is explained by * wise, intelligent, 

piom, devout, spiritual ; a religious man of the order of the 

Sufi;' though Mr. Robertson Smith tells roe it is best to explain 

it only as 'the term used to designate adherents to a peculiar 

mystic philosophy.' Bichardson adds : ' hence the surname of 

the kings of Persia.' But Devic points out that 8ophf/y as 

applied to the Shah, has nothing whatever to do with the 

order of the Sufi, or the Arab, and Pers. <fi/t ; though the words 

were easily and early confused. As applied to the Shah, the 

right word is sefem, an adjective formed from the proper name 

8efl, or Sqfi^ who was the founder of the dynasty to which 

thekmgs called saphj/ belonged. This is clearly given also 

in Bichardson's Diet., p. 938, who on that page distinguishes 

between this word and m/i, quite plainly, and gives the correct 

account ; showing that his other statement refers to an 

incorrect usage. His account is : ' Sqfi, the surname of a 

dynasty of Persian kings (1600-1736), so named from Ismael 

8afii the first monarch of this house. The origin of the 

cleTation of this family however must be traced to a private 

ancestor of that prince, called Sqflyu^d^din (the purity of 

religion), who was cotemporary with Tamerlane.' He then 

gives the whole story about this man. Hence the term sophy 

in Shakespeare is clearly from the Arab, safiyy pure ; and 

tbis is quite a distinct word from sufl above. In one word 

the former vowel is short; and in the other long. Both 

begin with the same kind of «, viz. sad. A more exact date 

for the dynasty of Sophies is 1505-1725; see Stokvis, Man. 

d'Histoire, Leyden, 1888, p. 140. 

Theorbo, a large lute. Used by Drayton (1612) in Poly- 
olbion, song 4. Better spelt t/teorba, as in Blount (1681) 
and in Torriano's translation of the Ital. word (1688). 
Phillips again has theorbo (1706). The fh was originally 
sounded as t, and was due to the F. spelling thSorbe. Both 
F. and E. words are from Ital. tiorba, ' a kinde of musicall 
instrument vsed among countrie people ' ; Florio. Stappers, 
in his F. Etym. Diet., says that Tiorba was the name of the 
inventor ; which seems probable. 

FhU. Trans. 1888-90. 12 


Thistle. If Fick be right in giving the orig. Teut. form 
as *thimtila from the Teut. root thins, to tear, then the t in 
the A.S. pUtel must have been originally long. ELluge (£ng. 
Studien, xi. 512) points out that this fact is proved by the 
Somersetshire form, which Mr. Elworthy spells duy'9l (Dial 
of W. Somersetshire, p. 74, 1. 4). The author explains that 
this uy answers to the literary Eng. long t, as in mind (p. 
28). See also dashk [glossic daash'l, dusi, duyshl, duysl], 
a thistle, in Mr. £1 worthy's Somersetsh. Glossary, p. 184. 

Tutty. According to Webster's Dictionary, this ia a name 
given to an impure protoxide of zinc, said to be found native 
in Persia. It is in Johnson, and occurs in No. 266 of the 
Tatler : " near it a phial of rose-water and powder of tutty.** 
It was used by ladies, and was thought to be good for the 
eyes. It is the F. tutie^ which, according to Devic, is from 
the Arab, tutiyd, with the same sense. But it is really 
Persian ; Richardson's Diet, gives Pers. tufiyd, tutty, whence 
are derivatives meaning 'a coUyrium or medicine for the 
eyes,' and 'green vitriol' respectively. The native Arab. 
lexicons recognise it as a foreign word, and say that the best 
species came from India. Its Aryan origin is seen by compar- 
ing it with Skt. tuttha, * blue vitriol,' in Benfey's Dictionary. 
Cotgrave has F. tut/tie, explained by * tutie,' which he 
describes, so that the word is old in English. It is spelt both 
as tuty and tufty in Phillips (1706). 

Wave. The A.S. for * to wave ' is supposed to be tcqfian, 
but no example is given in which wafian has this precise sense. 
It occurs, however, in -^Ifric's Lives of the Saints, ed. Skeat, 
§ xxvii. 1. 151 : * J>eah J>e man wafige wundorlice mid handa, 
ne bi% hit }>eah bletsung buta he wyrce tacn }>8ere halgan 
rode,' i.e. though a man wave about wonderfully with his 
hand, it is not a (real) blessing (of himself) unless he form 
the sign of the holy cross. 

Wayfaring. Not a derivative from the verb to fare^ A.S, 
far an ; but from the secondary verb f^ran^ to travel. This 
firan is derived, by vowel-change of 6 to ^, from /<5r, a 
journey ; and JdVy sb., is from /cJr, the stem of the pt. tense 
of faran. This is proved by the occurrence of the A.S. pres. 


pwt tceg-firendey Matt, xxvii. 39, Mark xv. 21 (Boswortb). 
The verb wegfiran is derived from the sb. teegfor. This sb. 
occura in Wrighfs Vocab. ed. Wiilker, 423. 33 : " In pro- 
mtiane, on wegfore." (I forget where I found this note.) 

Wigwam. Said to be an Algonquin word. I have copied 
the account given in Webster ; but I find a simpler explana- 
tion in the Lexique de la langue Algonquine, by Cuoq, pub- 
lished at Montreal in 1886. At p. 438 I find: ' Wikitcam, 
maiflon ; * with a note that it is the same word as mikiwam. At 
p. 221 I find: * Mikiwam, logis, habitation, cabane, maison.' 

Tun. 1 have had a great deal of trouble in trying to 

locate this word. It occurs in 1689 ; in Arber's Eng. 

Gamer, viL 367, and in Cook's Voyages, ed. 1777, i. p. 146. 

I have quoted the account in Littr^, that it was an African 

word, borrowed by tbe Portuguese, who spelt it inhatne. I 

find it spelt names in Minsheu's Span. Diet. 1623, who 

defines it ' a kinde of fruit in the kingdome of China.' The 

&ct is that the name originally came from Benin, on the W. 

African coast. This is settled by a passage in Hackluyt's 

Voyages (1599), vol. ii. pt. 2, p. 129. In a description of a 

vojrage made to Benin in 1588, we there find : " Their bread 

is a kind of roots ; they call it inamia ; and when it is well 

Mdden I would leaue our bread to eat of it ; it is pleasant in 

eating, and light of digestion ; the roote thereof is as bigge 

as a mans arme.'^ It is said that the Portuguese carried the 

name to Malacca. This is why we find mention of *' the 

fruite called inaniy like to our turneps, but very sweet and 

good to eat," in connection with an account of a voyage to 

Malacca in Hackluyt's Voyages (lo99), vol. ii. pt. 1, p. 227. 

And this is why Minsheu talks of its coming from China, 

which he confuses with Malacca, unless the Portuguese also 

gave the name to a fruit from thence. 

List of Words Discussed. — Blet, buggy, chevron, cockney, cresset, daker-hen, 
daT, despot, drain, dream, drivel, duck, dusk, dye, engle (ingle\ Esquimaux, 
fallow (2), filbert, flip, funk, gang, ghazul, gooseberry, graze, griddle, hastelets, 
hone, hurlyburly, laveer, leet, lingo, manito, marabout (marabou), muroasite, 
merelles (morris), moccassin, moose, mulatto, nenuphar (nuphar), nest, numbles, 
parasang, pile, pinfold, plack, quip, rail, recheat, reel, reest (rest), rid, rill, rother, 
runt, nisi scabious, sequin, sere, sophy, theorbo, thistle, tutty, wave, wayfaring, 
wigwam, yam. 




{Bead at th$ Society's Meeting^ Lee, 21, 1888.) 

(1) The percentage of borrowed words in English is about 
75, in Persian 62, in Latin 14, in Greek 2^. English is 
probably the most composite of all languages : to judge by 
the lists at the end of Skeat*s dictionary, half our vocabulary 
comes from Latin, and a quarter from other foreign sources. 
Next in order comes Persian, in which about five-eighths of 
the words are Arabic. In classical Greek, down to 300 B.C., 
there are 41,100 words, of which perhaps 1000 are foreign : 
in classical Latin, down to a.d. 117, there are 26,300 words, 
of which about 3500 are from Greek and perhaps 300 from 
other languages.^ In all these figures Proper Names are 
excluded. These proportions of course refer only to the 
words as given in a dictionary, not to their actual use in 
literature : a page of Demosthenes or Cicero taken at random 
will probably show no borrowed words at all, a page of a 
modern English novel will contain only about 20 per cent. 
of Latin words. 

For our present purpose it may suffice to consider only 
the Latin authors of the first rank (excluding in each cas^ 
fragments) : viz., in chronological order, Plautus, Terence, 
Cicero Caesar Catullus Lucretius Sallust, Yergil Horace 
Livy Tibullus Propertius Ovid, Persius, Tacitus, JuvenaL 
These sixteen authors use 16,900 words, of which 1080 ar^ 
from Greek and perhaps 200 from other languages, making; 
a proportion of about 8 per cent, of loan-words. 

The Greek loan-words in Latin have been catalogued bjT 

^ The fibres given in this essay I have arrived at by simple counting, a task 
which, so far as I know, no one of my predecessors has attempted : as Douse say0 
in his *' Grimm's Law," it is much easier to use statistics than to make them. 


TocUiandler ('De yocabulis Graecis in linguam Latinam 
trandatis/ 1876), F. O. Weise ('Die Griechischen Worter im 
Latein/ 1882), and Saalfeld ('Tensaurus Italograecus/ 1884). 
For Plautine words the late Professor Key's admirable 
dictionary is often nseful. Some of the un-Greek loan- 
words in Latin are treated by Vanicek (* Fremdworter im 
Griechischen und Lateinischen/ 1878). Of the Greek loan- 
words 320 were introduced by Plautus, 200 by Cicero. 

(2) I have not attempted to define what a loan-word is ; 
and the following sections will show that we may at will 
narrow or enlarge our boundaries. A purist might exclude 
all in-ci^ Xeyofievay of which 130 fall within our province. 
In any case we must leave a considerable ' margin of transi- 
tion/ as a logician would call it, between genuinely foreign 
and genuinely native words : a margin embracing three 
classes of words — those which are really Greek, those which 
tfe really Latin, and those which are partly Greek and 
partly Latin. 

As really Greek, and not loan-words at all, we may 
count words directly quoted by Latin authors from Greek 
wupces: viz., 

Cicero's apopraigmenon arctopht/lax auloedm hUleuterium 

cordax cort^phaeua exaereaimus gymnasiarchua logica melancho- 

*^us *monogramtnm myatagogna phititia phyaiognomon pro- 

^orus proegmenon prytaneum rho adter : 

Lucretius' homoeomeria preater : 

Livy's agema *aglaapidea argyraapidea ^ceatroaphendane dro- 

^og hemerodromua hepterea hexerea hlppagbgua monerea peltaata 

P^^nlangtta prytania aariaophorua aynedrua : 

Ovid's ai: Persius' chnere : Juvenal's chironomunta. 

(The asterisk here denotes that the original is not found in 

^Xtant Greek literature.) 

(3) Our second class consists of words which are really 

t^atin and not Greek. Such are the following, cognate with, 

^ut not borrowed from, the corresponding Greek words : 
atidt or d/d/, arraTal, 
bardus 'stupid,' *fipa0v^ (seen in ^pdaacav 'slower') a 

^y-form of fipoBik* 


ceray ter}p6<;. The Doric ledpS^ Beems a figment : in AQlokriit 
510 edrindrii is a corrupt reading (like murobathdrii in the 
next line, for which myrohrecharii is a mere modem conjecture) . 
cincinnus * curl/ kUivvo^ (which stand to each other as 
ttniind to TLrapicfia^). 
ctrctis, lepUo^. 
dolus, Sdko^. 
domm, Bofio^. 

feretrum, ^perpov in Polyhius. 

Uhra * pound,' \trpa (Sicilian, for *\tdpa) : for the want of 
aspiration cf. Sicilian ki,to}v for xi,ro}v. 
linum, Tdvop, cf. XiP'OwrdofJuu. 
mutilus, fivrCKo^ fiirvXo^. 
nemuSj vip^, 
pdnnus, irijvo^. 
pappus, irdinro^. 
plleus * felt/ 7rZ\o9. 
propitit48, irponrerri^. 
scipid 'sta£F/ atcLirtov, 
scutum * shield/ ot/cSto? * hide.' 
stmus * snubnosed/ alp>6^ for *crFifJU)^. 
squilla * prawn/ crKiWa, 
stupa * tow/ crrvTnf. 
turba, Tvp^T). 

The following, some of them of doubtful or foreign origin, 
are at any rate unconnected with the Greek word appended 
in each case : 

aclt/s * javelin ' — dryKvXk * hook.' 
dlucinor * prate ' — aXv/crd^o) * am in distress.' 
aluta 'soft leather' — aXeiTm] 'smeared': aluta, I would 
suggest, =*ar/-tt/a *put on,' cf. ind-uta ex-uta, ad becoming 
al as in al-acer ' lively ' beside acer-bus * sharp,' and aUapa 
* blow ' beside apiscor * reach.' 

calx * small stone, lime ' — ^aXtf * pebble, gravel/ 

clUra * ape ' — KoKovpo^ * dock- tailed.' 

crdpula 'intoxication' — KpcuTrdXr): d could not represent cu. 

cr^pldu * slipper ' — KprjirU * military boot/ 

creta * chalk ' — KptJTrj. 


fifmira * window ' — ^xdim, 

fida ' lyre '—a^i&rf * gut/ 

fiinda * gling ' — a'(f)€vB6vrf. 

mla 'elecampane' — kKkvvov. 

J^mpha * water * — Nvfujnf : to which however lympha owes 
iti spelling, for *liimpa from *<Himpa, cf • Oscan Diumpais 

ndrtna — yvdpifio^ * well known ' : n6rma was a carpenter's 
square, shaped like L and (I would suggest) taking its name 
from that letter, the ninth in the Faliscan and Etruscan 
alphabets, so that ndrma^^^ndn-ma ^nOni-ma as carmen ger- 
ffi^^*canifnen *genimen respectively, cf. Havet in Memoires 
de la Soci^t^ de Linguistique YI. p. 31. 

pessulus 'bolt' — irdaaaXo^ 'peg' : pessultis, I would suggest, 
from *ped-tu8 ' provided with a foot,' as if the bolt were the 
* foot ' of the door.^ 

rogus * pyre ' — jioyofs * silo ' (to use a term of scientific 
agriculture), see Foy in Bezzenberger's Beitrage XIV. p. 

41 80. 

9drex 'shrew-mouse' — vpa^: in Poenulus 1313 Goetz 
Writes saurex. 

stilus * pen ' — crrfiXov * pillar.' 

tipUla * water-spider ' — ti<I)tj, 

So KopvXo^ ifKwTTip TriTViTf)^^ the pretended originals of 
corulua Itnter pitulta, are mere figments. — ^The following are 
rather Latin than Greek : 

' Other instanoes of Roman wit, besides ndrtna^ are : 
blaesus ' lisping ' from fiXMaSs * bandylegged ' ; 
r0di'9lv%u * aliTe again/ •'.«. used a^in ; 
runeina * plane ' from runeA ' depn?e of hair ' (twigs planed off being compared 

to hairs cut off) ; 
laneind * tear to pieces ' (quasi ' weigh out *) from lanx ' scale of a balance' ; 
9ugiU6 ' beat black and blue ' from augo * suck ' i.e. draw blood ; 
and, I would suggest, 
cicatrix * scar ' from eie-ur * tame ' (quasi ' subduing,* i.e. being the end of, the 

/urea * fork ' as an instrument for punishing thieves {/urh) ; 
porrum ' leek * as a slans^ term for * head,' whence porrtgo *■ scurf ' : cf . Moretum 

74 capiti nomen debentia porra ; 
tponda ' frame of a bed ' quasi the place of *■ libation ' {jmovHi) preliminary to 

going to sleep ; 
Umberd * tear to pieces ' quasi ' lick up ' {lambo) ; 

obtut 6 ' stop up ' Irom taurus (a stopper compared to a bull, cf . jSovs M y\^ff<rp). 
See also below on Popular Etymology. 



ador * spelt/ cf. Gothic atiak * cornfield ' : not from 
oKcvpov ' wheaten flour' (and d from X quasi ad^ ^addition'). 

cldssis * class ' : not from */c\a(rft9 Doric for KKrjat^. 

crepkid * foundation ' : not from KpriirU * basement ' (or 
why cr^' P). 

Jlimina (Neut. Plur.) 'congestion of blood/ cf. Gothic 
bldth * blood ' : not from ^Xeyfiovrj * inflammation.' 

litterae, cf. iittm * shore,' from the idea of ' cutting ' : not 
from Si(f)dipcu * skins.' 

p^ca 'vinegar and water' from pd-t6 as ^-sca from erf-, 
edd : not from en-o^ ' sharpish/ with e- dropt through a 
popular connexion with potd. 

In the following cases the Greek word is borrowed from 
the Latin : 

brassica * cabbage/ fipda/cv) in Hesychius. 

bucina * trumpet/ ^vKavtj in Polybius. 

cenfd * patchwork/ Kevrpcov in Eustathius, as though from 
Kevrpov * point of a needle.' 

dolo * pike ' (and hence, I would suggest, ' foretopsail,' as 
being triangular, like the head of a pike), Sokcop 'stiletto' 
(the meaning derived from B6Xo<i) in Plutarch. 

harreum ' granary,' &peiov (quasi from &pa ' season ') in 

perperam 'wrongly' (/.^., I would suggest, 'unsatisfactorily,' 
iroTCLper-'\-parum), iripnrepo^ 'vainglorious' in Polybius. 

taxm ' yew,' ra^o^ in Galen. 

Cf. Athenaeus 8de reXKivav, . . ^Pcofiaioi, filrKov {miUdum) 
ovofidfyvfTL, So the Latin patina ' dish ' appears in Sophron 
SLSTrardPT), suddrium 'napkin' in his contemporary Hermippus 
(both of the age of Pericles) as acoBdpiop : lepus was borrowed 
into Sicilian as XeTropt? after the commencement of rhotacism, 
about 350 B.C., and so other Sicilian words, tcdXru)^ KapKapov 
kcltIvov kv^ctov vovfi/JLo^ oir/Kui, were probably borrowed 
from the Latin calcem career caiinus cubitum nUmmus uncia, 
not conversely. 

In the following cases the Homans and Greeks borrowed 
independently from foreign sources (see also sec. 12) : 

bdlaena ' whale,' <f>aKaLva. 


ekara 'horse-radish/ xepat^ Theophrastus Hist. Plant. IX. 
155 (with a reference to xipa^). 
er&mina 'purse/ fpvfiea *bag.' 
fmgw * mushroom/ cr<f>6yyo^ * sponge.' 
hinnuleus * fawn/ IveXtn; (Hesychius). 
plumbum * lead/ fidKv^Bo^. 
tophus * tufa/ ra^mv * tu£fstone quarry ' (Heraclean). 

(4) Our third class consists of words partly Greek and 
partly Latin. Plautus is fond of coining * hybrid * words, 
made up of Greek + Latin : 

mnti'Cinar * prophesy/ formed after vati-cinor ; 

imbueina 'harpist/ i.e. ^aambuci-cina, formed after tibhcina: 
% more often, of Latin + Greek : 

onte-hgium ' prologue/ S-hgium * inscription * (which latter 
Passed into general use), and (from a Proper Name) di- 

bi-eUnium (after tric^nium), ^semi-zofM (whence semizd' 

Jhrri'Mb-dx 'iron-rubbing,* from rpi^to ; 
Adm-idtae 'anglers,' from hdmus ' hook,' with the termination 
of fTrpaT'i&rcu ; 

^Idgipatida 'buffet-bearer,' a quasi patronymic like Lucretius' 
^^jnaddB, So Cicero invents the quasi Verbal facteon ' to be 

Compounds and Derivatives of Greek loan-words — and we 
'^^ve within our province 30 such Compounds and 140 such 
"•^^rivatives — cannot properly be called hybrid words: each 
^^^^utains an element which, though originally Greek, had 
^^^^n naturalised in Latin. Some of them are formed from 
^^^cm-words which must once have existed in Latin but are 
^c^t found in extant Latin literature : 

abol-la ' cloak ' from ^ahola (sec. 8 fin.) : 
aplustrum (i.e. *apiu8t-trum) 'stem' from ^aplustum, 
^^Xcxrrov (sec. 6) : 

ardneus * spider ' from ^ardnus, apw^yo^ (sec. 7), as ardnea 
""om ^ardna, apdxyv • 

conddUum 'ring' (the a, I would suggest, must be long, 


and the word a trisyllable) from *condu8, tcovSa^ * knob * 
(Hesychius) : 

dibboJdria * worth two obols ' from '^didbolum, Sim^oKov : 

lanterna ' lantern' (with termination oilucema) irom^lanter, 
Xafiimjp (sec. 7) : 

lenunculuB '8ki£F' (of. atmnculus from avua) from *ienu8, 
\r)v6^ 'trough.' 

mirmilld * a kind of gladiator ' for * murmur id from 
*murmurulu8y *murmf4ru8, fiop/ivpo^ * a fish ' (as his crest) : 

planguncula * doll ' from *plangd, trXarfyaiv : 

sandnli-gerula ' sandal-bearer ' from *8andalum, crdvSaXov : 

spintumix (sec. 6) from *8pinter, ainvOrip : 

sponddlium * hymn ' from ^sponda^ airovhrj (see p. 4 note). 


balatro * jester ' (*devourer ') from *balatrum for ^baratrum 
i.e. barathrum, fiapadpov (sec. 7) : 

baxea 'shoe' from *baxj *0d^ a by form (sec. 10) of waf in 
Hesychius (as Sicilian iSardvfj of varavrf) : 

candlk ' pipe ' from *cana, ^Kavq a byform of Kawri * reed.' 

So the Adverbs dulice euseheme pancratici prothymB pre- 
suppose Adjectives *dulicu8 *eu^chemu8 ^pancraticua ^prothpmm 
{Bov\ik6<; €v<r)(rjfjLo<; trtxr/fcpaTiKo^ irpodv/jLo^), and the Adverb 
sycophantibse an Adj. ^sycophantiosus from aycophanUa {trvKo- 
if>avTui) ; the Verb paedicd presupposes an Adj. ^paedicus 
(corresponding to arnica) from *pae8 (7raZ9), 8plended an Adj. 
*8plendu8 from splen (o-ttX^i; : no Latin word begins with 
8pl')f and the Compound in-clM * reproach ' a Verb *ctl6 
* point the lip at ' (;^€t\6(», sec. II7). 

The following Derivatives have no Greek equivalents, and 
may most safely be assumed to be pure Latin words, though 
the termination does not decide the point : 

Substantives : columba, barbaria, gerro gobwpird seorpid : 

Adjectives: blitem carbaseus citreus cupre88eu8 galbaneus 
myrr/ieu8 myrteua (and probably marmoreu8), bombycinu8, 
ceromaticm cina^dicm colly ricus : 

Verbs : cachinnd cordnd fucd hamaxd hilard triumphd, 


ampullar architector bacchor graecor moechor scurrar (and 
probably para8itor philosophor 8tomachor). 


(6) We now leave the Land Debateable^ and enter our 
proper territory. In the transliteration of Greek words some 
peculiarities may be noticed. Yowels are occasionally modi- 
fied, as in pure Latin, by the influence of dialect, accent, 
adjoining letters, or analogy. First for the short vowels : 

(a) In some Latin words (see * Latin Yocalism,' sec. 2) o 

beoomes u ; and so in the loan-words amurca (afiofrpj), bulbus 

ifiokfiii), eunlla (icovtXff)^ cothurnus {KoBopvos:)^ lautumiae (of. 

XoTc^iiiu), murra * porcelain' (ct. fioppla)^ purpura {'n'op(f)vpa), 

iribului (rplfioKo^). So Jungua corresponds to 0-^07709: 

ophitrum triumphus are from by-forms (sec. 10) *a(f>Xo<rrov 

*Tplo/i^>o^. This u was really ii, written t in mirmillo^ 

Mc 4. — ^Till the time of Cicero v was represented not by 

y, as later, bnt by ti, asiu columhus cupressus obrussa 

teutula serpuUum mura apilunca trutina (and so tus for 

Vmim, 6w^) ; i.e. ti, written also 1, mirmilh serpillum sindpis, 

aiinprv^, sec. 10. — The 'plebeian* preference of e to t 

before a yowel in terminations appears in cdduceum 

(KfipvKunf), nausea {pourla), pasceolus sec. 9. 

(P) Unaccented a in some few loan-words follows the 
Latin rule and becomes u, written u in scutula {cncvrdXri) 
stranguld ((rrparfyaXda)), i in paelicem {*7njXcuca sec. 10) 
trutina (Tpvrdvrf), which before r becomes e in camera 
(teafidpa) phalerae (<f>d\apa) tessera (reacrapa), as in a close 
syllable (i.^. before two consonants) in paelex (*7r^Xaf) 
talentum (raXdinov). So unaccented e becomes u in scopulus 
(aK&ireKjosi)* — Final t becomes e, gausape tapete (sec. 10 fin.). 
As *agros, it is not quite clear why, became ager, so *K6yypo<: 
(sec. 10) gave conger; Varro has onagrus (6varfpo<;), Martial 
onager. — Unaccented t is dropt before a liquid in balneum 
beside balineum (l3aXav€iop), and troclea (Tpo;^tXta). In some 
polysyllables a whole unaccented syllable is dropt (as in 
dodrann for ^do-quddrans, /astidium for */asti'iidittm) : caltha 
for *caieantha=^X'^^^^V (fi^* ^^y)> casteria for *caiasfa(€ria 
^=*/caTa4iTaTr)pla (sec. 9), 

(7) e before It becomes u (* Latin Vocalism,' sec. 8 )8) in 
Plautus' catapuUa, KarairiXTr)^ (as opposed to Vergil's 
peita, ireXTfj). 


(8) 'Popular Etymology' sometimes influences vowels. 
Thus e becomes o in olivum (iXxuFov) through a popular con- 
nexion with olens 'fragrant/ and i in indtmum (^ivSwruni) 
and exinterS (^i^evrepew sec. 9) as though from in : it is 
omitted (I would suggest) in puppis for *piipis or ^popis from 
^hrayrri^ (* look-out place/ eTToyinJ) as though from pUpus 
*boy* {ue, the steersman). The lengthening of the y in 
conchylia {/corf)fi}ua) is due (I would suggest) to ed^lia, of 
the first in prologm propind prdpoia (and therefore 
doubtless in proscaeniam prothgme prothpmia) to prd : the 
diphthong in aurichalcum {^opixdKKty; sec. 9) is due to 

(6) Long vowels : The prae-Ciceronian u (i.e u) for g from 
V appears in phu (Plautus : in Terence spelt phy) trugonm 
tunnuB and the Compound de-pugis, spelt t in cd^hia 
{K(o\vif>ui) tnganus: from *\ayimf (which will be an Aeolic 
form of *Xarf(ov7j^ lagona, as xeKxmi of xeXxavrjj) came, I would 
suggest, * lag una, i.e. lagoena or lagena ('Latin Yocalism ' 
sec. 10 fin.) — To show the length of the vowel, e was some- 
times (as in laevis vaenum) written ae : so in caepe (sec. 8 fi) 
paelex (sec. 10 : spelt alsopei/er, as though from pellicid) scaena 
scaeptrum. The vowel o changes to t/ (* Latin Vocalism ' 
sec. 13) in glaucuma (sec. 8 fin.) puppis (sec. 5 fin.) scurra 
(sec. 9) : e never changes to i in loan-words, in Poenulus 137 
liroe {Xrjpoi) is a worthless conjecture (Goetz reads colly roe). 
In ^ou^ iv^osi) we have the proper Latin shortening of vowel 
before vowel. — Popular Etymology changes w to ^ in placenta 
*cake' {irXoKovvTa) as though from p/acens, polenta 'pearl 
barley ' {*7ra\vvTTJ sec. 9) as though from pollen, and ^ to w 
in spinturnix (' a bird which carries charcoal off altars/ Pliny 
X. 36, from a7nv0i]p ' spark ' ) with termination from cdtumlr. 
So M is shortened to ^ in remulcum * tow-rope ' {pvfiovkKovv 
'towing*) as though from remulceo 'droop,* to o in ancora 
(ar/Kvpa) on the analogy (as I have suggested) of remora 
'hindrance': i (from €a) is shortened in adip- Norn, adepa 
{a\€L<l)a ' fat) ' as though from adipiscor ' acquire.' 

Diphthongs : 

€t before a consonant =i, alipfes pirdta, before a vowel =e. 


gynaedum : Ovid'e elegeia is a purism. Some words follow 
the Latin rule and shorten the e before another vowel to i, 
cdndpium graphium, or e (the 'plebeian' form, sec. 5a fin.), 
habteum chorea platea. 

oi=zoe, poena: <p in early words =o^, cdmoedus tragoedua, 
later 6, idus hitikts pr&ra. 

a$:=iae, diaeta ; dialectically (' Latin Yocalism ' sec. 11) ^, 
mina mUrina penula. This when unaccented becomes i (as 
in exquird etc.) in otivum {SXaiFov) and Achlvi {^A')(cuFoi). — 
a=d, eldtri (*ie\a0poi beside xX^dpa, sec. 10 fin.). 

€u and av:=zeu and au respectively, eunfichua aula, 

oi;=ii, dUrateus: according to the Latin rule this is 
shortened before final m, hed^chrum ^ '^Suxpow, odru/n^^ 
^oarpovv from Sorpeov, remulcum see above. 

Onomatopoeic words sometimes keep the diphthongs un- 
clianged : Wa, oiet, but attatae hahae eugepae papae. 

(7) Consonants in our loan-words are sometimes a£Fected 
by dialect, adjoining letters, or analogy. 

(a) The dialectic / for d appears in laurua from *havpo^ (the 
Latin form would hQ^dartos), Old-Irish daur^odSs.* (Stokes 
in Bezzenberger's Beitrage ix. p. 88) ; and, I have suggested, 
in Cicero's lanlsta beside Plautus' danisia from Bapeurrrj^ 
'money-lender,' as a slang term applied by gladiators to their 
trainer. — The Sabine assibilatiou of di, as in Clausus for 
Claudius, appears in rosa ioT*rodia {*poBia), the rose-growing 
district of Paestum being in Lucania, whose inhabitants the 
Samnites were an o£Fshoot of the Sabines. — In Oscan ks or x 
became 98, meddix-meddisa, cf. Latin acaula-asauia (Ellis on 
Catullus xvii. 3), axiculua-aaaiculua coaxd-coaaad, naxa-naasa, and 
Xerxia-Xeraea in Cicero : so dfiv^cv ( Ace. ) ' tearing * gave 
amuaaim 'carpenter's rule,' named from the scoring of a 
straight line. — In Umbrian and Oscan kt became ht {rfhte=: 
Lat. recti, aaahtiimz^Ijat, aancturn), which in some Latin dialect 
was written tt, bractea-brattea, nacta-natta (=*i/a/cTi79), aalpida* 
aalpitta (=aa\7rA^cTi79), atricfivella'StrUtivilia (cf. Pliny xxvii. 
135 thalictrum or thalitrutn * meadow-rue '), or, after a long 
vowel or diphthong, t, virectum-viretum, auctor'autor, cf. nlxua 
(i.e. *nzct'tua) beside nlaua (i.e. *nit'tu8) : so coclurnix * quail ' 


(Old High German wahtala^ Havet in M^m. Soc. Ling. vi. 
p. 234 sq.) became *cottumiXf written cdiumlx^ and from this 
came Ovid's cdtumix through a popular connexion with 
cothumiM {Kodopvo^) * buskin/ quails being, I would suggest, 
artificially booted for fighting. 

Shortly before Cicero's time the Greek aspiratos came to 
be represented in Latin by a Tenuis 4- A, and two new letters 
were added to the end of the alphabet to represent v and ^. 
But some words still retained the older transliteration (on 
that of V see sec. 5 a and 6) : 

X=^<^ i^caltha sec. 5 /8 fin., cocka (ico^^Xui?), cordna {yppfavo^ 
Simonides 174, from xop6<; * dance '), in-etld sec. 4 fin., aaccus 

0=:i in balatrd sec. 4, cldtri sec. 6 fin., menia (filvOa), 

tunnus^ tus. 

<l)=^p in ampul-la i.e. *ampor»la from *ampora (afi^peis)^ 
aplustrum sec. 4, paenula (^>aii/6\i79), pasceolus (0a<r/ca>Xo9), 
purpura {7rop<l>vpa), spintir (see below), apinturnix sec. 6. 

^z=i88 in mdsaa (fm^a), purpurisaum (7rop<l>vpi^ov), and the 
Verbs atticiaad comiaaor cyathiaad graeciaad nvalaciaad moechiaao 
muaad patriasd pytiaad aiceliaad {arriKi^ etc.). So in Plautus 
modem editors write badiasd (/SaStfo)) tarpeaaita (MSS. trapezita, 
TpaTreiiTtf^i), and, for initial f, s, adfnia aona {^ofila &01/17). 

In earlier Latin initial p was represented by r, raphanus 
reatna riacua roaa ruta ; later by rh (as in a Corcyraean in- 
scription PHOFAIZI =/ioaZb-A), rhetor rhtnoceroa rhombua 
rhomphaea rhythnicua. 

The slang dialect sometimes distorted words almost beyond 
recognition : 

caliendrutn * wig ' for *callintrum from KoWinnpov * orna- 
ment ' : 

aandapila * bier,' I would suggest, for *aancaliba from 
^arf)(<^\i&'q<i *axa^il3v^9 cf- Laconian oKxa^i/Sap * bed ' (on 
the * AflFrication ' see sec. 10.) in Hesychius. 

(/8) In pure Latin c cannot stand before a nasal : so in 
some borrowed words (1) in early times we have in such 
cases either avdirrv^i^, drachuma (better written dracufna)=^ 
Bpax/^^, lucinua=^\vx^^9 techina (better tecina) ^rexyrj ; or. 


in the unaccented third syllable, loss of c with vowel- 

leogtheningy ardnea=:apd'xyff : (2) later, c before n becomes 

g, cygnus:=zicvKvo^ as Progne^^TIp6Kvq, — In Latin t before / 

becomes c^ and so in exancld (i^avrXico) : d before r becomes 

/, cUrm is older than cedrus {KiSpo<;). Between a nasal and 

a dental, e and p are sometimes dropt, e.g. in quinctua-qxantus, 

tfmptd-ientd : so spinier ^=a(f>iyfCTiip, ianter'na^^XafiTm^p. — 

The Latins sometimes object to r in two syllables of the same 

word, compare gurgulid with yapyapedv : so balatro beside 

fiapaJBpov sec. 4, erga8fulum=:*Spya<rTpop sec. 9. 

(7) Popular Etymology changes 

to ^ in plagUsia * a fish * i^irkoKovala sec. 9), as though 
from plaga * net ' : 

^ to in amurca (afiopyrj), spiiunca {(nrqXvyya sec. 8 fin.), 
because Latin had an ending -ca {fabrica juvenca pedica)^ but 
no ending -ga : 

^ to c in acribUta * cheesecake ' (^crrpe^Sxin;? sec. 9), as 
though from acribOf ' marked, notched ' : 

p to b in absinthium {dy^ivdtop), obadnium {iy^viop)^ as 
though from ab and ob : 

1 to d in adeps {a\€ul>a sec. 6) : r to d in cdduceum 
(xjfpvKiov) apparently (as I have suggested) as though from 
cddiicum, a stick of ' fallen ' wood : 

A to « in aerpyllum {IpirvXXop) through the etymological 
connexion of serpd and Ipira}. 

A consonant is omitted, I would suggest, in laena for 
^claena {^(Xaiva) as though from Idna 'wool,' and in Idtema 
beside lanterna as though from lata * carried ' : Metathesis 
in pistrix * sea-monster ' (beside pristia, irpiari^) as though 
from piso * pound, crush.' 

(8) Analogy afiects especially the terminations of borrowed 
words: for the ordinary changes see Roby's Grammar 
sec. 471-507. 

Nouns show three favourite terminations : 

(a) -a : caepa (beside caepe) and cerintha (Kijpivdov) are 
formed after herba, pama (7ra0<rt9) after causa; we have 
argilla (apylXKjo^) sc. terra^ cordna {xop(ov6^) sc. taenia, crocdta 
(Kpo/ccoTo^) sc. vestis. 


(/8) -t- ; conchis {fcorfyps:) and pdnia (Messapian iravAs;) are 
formed after Adjectives in -is ; hilaris (beside hilarm^ tKap6s;) 
and dapsilis {BaylriXi^^) SLtter facilis ; eaepe {oT*caepium {^icrpnov 
from icriTro^j of. Hesychius' Kanria * garlic *), and sirpe for 
*8irpium {*<rip<l)U)v sec. 10), after Neuters like turpe tile, 

(7) -r, Neuter : tnarmor {/mpfiapo^) is formed after aequor^ 
haccar i^^aKKapi sec. 10) and piper {iriirep^ have lost a final 
vowel and follow the analogy of cicer pap6/€^^ and so on the 
analogy of mel Gen. tnellis Vergil forms from filXi a met 
Gen. metis and uses 'melis phylla' as=/A6Xi^uXXa 'balm.' 
Similarly celdx * yacht* (/ceXiy?) takes the termination of re^dr, 
euge (evye) that of puicre : draconem leonem beside Spdxoina 
Xiojna are formed from the Nominatives dracd led. 

All loan Verbs from the Greek ^ are of the first conjuga- 
tion, not only when the Greek form corresponds with the 
Latin, hodgubei^nd harpagd (*ap7rarfdo)) stranguld subd {^avffdct}) 
cornam (from /cofid&>)f but also from Verbs in 

-€0) : exancld exinterd {^i^evrepm) obadno paratragoedd ther- 
mopotd {^depfjumoTia}) : 

-5» : atticissd etc., badissd, see sec. 7 : 

-I/O): proplnd {irpoTrvvoi), 

Sometimes the meaning of the Greek ending was mis- 
understood : 

(a) the Neuter /c^ro? was taken for Masculine (Plant, cetum 
Ace), the Neuters y\avK€o/ia (T)(r]fia for Feminine (Plaut. 
glaucumam schemam Ace), the Neuters Plural oarpea ^aXavela 
yippa <f)d\apa for Fem. Sing, (whence astrea Sing., balineae 
gerrae phalerae Plur.) : 

(/8) the Accusatives yinp-ov kokkov KOGrrov fiehifwov fivOov 
(see note) ^varov *6pl'xaKicov (sec. 9) irenfKov aoKov airdprov 
adapuKov were turned into Nominatives Neuter, gypsum etc.; the 
Accusatives Kparrjpa irdvd'qpa irkoKOvvra (siBC. 6) {nrqkxrf/a 
araTTJpa <f)d\afyya into Nominatives Feminine, crdtira etc. 
Sing., phalangae Plur. ; *afio\r] *d/uf>opdf Ace. of afioXev^ 
afi<l)op€v<i, into the Nominatives *abola (sec. 4) amphora, 

* Except apage^ an Imperative, psallo with its purely Greek beginning, and 
purpurtMum wroogly formed from the Participle wop^ivpliov : muttio from mHUtim 
ijiv0ovt Hayet in M6m. See. Ling. tI. p. 240 sq.) and punio from poina 
(niidl) an pure Latin, as alio 4ep$d. 


(9) Our loan-words prove that the following 93 words, 
tboagh found in no extant Greek author, were once living 
Oreek words: 

Substantives : 

iXayopd * salt market ' halagora (Plant.). 

flXo^oinriT^ *salt informer' halophanta (Plaut.). 

ifUL^aryfiyrf^ 'carter' hamaxagdga (Plant). 

aperakjiSyo^ * boaster * aretdlogm (Juv.). 

ofnra/yftov * grappling-hook ' harpago (Plant.). 

ofnotcpea^ * distribution of meat ' artocreas (Persius). 

(Acrpo^ * south wind* auster^ from aftw * kindle.' 

SaXKurrrf^ 'catapult' ballutta, from /9aX\t{a> (Sicilian) 'jump 
ffovKcpo^ ffovxipio^ ' of oxen ' bUcei^tM bucertm, cf. fiovKcpof^, 
^aXrjTOf; * mushroom ' bd/itm, cf. /SwAiny? (Galen). 
&ii;/909 ' tree ' lauru9^ sec. 7. 
^TTi-prfiuiv 'trace ' epiredium, from ^pi^Bfj (below). 
^mrrrk puppis, sec. 5 8. 
^pyaarpov * workhouse ' ergasMum, sec. 7 )8. 
'^fiuciXXo^ *mule' /iemicillus (Cic), from kIWo^ *as8.' 
^epfioTTooiKiop * tavern ' thermopolium (Plant.). 

4caTa<rraTrjpla * cuddy ' canter ia (Plant.), sec. 5 /8. 

KaraaTTi 'stage ' cafasta. 

tcaj(lvo^ * laugh ' cachinnus, from #ca;(a$co * to laugh ' as 
If^^kaaipo^ * dimple ' from yeXdo). 

kTkko^ * doit ' ctccus (Plant.), cf. KLKKa/So^. 

Kiwafiov * cinnamon ' cinnamum, cf . Kivj/d/juofiov. 

KoXuTta 'ripe figs ' cdl&tea Persa 88, cf. KoXvrpa (Athenaens). 

KoplavSpov ' coriander ' coriandrum, cf. Kopiawov (in Varro 
Xj. L. V. 103 Spengel reads KoXiavBpov), 

KporaKiarpui ' Castanet- dancer ' crotalistrm (Propertius). 

Kvffaia 'transport' cybaea (Cic), from KvPr) as a by-form of 
KVfjfiff ' boat.' 

Kinrp€a(To^ ' cypress ' ctipressiis, from Hebrew kopher, cf. 

Xaymk ' grouse' lagdis (Hor.). 

Xdrptov ' hireling ' laird, cf. Xdrpi^, from Hebrew ttoUr 
' guardian ' (as \irpov ' natrum ' from Hebrew nether). 
FhU. Tram. ISSS-SO. 13 


TiavTOfilai 'stone-quarries' iautumiae, from ^XaoTOfilai, cf. 

fjb€(f)iTc^ * miasma ' mephitis (Verg.) : derivation unknown. 

fjMvoTTohiov * table with one leg ' monopodium (Livy). 

fioppa ' porcelain ' murra, cf . p>oppla (Pausanias). 

p,&po<i (Fern.) * mulberry- tree ' wdru«, cf. pj6pov * mulberry,' 

vqvia * dirge ' nenia^ cf. injviaTov (Hipponax), Phrygian, 

opixaXfco^ * copper ore ' orichalcum^ cf. opeLxo^^^^JCo^' 

iraTar/eiov * gold edging ' patagium, foreign. 

irXaKovaia * a fish ' plagusia (Plant.), from irXoucoei^ ' flat' 

TTOTTTrva-fuz * clucking ' poppy sma (Juv.). 

irptpprfTT)^ * look-out man ' prorefa (Plant.), cf . irptpparrfi : 
formed after irpvp^vrfrrj^i * steersman.' 

irvTccrp^i * tasting ' pjjthma (Juv.). 

fnfiri ' chariot ' raeda : Gaulish, sec. 12. 

pohla * rosetree ' rosa, from poBop. 

GaKKoirripiov * pocket ' sacciperium (Plant.), from adicKa^+ 

crdwT) * grimace ' sanna, and crawixov * bu£Foon ' sannidf cf . 

aK(opa^ 'buflToon ' scurra i.e. *scura sec. 6, {rom. *a/cmp'4>drfi 
(our 'toadeater') as 'Eppd^ (a slave's name) irom^Epp^Stopi 

araXdypiov 'ear-drop' atalagmium (Plaut.), from araXcvypoi 

(TTopia ' mat ' storea, from oTopvvpi * spread.' 

<7Tp€)8XtT7;9 'cheesecake' scriblita sec. 7 7, from arpefiXo' 
' twisted.' 

<T<l>L/cTpia<i spintria, from a<f>iyy(o ' press.' 

roKvWmv ' usurer ' toculUo (Cic), from *toicvKKiov Dim - 
inutive of to/co? ' interest' (as ^€w\\iov of fei/o?). 

roTTia ' ornamental gardening ' topia^ from tJtto^ * place.* 

rpar/oKCDptpSia ' tragicomedy ' tragi comoedia (Plaut.). 

Tpvyovo^ 'sting- ray' trugonus (Plant.), cf. rpvydov, 

rupiravorpl^T}^ ' timbrel-player ' tympanotriba (Plaut.). 

<j>aaKio\o<: ' purse ' pasceolus (Plant.), cf. ffMatccolXo^ : so 
Dioscorides has <f>aalo\o^ (Columella's phaseolua) for <l)dafiKo^ 
' bean.' 



^fntfUav * embroiderer ' phyrgid (Plaut.), sec. 10, from 

jvKtuciGTrfi 'jailer * phylacista (Plaut.), from ^v7\4ucifyi * im- 

XBtpuma 'family banquet' charuttia, from X'^pl^o/juu *in- 

X!^poypa *gout' cheragra, from xe/5-+aypa, cf. j(€ipdypa 
flate Greek.)* 
XDiminutives : 

^XeyelBiov elegtdium (Persius) from ^€709 ' elegy.' 
^vSwriov 'smock' induaium sec. 5 fin., from evhxn^ 'dress' 

^jKvpoOriiaov myrothedum (Cic.) from fivpodtJKrj ' unguent- 

-mjofikiov nablium (Ovid) from vd^Xa *barp,' Hebrew nehhel 

Adjectives : 

aiafjLavT€io^ ' of steel ' adanmnfem (Ovid). 

aKoivoporjTo^ 'without common sense ' acoenonoetus Juv. 
^^11. 218. 

fiovfjLcurro^ ' with large breasts' bvmastus (Verg.). 

€vp^o^ ' eastern ' eurous (Verg.). 

0a\a<r(ntc6<i 'of the sea' thalassicus (Plaut.). 

KTjpoei^ ' like wax,* Fem. tcqpovaaa cerussa * white lead.* 

KOfiTfTOfi ' leafy ' comdtus, from KOfirj * hair, foliage.' 

\a^vpiv0€io^ 'of the labyrinth ' labyrintheus (Catullus). 

pjovcraw ' of the Muses ' mmaeus (Lucr.), cf. fwicreio^. 

6/eTaHf>opo<; ' carried by eight men ' ociophorus (Cic). 

iraOuco^ paihicus from irdOo^ ' passion.' 

TraXt/iTO? * sprinkled,' whence /?o^/i^fl sec. 6 ; from TraKiv(a» 

irXaraXko^ 'broad,' whence platalea 'spoonbill' (Cic); 
from irKarv^. 

1 Words are so seldom coined absolutely de novo (Plautus* titiviUUium is the 
only indubitable instance in Latin) that the seven spice-names in Pseudolus 
831-836 must have had an origin, though we cannot fully trace it. Thus, 
kitixof^is hapnhpaia is from tKwaX&i huratf 'roast moderately/ KarapdKrpia catar- 
iietiia from learapdicnis * rushing down 'as it is sprinkled : eepotendrum (the first 
element =1(^01) eieilendrwn c>eimandrum draw their termination from eorian- 
drum : fidxKis maeeis (cf . Dioscorides* fidxtp) and ffa^Kawris saucapUs must be of 
nil-Greek origin. 


*rro\To<f>dy(y; 'pulBe'eatrng* pultiphagus (Plaut.). 

TmjvoOrjpiKo^ ' of birds and beasts ' (if Goetz is right in 
conjecturing ' pugna ptenotherica ' in Poenulus 471 : MSS. 

av/M^vuuco^ 'singing' symphoniacus (Cio.)» {rom avfJL/^via, 

Tvpordpixo^ ' of cheese and salt fish ' tyrotm-ichaa (Cic). 

XoXv^rjiOii 'of steel' chalybeim (Ovid), from )(aK\r^. 

Interjections : 

€vaf euax (Plaut.) from evoi, dLSirinra^ from irinrot, 

exTfewal eugepae (Plaut.) from ciVye + (ira)irai. 

oUl oiei Miles Gloriosus 1406, cf. oloL 

Verbs : 

apirayoM • steal' harpagd (Plaut.) from apirafq * plunder.' 

i^€PT€p€09 'eviscerate' exinterd (Plaut.), cf. i^evrepl^m (Dios- 

eua'ft) * shout,' euans Participle (pure Latin ovam), 

depfJuyiroTio) * drink warm drink ' (cf. -^irxpoirorito * drink 
cold water') thermopoid *warm with drink' (Plaut.), from 
Oep/jLOTTOTfj^ (Athenaeus). 

KoifiO^to cOmissorf from K&fitx; 'revel,' as Koi>fid^oif from /rco/ni; 
* village.' 

irarpify} * take after the father ' patrisad (Plaut.), cf • 
irarpiafy) (Pollux). 

avffda) 8ub6, from avfia^ ' lewd ' (Hesychius). 

(10) Dialectic variations proved by our loan-words to 
have once existed in Greek are the following, 57 in number: ^ 

(a) a for o (cf. fiaXdx'j'f^^^v) • ^/cdTu^ calix for *k6\i^ 
(whence kvTu^, cf. fivXrj from *fM>\fj, Lat. nwla) : 

(b) o for 01 before a vowel (cf. Trotcw-Troeo)) : *7r6rffAapoenia, 
^TTorjTi]^ poeta : 

(c) Ionic 17 for a : *irrjKa^ paelex sec. 5 ^ (seen in Trpo- 
irrputKi^o) * insult ')= Doric irdWa^ *boy' (cf. Doric KoKKd 
for Ionic xaXd or, as it should be written, Ki]\d) : 

(d) Doric original d: *fcdpvKiov cdduceum sec. 7 fin., 
*K\a0poL cldtri sec. 6, ^XeCkdvo^ nldnus sec. 11 fin., ^alvamv^ 
aindpis sec. 5 a : 

* The formB so substantiated are here, to ayoid confusion, marked with an 
asterisk ; which in sec. 9 was not necessary. 


{e) Dorio ai=Ionic ov : *KO)pd\iov cdralinm : 
(/) it^ ^^' X ('AffricatioD,' cf. l3p6/exo^ for 0poxo^) : 
*PpdK)(tov hracchlum (vowel shortened before vowel), beside 

ig) Ionic 9 for r before 1, : *vavaia nausea, ^prfaivr) risina, 
i>phnf<ni9 phrenisis (beside <f>p€PiTi<;). So *aaiPo^ aainus (cf. 
ficTiXXa 'yoke* Simonides 163) presupposes a Doric ^arivo^ 
from Hebrew athon ' she-ass/ while &09 must be a different 

(^) p preserved before 9 (cf. Cretan trdvo'd^^Trda'af:): 

^^MHravpo^ thimaurus: 

(t) Metathesis with p (cf. KapSia-xpaSlr}) : ^rapire^ trrj^ 

^^pesHia sec. 7 (in Plautus the metre sometimes requires 

^^P'* and never excludes it). So in the un-Greek words 

^€^pKwTi^ corcdta (a more original form than KpoKtoro^, from 

ff^brew karkdm * saffron '), *(f>vpyUov phi/rgid {*<ppvyUov sec. 9, 

^^agner's Aulularia p. Ixii) : 

(j) (/i for afAi *^fidp(vySo^ zmaragdus^ Ellis' Catullus 
P- 345: 

(k) Medial aspiration preserved : *€vot euhoe {eim), *€vm 
^^Jiius (evtov) : 

(I) Medial F preserved: ^eXaiFov oltrum, *j3oFd<o bora 
V iSonius), cf. ^HpyeiFoi Argivi, *Aj(aLFoL AcMvt. 

So especially in words which in Greek itself were 
"^^reign : 

(a) o for a, *a<f)Xo(TTov aplustrum {a<f)\aaTov) *Tpiofi<f>o^ 
^9numphu8 {jBpiap.Po^, see below) sec. 5a, or for u, ^aoK^o^ 
"^occua (ovKxo^) sec. 7 : 

(i) € for 4, *piv0a meyita (filvOa). — i for e, '^irvnept piper 
^ireirepi : Sanskrit pippali) : 

{c) K for 7, ^Korpipo^ conger (yoyypo^) ^Kiopxho^ cdrjffus 

(ytopvTos) : 

(d) 7 for K, *ypdl3aTo^ grdbatus {/epdffoTo^) ^yv^epvdeo 
guhernd {tcv^epydw) *y(o^i6<: gdbius (/co)y9t69). So y9 for tt, 
*^i/fo9 buxua (7ri}fo9) *Kdp^a^o<; carbasus {KdpTraaos:) : 

{e) p for \ (cf. Kpl^avo^'Kki^avo^ oTepyh-oTeT^k) : 
*Kavdripio^ cantheriuB {KavOriKios:) ^aip^iov sirpe {alX(f>u)v, 
sec. 8) : conversely *\elXiov hlium {\eipiov) : 


(/) Initial aspiration preserved, *?/8€j/09 hebenus {efieiny;: 
from Hebrew hobnlm). — ^Aspiration transposed (cf. irdOvt)' 
(fxinn)) : *TpLO/A^o<; triumphuH (see above). 

Sometimes the suggested and the extant Greek form differ 
in termination ; we infer from Latin the existence of 

{a) stems in -o- beside consonant stems : ^affaxo^ abacus 
*dpxiT€/cTo^ architectua ^^pd'xiov bracchium *he\<f>ivo^ delphinus 
*i\iif>avTOf: elephanius beside a^a^ ofyxyreicToiiv ^pa'xltov hO^lv 

(b) Masc. beside Neut., *K\f}0poi cldtrt beside Kk^Opa ; 
Fem. beside Masc, ^Xarydvrf lagona *\arfin/rf lagoena sec. 6 
beside Xarpivo^ ; Neut. beside Masc., *fiapydplTov margaritum 
beside fiap^aptTij^, or Fem., ^dpn^piov arterium ^aSiKoujov 
aulaeum ^otainrov oesppum beside dpvrjpid avXaia olainrr) : 

{c) Neuter stems in -e- beside others: ^jSatacapi baccar 
sec. 8 7 ^yavaairi gausape ^rdinfrt tapete sec. 5 /3 beside 
fidicKafi^ yavaaTTOf; rdinj^. 

(11) Many of our loan-words prove that the Greek equivalents 
had once a larger meaning than appears in extant Greek 
literature : 

(a) the following, Adjectives in Greek, are used in Latin as 
Substantives : 


Korfxlvq^ shelly, conchita catcher of shellfish. 
irdpo'xp^ supplying, paroc/tus purveyor. 
wup(enr6<; fiery, pyropus bronze. 
aapKOifxiyo^ carnivorous, sarcophagus coffin. 
TpairrjTO^; newly pressed, trapetus oil mill. 

Fem. : 

£1^0^09 double-dyed, dibaphus purple robe. 

Sio)T09 two-eared, diota jar. 

ivSpofik for the footrace, eudromis wrap. 

KVK\d<; lying around, ci/clas robe. 

fAvppivf) of myrrh, murriua spiced wine. 

6f3pv^rj pure, obrussa test 

depfiai warm, thermae baths. 

^pafAirikivcu scarlet, xerampeimae scarlet robes. 



ivayxaSov necessary, anancaeum cup drained on a wager. 

iUpoTov double-oared, dicrotum bireme. 

fuucpoKioXov long-legged, macrocblum a kind of paper. 

ItfiKivov yellow, milinum yellow robe. 

vdpSivov of nard, nardinum spiced wine. 

ifKjarfwv crooked, plagium kidnapping. 

arfrdviov of this year, setanium medlar. 

ofLeOwmva of amethyst, amethystina purple robes. 
sciipiva wax-coloured, cirina yellow robes. 
^iffffopa four, tessera tally, each side being a square. 
TpexJ^Zevirva running to dinner, trechedipna light robes. 
Ck)nTer8ely the following. Substantives in Greek, are used 

Xatin as Adjectives : 

UpoKov a garment, epicrocum transparent. 
a&^ palm branch, spddix brown. 

(/3) the following, abstract in meaning in Greek, are in 

tin concrete : 

ifiv^iv, amussim sec. 7 a. 

yivcai^ birth, genesis birth-star. 

IXeyxo9 refutation, eknchus ear-pendant (why?). 

airoviriy sponda sec. 3 note. 

Conversely the following, concrete in meaning in Greek, 
in Latin abstract : 

7€ppa wickerwork, gerrae nonsense. 

arSfiaxo^ stomach, stomachus displeasure. 

yppiif^iov dancing-school, choregium preparing a chorus. 

(7) the etymologically possible meaning comes out 
^ifiTerently : 

ifi^oTuov thrown in '= javelin, etnbolium interlude (Aris- 
totle's ifil3o\i/JLOp). 

i^oBtov ' exit *= finale of a tragedy, exodium farce. 

KoXvfiffof; 'ducking *= grebe, columbus pigeon. 

Xoyeiov 'place of words *= stage, logeum archives. 

paXaxla * softness '= effeminacy, malacia dead calm. 

vavria 'of sailors '= seasickness, nautea bilgewater. 

6<f>0a\fiuK ' quicksigh ted' = eagle, ophthalmias a kind of 


injyfia * fixture '=framework, pegma bookcase, stage. 

j(aXKdv0fj * bronze-flower '= sulphate of copper, caltha pot- 

X€i\6ci) 'use a lip '= surround with a rim, in-^M grin 
(sec. 4 fin.). 

(8) the Latin meaning is extended from the Greek (on 
I3\aur6<: bi^esua see sec. 3 note) : 

ypa(f>LK6^ picturesque, graphicus exquisite. 

0p{a/jL0o^ hymn to Bacchus, triumphtts procession. 

Ki<TTo^6po<: chest-bearer, cistqphoitta a coin. 

XaT/3A9 hired servant, latrd robber. 

\r)v6^ trough, lenunculua skiff. 

6iw^ onyx, onyx casket made of onyx. 

trapOevifCT] maiden, parthenice a plant. 

'rroStov little foot, podium balcony. 

ari/ip^a wreath, stemnia pedigree, from wreaths hung on— 
images of ancestors. 

<f>d<T7J\o<; bean, phmelua boat, from its shape. 

SecKrjvo^; Silenus, sVdnm fountain with a head of Silenus. 

^tXvjnro^ Philip, philippus a coin. 

Conversely pithecium in Latin means * little ape,* indiiKiov 
in (late) Greek ' a machine.' 

(12) We may now turn to the un-Greek loan-words within 
our province. The following 90 words, if no more, seem 
foreign, though we cannot tell where they came from : aeit/s 
(sec. 3) aha alec ' pickle ' andabata * blindfolded gladiator ' 
asllus beta *beet* bractea 'gold-leaf braasica buris * plough - 
beam ' caliga cdlo * soldier's servant ' cdsexia caupo cibus ctniex 
cippus colostra 'biestings' cortina crdpula (sec. 3) cuapisdoHum 
ebulum ' dwarf elder ' epiilae excetra ' snake * faex falxfetidles 
fiscus fuscina gnlhinus * green ' gdnea * underground room ' 
gladius grdvastellus *old man' hell no hibnda hirnea 'jug' horia 
'fishing-smack' Ilex juba jiibar lappa Idriia * ghost, mask ' later 

* brick ' laus lemures lessum * wailing ' liber * inner bark * lira 
' sutler ' lodix ' blanket ' lorea * after- wine ' lumbricus ' earth- 
worm ' lured * glutton ' lutum * woad * tnarra * hoe ' meles 

* badger ' miles naucum * trifle ' ocrea offa orca * jar ' palumbis 
pantex 'paxinch' pirinnpopa ' priest's assistant ' populus preciae 


* a grape- yine * proelium rdna rUtna * dart ' sagitta $epelid seiTa 
silex sinum * bowl ' situla * bucket ' spoHum siuiis sulfur taeda 
iarmes * woodworm ' idxillus * die ' taxus timifum * wine * 
tinus * a plant ' fipula (sec. 3) Hrd titulua trichila ' bower ' 
iugurium tdgina. 

The following may with some confidence be referred to 
definite sources : about 69 are from Aryan and 32 from non- 
Aryan languages. 

A. Aryan : 

(a) TJmbro-Sabellian : 21 words: 

TJmbrian : 

arbiter * witness,' cf. XJrabr. aSputrafi * arbitratu ' (the 
second vowel of each word is u, * Latin Vocalism ' sec. 2 fin.), 
from ad + a root gvet ' speak,' Gothic qithan, Eng. qnoth. 

rufus * red,' cf. TJmbr. rofa * rufas ' : the Roman form would 
be *rubus, 

Ali'cernium ' feast at which they sat,* cf. XJmbr. gersnatur 
'cenati ' : the first element is Latin sedeO. 

Oscan (which the Roman grammarians often call Sabine) : 

b68, cf. 0OW : the Roman form would be *rd» from *vous. 

crepusculum * twilight ' (Varro), cf. creper below. 

curis * spear,' quoted by Ovid. 

meddix * magistrate ' (Festus), also written metd{tx) or 
fneddiss, sec. 7a. 

mulcta 'fine' (Varro). 

Otis ' sheep,' cf. &9 i.e. 0A9 : the Roman form ^avis is said 
to remain in arena * oats.' 

strena ' health ' (Lydus de mensibus iv. 4). 

sitblica * stake,' Volscian (Festus). 

sfipparum * smock, topsail ' (Varro), cf. slparium ' curtain ' 
(the first vowel of each word is u). 

tesqua 'wastes' (Scholiast on Hor. Epp. 1. 14. 19) an augural 
term ; it proves that qu after 8 did not, as in other positions 
ia Oscan, become p, 

trabea * state robe,' introduced by Numa (Lydus ut supra 
i. 19). 

Adjectives : caacus ' old,' catus ' sharp,' creper ' dark,' dints 
'evil,' soUus ' whole,' are said by the Roman grammarians to 



be Sabine ; iHticus * public ' (cf. Gothic theuda * people *) is 
Campanian (Livy). 

Verb : baeto (also spelt het6 or bitd) ' go/ cf . Oscan baiteU 
' comest.' 

(/8) Celtic : perhaps 43 words, some also quoted in Oreek : 

Gaulish : 

(1) names for wheeled vehicles : 
carpentum (Florus). 

carrus (Irish catT). 

petor-rtium (Festus: cf. Welsh jo^rf/^^flrr 'four* +01d-Iri8l] 
rith 'course'). 
raeda*pi]Bf) sec. 9 (Quintilian : cf. Old-Irish riad 'journey- 

Probably also cisium and aarrdcum ; viit\i pl6xenum * wagon- 
box ' (Catullus xcviL 6) and, I would suggest, the cognaU 
word plaxistrum ' wagon,' i.e. ^plaux-trum from a root qlaug-9 
Celtic *pldg, whence out plough. 

(2) military terms : 

amhactm 'vassal' (Festus), cf. Welsh amaeth ' husbandman, 
cognate with Latin ambi'+agdt ' sent about.* Hence Gothi< 
a?idbah(8 ' servant,' the first syllable of it as though from am 
' towards.' 

bard or rdro ' soldier's servant,' Scholiast on Persius v. 131 
(.Tahn : Biicheler omits the passage). 

caterva ' troop,' see Isidore's Origines ix. 3. 46, cf. Old-Irisl 
cath ' fight.' 

cruppelldrii ' harnessed combatants,' quoted by Tacitus. 

nmtara or mndan'a ' pike ' (Hesychius). 

ponto 'punt ' (Caesar) : from it comes the Eng. word. 

saguin 0-0709 'military cloak' (Isidore) : Eng. sail fron 

soliiurii aiXoBovpot ' retainers,' quoted by Caesar. 

(3) other words : 

amellus * starwort,' loved by bees, for *ampeUm (cf. Lat 
apia) : see Stokes in Bezz. Beitr. ix. p. 194. 

brdcae ' breeches ' (Diodorus Siculus) : said to be borrowec 
from Teutonic, cf . German bruch ' trowsers.' 

cucuiius 'hood,' whence Eng. cowl: Santonic, Juv. viii. 145 



omdtum * tripe* (Philozenus). 
rind * fur pelisse * (Varro). 
ialivnca ' Celtic nard/ Dioscorides' oKtovaaKa. 
Utciium 'beef (Isidore), IJmbrian toco. 
I urus otpo^ * wild ox' (Macrobius) : said to be borrowed from 
Teutonic, cf. German auer-ochs ' wild ox/ auer-hahn * black- 

tokenius (Adj.) ' fine ' (Servius), whence Vergil's volaema 
'warden-pears.' — I would add 

aquipetiser aKKnrqaio^ (i.e. ^aKFi/jrrjVGios;) * sturgeon ' : the 
^^Bt element is cognate with Lat. aqua, 
ccballus Ka^ahXri^ 'horse/ whence French cA^ra/, Welsh 

'caten (the Latin form would be *v6tes) ' seer, poet/ Celtic 
^'&^€A9 * priests ' (Strabo), Irish faith ' prophet/ Rhys' 
3^ibbert Lectures p. 278: a shepherds* term, Verg. Buc. 
«:• 34. 

Probably also bdaium gingiva saliva, all three introduced by 
^-'^tullus, a native of Transpadane Gaul. 

Belgic : 

cocinnuB * war-chariot * (Lucan), for ^co-reg-nos, cognate 
^^ith Lat. cO'+ve/idf cf. Welsh cy-wain * convey.' 

eiaedum 'war-chariot* (Verg.). 

British : 

hascauda * tub * (nothing to do with our basket, whence 
^Velsh basged), 

Spanish (which the Greeks call Iberian) : 

caetra xairpia ' shield * (Hesyehius). 

canthus Kav66^ Hire* of a wheel (Quintilian). 

cuniculus kwikXo^ ' rabbit * (Aelian) : properly, I would 
suggest, ' little dog,* cf. Kvva, 

faldrica * fiery arrow,' used by the Sagun tines. 

gaesum yaiao<: 'javelin ' (Athenaeus), Old Irish gat. 

lancea 'spear' (Varro), whence Eng. launch, 

mantum ' cloak ' (Isidore), whence mantelum * mantle * and 
^^iantele ' napkin.* 

minium 'vermilion' (Propertius), cf. the river-nameil/i";<»*«, 
^cw Minho. 


ptlentum * chariot ' P See Dief enbach's Origines Europaeae 
p. 399. 

(7) Teutonic : 5 words : 

bardlius * war cry ' (Tacitus), perhaps from a root bherdh, 
whence 7rip0(o * ravage/ Stokes in M^m. Soc. Ling. v. p. 

cafeja * spear ' (Verg. : according to Servius Gaulish). 
framea 'spear' (Tacitus). 

gtaesum * amber' (Pliny), Anglosaxon glaere. 

sparm * spear,' Anglosaxon «par, Eng. Bpar. 

Perhaps, originally, also brdcae iirus, see above. 

B. Non- Aryan : 

(a) Etruscan : perhaps 13 words : 

atrium 'hall' (Varro) cf. the Etruscan town-name Atria (and 
the relation o{ /leyapov * hall ' to Meyapa). 

balfeus * belt ' (Varro). 

cassis ' helmet ' (Isidore). 

catamiius, Etrusc. catmite from ^KardfiifrOo^ ' venal.* 

fala 'pillar' (Festus), Etrusc. /(i/(7;2^t/;n 'sky.' 

histrid 'actor' (Livy), Etrusc. hiater, 

idHs ' middle of the month,' Etrusc itus (Yarro : their 
alphabet having no d), 

iitutis ' trumpet/ an Etruscan invention. 

obba obua * cup,* Etrusc. ujlea, Bugge in Bezz. Beitr. x. p. 
110 sq. 

satelles * follower,* Etrusc. zaflaO, Bugge ut supra xi. p. 1 sq. ; 
a bodyguard first introduced by Tarquinius Superbus, an 
Etruscan by origin. 

Perhaps also tcftsa * car for images of gods,' and (besides 
/lisfrio) the scenic words lucar ' actors' pay,' pulpitum ' stage ' : 
but hardly copra * she-goat ' (Hesychius), lanuita (Isidore) 
sec. 7, nepos * spendthrift * (Festus), poUuceo ' oflTer * (which 
Bugge ut supra p. 43 connects with Etrusc. pultace ' sacriti- 
cavit '). 

()8) Basque: watwwms ' cob,' dialectic for *wflrw<fw« (as ^rw«w/d 
for grundio, cf. Miles Gloriosus 1407 dispennite . . . etdis- 
tennite), Basque mando * mule.' 

(7) Phoenician : 13 words : 


amb&bd^'a ^ fluteplayer/ cf. Syrian dviito ' pipe ' : formed as 
thoagli from Lat. ambi-. 

fkeui (Masc.) * rock-lichen/ Hebrew pukh ' paint/ whence 
iho ^ico9 (Neut.) ^ seaweed.' 

ifdibus (whence evrv^ov) * endive/ Arabic hindibd. 

magdlia ^huts/,nid</dr 'habitation/ whence also /ieyapoi/. 

fmtrUca mamtraga (Poenulus 1313, Goetz) ' sheepskin/ 
Sardinian (Quintilian). 

palfna * palm-tree/ Heb. tamar : for the inserted / cf . 
cdkafidvSpa beside Persian setnender, /SaXaafwv from Heb. 

pdv6 ' peacock/ Arabic tdus, whence also ram : for the 

P cf. the preceding. 

«fi/e8 * consul/ Heb. shofet ' judge.' 

tunica * shirt/ Heb. k'thdneth, whence also ^^ercoi^. 

Punic: mapdlia 'huts' (Festus), fwa/?pa 'napkin* (Quin- 
Wian), ulpicum * leek * (Columella), and perhaps crux ' cross ' 
(a Carthaginian instrument of punishment). 

(8) African : nepa ' scorpion ' (Festus), and perhaps attegia 
'hut' (Maurorum, Juv. xiv. 196), Idserplcium 'silphium' 
(first grown at Cyrene, Pliny xvi. 143). — Egyptian : ebur 
*i?ory' (Egyptian db). 

(f) Indian (but not Aryan): bar r us 'elephant' (Isidore). 

Syllabus of Contents. 

Loan-words in classical Latin (sec. 1) : 
(a) Greek: 
Words really Greek (sec. 2), really Latin (sec. 3), partly 

Greek and partly Latin (sec. 4). 
Transliteration of short vowels (sec. 5), long vowels and 
diphthongs (sec. 6), consonants (sec. 7) : terminations 
(sec. 8). 
Lost words (sec. 9), by-forms (sec. 10), meanings (sec. 11). 
09) Un-Greek (sec. 12). 



ELLIS, ESQ., F.R.S. By Prince L.-L. Bonapabtk. 

(Head at a Meeting of the Philological Society on Dee, 23, 1888.) 

London^ 8th November, 1888. 

My dbar Mr. Ellis, 

I hope to be able to go again to XJrbino next Marc^ 
to continue my study on the dialect of that ancient ducby, 
dialect which, in my opinion, can be as correctly considei 
to be the end of the Gallo-Italic language as the beginnii 
of the Italian. I prefer to consider it as Gallo-ItaL i 
particularly because it presents, as generally Gallo-ItaK "^ 
dialects do, the final sounds ' b, d, dz, dzh, f, g, gj, gw, 'M 
kj, kw, llj, n, nnj, p, s, ssh, t, ts, tsh, v, z * ; or, in usual Italian i 
orthography, (b, d, z, g gi, f, g gh, ghi gh, gu, c ch, chi eli 
qu, gl gli, n, gn, p, s, sc sci, t, z, c ci, v, s). The Italian fin0^ 
sounds are only these : * 1, m, n, r,' and perhaps ' wA,' (see th^ 
following Table No. 44 and note 5), which occur in Gallo- 
Italic too, and are represented in usual Italian orthography 
by (1, m, n, r) and perhaps (n) for *nh,* Examples taken from 
the dialect of Urbino in usual orthography : (piomb, pied, 
Magg, grif, zag,^ sach, degn, dop, pass, rose, pat, disprezz, 
pec, amav), and also (sal, fam, donn, signer, pan, pronounced 
* paw A ') corresponding, in meaning to Italian (piombo, piede, 
Maggio, grifo, sagrestano,^ sacco, degno, dope, passo, rosso, 
patto, disprezzo, pace, amavi ; sale, fame, donne, signore, 
pane), lead, foot, May, snout (of a pig), sacristan,^ sack, u^orthy, 

* The word (zag), phon. * dzag,* is very much used at Fano, where a sabdialet't 
of Urbinu is Kpoken. It is a wonderful word indeed, and the research of its origin 
is well worthy of the attention of the etymologist ; and so are the prepositions 
(ma) tOy and (sa) usith^ corresponding to the Italian (a) and (con). £x. (ma te, 
sa me) to Ihee, with tne. They are in great use in the localities belonging to 
the dialect of Urbino, and are also heard in localities belonging to the Low 
Romagtiuolo Gallo-Italic subdialect, as Pesaro, Cattolica, Coriano, Rimini, Sen 
Marino, Sant' Agata Feltria, Savignano, San Yittorio of Cesena, and somewhere 


dfter, pace step, red, pact, contempt, peace, thou lovedst ; salt, 
hunger, uvmen, lard, bread. 

The dialect of Urbino does not follow the Romagnuolo 

dialect in making no distinction between the third person of 

the singular and that of the plural in all the tenses ; and, as 

this confusion takes place at Pesaro and in the localities of 

the mandamento of the same name situated between the river 

Poglia and the torrent Arzilla, such as Candelara, Novilara, 

etc., it seems that it marks the limit between these two Gallo- 

Italic dialects. So, e,g, these two phrases, which in Italian 

^^ : (il gatto mangia, i gatti mangiano), the cat is eating, the 

^^9 are eating, are rendered at Urbino by (el gat magna, i gat 

^agnen) and, at Pesaro, by (el gat magna, i gat magna). 

Nasal Sounds. 

I am also, in this moment, very much occupied with the 

l^lionetics of n and m, Grober's new work on Neo-Latin 

''^nguages having greatly modified my ideas about the 

^«ture of the so-called guttural ng, as in Binging, in which 

"^"ord I find a diflference between the final and the medial ng. 

Xn fact, only the latter seems to be a real guttural nasal 

Consonant, which I indicate phonetically by *nh.'^ This 

^ound occurs also in such Genoese and Piedmontese words 

^8 l&nn-a pinn-a, and l\ina plena, meaning full moon, 

^hon. 'lynhnAnha pinh7{^nha, lynhnAnha piEuhn^nha'; 

«lse in Italy. Con/, the Illyrian (sa) on the opposite shore of the Adriatic, the 
German (sammt), the Grees c^tf, all three meaning withj the Latin (simul), 
and the French (ensemhle) together. With regard to (ma), perhaps the hypothe- 
tical Latin (ampud), for (apud), may explain its origin. 1 lind in Du Cange^s 
**G]o88ariam medisB et innmse Latinitatis," under the word Zagus: ''Nomen 
officii palatini spud Venetos. (Appendix ad Translat. SS. Pauli et Barharitom. 7, 
Maii pag. 772 : Capitaneus major, Zagus, cereniouiarum magister, etc. Vide 
Adalidegf'^ and, under the word Adalides: **Apud Lusitanos Adalidem, vulgo 
jldatl [itineris ductor], antiquitus nominatnm luisse Zagam monet S<^ Kosa de 
Titerbo torn. 1, pag. 52. Charta ann. 1162 : De predn d* Fosmdo non deiis^ nisi 
c< Zagam duas partes et vobia remaneant dua ; ubi versio vulgaris sec. 13 : £ de 
rouio, $ defo^ado non dedes tenao ao Adnjl as dwis partes, e a vosjiquem as duns 
partes.** 1 read also in Dozy's*' Glossaire des mots espagnols et portugais derives 
de Tarabe,** at p. 359, line 21 : Zaga, azaga (arri^re* garde), [de 1 arabe] saca, 
"postrema pars exercitus ; *' but the etymology of zag^ in spite of these state- 
ments, remains still very obscure. 

^ Words or symbols between inverted commas are always phonetically spelled 
tccordinff to the symbols given in my Table, while words or symbols in italics or 
between InacketB are not so. 


^hile the Italian luna plena is phonetically ^Uuna pi&oa. 
The final ng of Binging^ on the contrary, as well as th< 
n of bank or finger, seemsy to my ear, to be a nasal vowe 
resonance following a non-nasal vowel and preceding, as ii 
hank or finger, a consonant to which only the gutturaliti 
belongs ; and, as I express the nasal resonance by an itali 
' nA,' the words singing, bank, and finger become phon 
* sinhf^^A, hanKk,* and * {inhgBv.* According to Grober, witl 
whom I entirely agree, both m and n before a consonant souni 
*nA' and not *m' or *n,' the labiality, the gutturality, th 
palatality, the dentality, etc., of the consonant having n 
influence on the preceding ' fih,' whether represented eithe; 
by m or n ; so that the words : gamba, banca, lancia, granchic 
cinque, mondo, ninfa, vanga, frangia, unghia, lingua, in lui^ ca 
gli 8tu({/, in me, in noi, con gnaulare, tempo, con rabbia, menso 
con hcintille, ponie, invito, lonza, smtanziale, bronzo, and mean 
ing : leg, bank, lance, crab, five, world, nymph, spade, fring\ 
nail, tongue^ in him, with the studies, in me, in us, toith mewini 
time, icith rage, table, with sparks, bridge, invitation, panthe^ 
substantial, bronze, are to be pronounced : ' ggd/iAba, hhknhVi 
lla/iAtsha, ggrd/iAkjo, ttshi/iAkwe, mmdnhAo, nninAfa, vv&nAg] 
ffra/?Adzha, u/i/;gja, llin/^gwa, inh lui, kVonh llj studii, inA mt 
i/?A noi, kko;}A nnjauldre, ttK/t/^po, kko//A rdbftbia, mm^r^Asi 
Vk.onh 8shi//Atil/le, ppd/<Ate, inAyito, lld/iAtsa, ssustanAtsj&h 
hhrdnh^zo,^ ^ 

At Urbino the words pan, vin, bon, etc., are phon. ' pa«^ 
vinA, bo;///,' and not *pa, vl, bo,' or *pE, ve, bdS' (according t 
dialects), with nasal vowels, as they exist in Romagnuoh 
Milanese, etc. ; but I am still doubtful whether, even i 
classical Italian, such words are not pronounced with '»A 

* Grober (Gustav) — Gnindriss der romaniscben Pbilologie, I. Band, p. 49 
11. 13-18. Strassburg, Karl J. Triibuer. 1888. ♦♦An Nusnltu [der italioniscbt 
Sprache] : die labiale (mano, pomo), die dentale (ffaso, ca//c) und die unbcstimm 
hasalitat, die * anuswara/ eiu Laut, den man vor jedcm beliebigen Konsonantc 
verniramt, der aber von den folgenden KonBonanten keine verschiedene farbai 
erbalt. so dass er in impcro nicnt anders lautet aU in iul-acco oder in incudin 
Die vierte Nasalis ist das iotaeirte n (n, nnj in deyno)^ — **^ Respecting NaaaU 
tbe labial (mano, porno), tbe dental (naso, ca»e), and the indeterminate nasalit 
the *• anuswara/ a sound which can be heard before any consonant whatever, bi 
which is not differently affected by the following consonants, so that it soundis tl 
S'lme in iwprro as it does in tutacco or in iiieudine, Tbe fourth nasal is tl 
iotacised n \fi, nuj in degtu)).''* 


instead of 'n' when the final Towel is suppressed, which 
Ittppens particularly in poetry. Salviati calls mezza n or haif 
A the final n of Natan^ phon. ' Nnat&faA/ and not ' Nnatan ' ; 
uid also * ppanA, vvifsA, bbuconA ' when used for pane^ vino^ 
iiNNio (bread, wine, good). I am, with thanks and kind 

Tours yery truly, 

L.-L. Bonaparte. 

*^in,i OF THE Italian Simple Sounds with a View to Facilitate 
'Jill Ukobbstamdimo of the Symbols Used in the Pbbcedino Lettek. 

*1. a=&li, &le (ali, ale^) wings, 

2. b=rrublno (rubino) rubt/. 

3. bb=il bb£l/lo (il hello) the hatidsofne. 
'*4. i=gg(obfrba (gobba) hunch {lat gibba). 

6. d=a>do (odo) I hear. 

6. dd=il dd&nnno (il danno) the damage. 

7. ddz=rr(^ddzo (rozzo) rough. 

8. ddzh^=lla>ddzha (loggia) lodge. 

9. dz=ddi dzcol/la (di zolla) of clod. 
10. dzh=ggr{dzho (grigio) grey. 

*11. ef=ade/dio (addio) adieu. 

♦12. e=pp&ne (pane) bread. 

*13. «=rr^fe (refe) thread. 

*14. £=irbba (erba) herb. 

15. f=ttufo (tufo) tufa. 

16. ffzist&fia (staffa) stirrup. 

17. g=ll&go (lago) lake. 

18. gg=il gg41/lo (il gallo) the cock. 

19. ggj*=pp^ ggj&wAda (per ghianda)/(?r acorn. 

20. ggw^=il ggw&;»Ato (il guanto) the glove. 

21. g]=lla gj&nMa (la ghianda) the acorn. 

22. gw=ss^gwo (seguo) I follow. 
*23. ^=vv^g^go (veggo) I see. 

*24. ij;'=agjg;*gj&ttsho (agghiaccio) I turn to ice. 
*25. ^!r=agw^frgw&to (agguato) ambush. 
*26. i=ira (ira) anger. 

27. k=iiko (eco) echo. 

28. kj=lla kj&ve (la chiave) the key. 

FhU. Trans. 18SS-90. 14 


29. kk=il kkdro (il care) the dear. 

30. kkj=pp^r kkj&ve (per chiave)^ key. 

31. kkw=&k'kkwa (acqua) water. 

32. kw=6kwo (equo) equitable. 

33. l=dla, &le (ala, ale) unng. 

34. ll=pp^r Uupo (per lupo)/(?r tcolf. 

35. llj'=minilljo (miglio) milei 
•36. /=bbal/lo (ballo) dance. 

37. m=&nao (amo) I love. 

38. mm =11 mmdnhtQ (il monte) the mountain. 
•39. m=88(^mmma (somma) sum. 

40. n=pp^na (pena) joa*Vi. 

41. nn=ppOT niKJtshe (per noce) for walnut. 

42. nnj*=ll^nnjo (legno) wood {lat. lignum). 
*43. n=&nnno (anno) year. 

*44. nA*=inAkudine (incudine) anvil. 

*45. o=pp&lo (palo)|?flfe {lat. palus). 

*46. o=8k(^pa (scopa) broom. 

*47. a>=Goro (ore) gold. 

48. p=kk&po (capo) head. 

49. pp=kk4p*ppa (cappa) cloak with a hood. 

50. r=vv^ro (vero) true. 

51. rr=kk&rro (carro) cart. 

52. 8=kk4sa (casa) house. 

53. 8s=kk&88a (cassa) trunk (lat. cap8a). 

54. 88h^=pp^s8he (pesce) Jish. 

55. t=rrucota (ruota) wheel. 

56. ts=ddi tsio (di zio) of uncle. 

57. t8li=pp&tshe (pace)j»^ffc^. 

58. t8J=vvit8Jo (vizio) rice. 

59. tt=:mmat*tto (matto) mad. 

60. tt8=pp4tt8o (pazzo) mad. 

61. tt8li=kk4tt«ha (caccia) chase, hunt. 

62. ttsj=8pett8J&mo (spezziamo) let us break. 
*63. u=zlluna (luna) moon. 

64. vzznn^ve (neve) suoic. 

65. vvzzavvEwAto (avvento) Advent. 

66. z^=:rrwza (rosa) ros^. 

Atkinson's bd. of thb lebak bkboo. — ^mr. stokes. 203 

* Wofdi ipelled aocordingtothe usual Italian orthography are pntin parentheses, 
vhile those spelled phonetically are not, or only between * 

' The letters 'h, jt W are, phonetically, only nsed in di^ms, trigrams, etc. 
' The symbol < Uj ' is the strong modification of weak * Ij,* not to be found in 

* The symbol ' nnj ' is the strong modifieation of weak < nj,' not to be found in 

' The symbol ' nh* exists in Italian, but * nh ' does not. 

' The symbol ' ssh ' is the strong modification of weak * sh,' but the last does not 
ciist m Italian, although it is very common in the vulgar Florentine and Koman 
Jtttmimdation of ihe lowest claisses. The Italian phrase (pasoe in pace), 
phonetically * pp&Bshe ixA p&tshe,' he feeds in peace, becomes ' pp&sshe in A p&she.' 

^ The symbol ' z ' has no strong modification. 

K.B.~(1} The sounds which I consider to be Towels have an asterisk prefixed. 

(2) A dot between two consonants of the same kind indicates a stop. 

(3) See the note on pp. 179>80 of my ^aper ** Initial Mutations in the living 
^itic, Basque, Sardinian, and Italian Dialects," in the <* Transactions of the 
^^^Uldogical Soeiety, 1882-S-4." 

LEBAR BRECC. By Whitley Stokes, D.C.L. 

HE Lebar Breco, or 'Speckled Book/ is a fourteenth-century 
^^^ellam MS.» now consisting of 140 leaves of the largest folio, 
^^^tten for the most part in double columns, which contain in 
^ome cases more than 80 closely- written lines. It belongs to the 
library of the Royal Irish Academy, by which learned body a 
lithographic facsimile was published in 1876. With the excep- 
tions of a fragmentary history of Philip and Alexander the 
Great, the story called Mac Conglinne'a Vision (which reminds 
one sometimes of Rabelais, sometimes of the Bataille de Karesme 
ei de Chamage)^ two lyrical poems (in pp. 108** and 186*), 
and a copy of the old glossary attributed to Cormac, its con- 
tents are religious or ecclesiastical. The whole is in the Irish 
language, except two Latin hymns, a copy of the Lorica of 
Oildas, a sermo synodalis, some texts from a Latin translation 
(not always the Yulgate) of the Bible, and other portions of 
the homilies hereinafter mentioned. For the history of the 
Christian religion in Ireland it is of the utmost value, and it 
is a great repertory of the Old and the Middle-Irish languages. 
But for philological purposes it must be used with caution, 

204 Atkinson's passions and homilies. — ^mr. stokes. 

for the scribes were ignorant and sometimes careless;^ and 
we find in every column instances of that confusion of ch 
and thy of gh and dhy of mh and hh, which has prevailed 
from the fourteenth century to the present day, and which 
makes most Irish MSS. and printed books either snares or 
eyesores to the etymologist. 

Two of the divisions of this codex consist of Passions and 
Homilies. The Passions are those of Christ, six of His 
Apostles, John the Baptist, Stephen, Longinus, the Seven 
Sleepers, St. George, and Pope Marcellinus. The Homilies 
treat of the Epiphany, Circumcision, Transfiguration, and 
other events in Christ's life, of the incredulity of S. Thomas, of 
Pentecost, of Michael the Archangel, of the four saints most 
popular in Ireland — Martin of Tours, Patrick, Brigit and 
Columba, of charity, repentance, the ten commandments, the 
Lord's Prayer, fasting, the canonical hours, and other such 
matters. ''It is nearly certain," says Professor Atkinson, 
" that the whole of the texts here printed are versions made 
directly from the Latin." This is quite certain in the 
case of most of the homilies, where each sentence of the 
Irish is preceded by the Latin original, which Prof. Atkin- 
son, as a nile, omits from his texts. He thus, as M. Henri 
Gaidoz has remarked, '' modifie la physionomie de roriginal," 
and leads his readers to suppose that he has made his transla- 
tion without assistance. The Latin appears to be the work 
of continental scholars, and hence we may account for the 
almost total absence from these documents of anything to 
throw light on the peculiar doctrines and practices of the 
Irish church, the manners, customs, laws, superstitions and 
folklore of the Irish people. The references in Professor 
Atkinson's texts (11. 7615-7517) to the use of oil in (not 
before or after) baptism ; to the mixed chalice (1. 6360) ; to 
an eternal purgatory (1. 4308) ; to future punishment by cold 
as well as by heat (1. 6397) ; to future reward by listening 
to the music of the birds in paradise (1. 6486), are about all 
that illustrate religious belief and usage. The catalogue of the 

^ e.g. iteuatamar 7^, leg. itcualamar ; rorenachsnt 191^, leg. rofkrmnaigwei ; 
Tairisim^ 193», leg. Tairisid; roglom larigdia 162Meg. rogldrmairig dia ; dorm' 
detar 246» 30, leg. dorinde tdr ; auigiududy 192^ leg. suidiugmU 

Atkinson's passions and homilies. — mr. storks. 205 

aooomplishments of the two daughters of Herodias (11. 889- 

892) throws some light on the amusements of the ancient 

Irish, and the lists of the punishments legally inflicted (U. 

4198-4201 and 7332), illustrate their criminal law. Phrases 

like tulaeh comdala] 'hill of meeting/ 1. 8255 (which the editor 

renders by " rendezvous "), are also racy of the soil. As to 

Irish superstitions, one may perhaps quote 11. 7315-7318 as 

to casting lots, poisons (philters ?) of women {uptha ban), 

aug;uries given by birds {gldr ^n, the gotha Sn of the Irish 

Nennius, p. 124, the Latin oscines), visions, the moon's time, 

forbidden days, and prophecies by living men. The beliefs 

timt when a king is righteous, ' earth and sea, field and 

Wood, lakes and rivers will be fruitful' (1. 4285) ; that the 

first-bom of an adulterer or adulteress will die prematurely 

(L 781 1) ; that for three days after its birth the lion's whelp 

^ lifeless, and is brought to life by the breath and roar of 

^ts father,^ appear to belong to Irish folk-lore. So does the 

Motion of the dropping well (U. 6365-6367), which never 

increases in rain nor diminishes in drought;^ and I have 

\>6en unable to find a foreign source for the following fine 

Xegend, which occurs as a commentary on the text Diligite 

Mustitiam qui iudicatia terram (11. 4129-4145) : 

' Love ye juBtice,' that is, deliver righteous judgments, kings 
of the world ! For Solomon greatly feared the Lord when he was 
judging the people and passing sentences upon them. For one day 
he was before the noble king David, his father, when David 
was judging the people. And he upbraided David for his tardi- 
ness and hesitation in decidiog. Whereupon his father said to 
him : *' Come thou, my son, to-day ' upon the throne, that thou 
mayst search into and clear up the questions and the causes of 
the folk more quickly than I do. For thou art shrewder and 
sharper of wit and understanding, as is said in the proverb : The 
younger thorn is always the sharper,*^ • 

1 Compare the Pseado-Turpin, ed. Ciampi, p. 47, ed. Castels, p. 33, and 
Philippe de Thann in Wright's Popular Treatises, p. 76. 

2 Compare Fiacc*8 hymn, 1. 29, where it is said of the well Sl&n : tiis-gaihtd 

tart fia Ha (nor drought nor flood used to affect it), and Pliny's account of the 
weU Mandnria. 

' Compare is luaithi mang ind mdthair (the fawn is swifter than its dam), 
Cormac*8 Glossary, s.t. Mang. Other proverbs in Prof. Atkinson's book are is 
umisli in elit ina nt-dr (glory is nobler than gold), 7685, and boei/at ineemais omain 
(danger in absence of fear), 3010, a warning against oTer-confldence. 


206 Atkinson's passions and homilies. — ^mb. flrroKss. 

''Then went Solomon upon the throne, according to his fatiber't 
order. And over his head there appeared to him the Hand of the 
Creator with a two-edged sword, threatening him with a sadden 
and awful death if he swerved, little or much, from the righteous 
judgment. And when Solomon saw that, he tremhled greatly, and 
his blood turned to bone in him for fear of the one God. And then 
he entreated his father to beseech the Lord for him, and to grant 
him forgiveness for the vexation that he had caused him through 
want of knowledge. So then they both besought the Lord that 
He would protect justice, and that they might never pass an 
unrighteous judgment." ^ 

In the costly yolume under notice Prof. Atkinson has 
printed, with funds supplied by the British Ooyemment to 
the Boyal Irish Academy, the whole of these Passions and all 
the Homilies except those on the Transfiguration and the 
four saints, Martin, Patrick, Brigit and Colomb cille. He 
gives the texts in the Roman character. He has added a 
translation (sometimes paraphrastic, sometimes condensed, 
frequently erroneous) of the greater number of his texts ; * 
and an elaborate glossary concludes his volume. In the 
following remarks I shall first notice the texts, secondly, 
the translation, and thirdly, the glossary. 

1. The Texts. 

The texts, so far as I have examined them, are reproduced 
with reasonable accuracy from the codex.^ But this codex 
is, as I have hinted, not unfrequently corrupt, and the first 
criticism I have to make is that, except in three instances. 
Prof. Atkinson has not collated his texts with the versions 
contained in other MSS. No editor of an Irish text can 
dispense with this process. It is true that Prof. Atkinson 
appears to have collated his Passion xxix. (the Seven 
Sleepers) with Egerton 91, fo. 32, his Passion xxvii. 

^ Sec the Hevue Celtiquey ii. 382, 383, where this legend was first printed and 

^ He has not translated the homilies numbered ix., xiii., and xxxvii. He has 
omitted to translate much of his homily viii. 

^ Ilomily xiii. on the Circumcision is incomplete. Homily XTii., on the 
Transfiguration, is not given at all. 

ATKimon's PAsnoiis and homilies. — ^mr. stokes. 207 

(Longinus) with Egerton 136, p. 85, and the first portion of 
bis Passion xix. (Christ) with the Irish gospel of Nicodemus 
in the Yellow Book of Lecan. But these collations are fiar 
from complete, and he has wholly neglected Laud 610, ff. 
lP-14*, which contains a copy of the Passion of Christ's 
Image (= Atkinson, pp. 42-48), and the fourteenth century 
Irish MS. in the Biblioth^que Nationale, which contains 
Tersions of no less than nine of Prof. Atkinson's texts — 
marked respectively III., IV., VII., XVI., XIX., XXVI., 

Secondly, although Prof. Atkinson has discarded the 

80-called Irish tjrpe for Roman, he has not availed himself 

of the power which this sensible act has given him, to 

mark, by the use of italics, his extensions of the numerous 

contractions in his texts. He prints, for instance (1. 2829), 

ro-grandaigsibair. But this is a vox nihili. Had he used 

italics, as he ought, he would have printed ro-grrmdaigsibair, 

and then even tiros in Irish would have seen that this was an 

editorial error for the ro-gr^ndaigsibair ('ye have bearded' 

OP 'challenged') of the manuscript,^ 162* 45. A similar 

mistake is in 1. 1630, where for the *'it^t kal. luil" (*on 

the third [day before] the calends of July') of the MS. 

172** 67, Prof. Atkinson gives us "itat kalaind lull," which 

is mere gibberish. So in 1. 3302, where the Jews take 

Christ to Golgotha, the MS. 166** 8, has Dia mbatar tra oc 

imdecht iama s^t, ' when they were going along their way ' ; 

bat for 8^t, Prof. A. prints * sroigled,' and translates ' aft^r 

scourging Him,' which would be iama shroigkd, with 

aspirated s. So, in 1. 5396 (MS. 53» 1), Prof. A.'s * fer na 

leirai-sin' should be fer na leiresiBnhen Hhe author of the 

clear (or complete?) declaration.' And in 1. 5643 (MS. 

56* 10), his 'leth is aentudach ind aisneisen-se' should be 

lath [atoibi, .i.] is aentudach, ind aisn^is-se, the scribe having 

substituted the gloss for the lemma, without much regard 

^ Examples of the Terb grennaigim are grmnatgit in tnacrad eisium imteehy 
tTimbadha Jriu (the boys challenge him to come and mutually duck them), 
Mac-gnlmartha Find, Bev. Celt. t. 200. rohdi ie grennugudna Trotandae co tistdis 
Ma cathraigh (he was challenging the Trojans to come out of their city), H. 2. 
17, p 166^ Henoe the adj. grmnaigth$eh * defiant,' LL. 224». 

208 Atkinson's passions and homilies. — mr. stokes. 

for syntax. To these five specimens may be added an em 
which is made " about 400 times " (p. 645). The MS. o 
each of these occasions has the abbreviation ''di'' (t. 
Old-Ir. didiu, G.C. 349, 712-13, later diu). For th 
Prof. Atkinson always gives the vox nibili ^din* So tl: 
compendium da {i.e. dano, G.C. 700), he prints at least si 
times as ' dan.' 

Thirdly, he often bisects compounds, e.g. cet cheaad L 34, fi 
cStchSsady and fir dhuine 5642, for firdhutne. We even hai 
na truaig 8315-16, for n-atruaig} da muscach 3042, for damu 
each, and tair sin 6462, for tair[c]8in. 

Fourthly, his use of the hjrphen is generally needless ax 
often wrong. He prints, e.g. ro-gaby and-sin, di-a n-id, talon 
chumscugitd. He might as well print in a Oreek text l-Xuat 
iv'Tavda, 0(7-ta9, in an Engb'sh earth-quake, in a Frenc 
ie-quel. The editorial error ro-torned 1. 410, for ro-^-or[rf]iie< 
'thou hast been ordained,' can deceive no one. But whe 
Prof. A. writes, as he does in countless cases, the articulate 
prepositions cos-in, fors-in, fors-na, iars-in, iars-in-ni, «-« 
is-na, laS'in, res-in, tris-in, iara-in, instead of co-sin, /or-sii 
far'Sna, etc. (or better cosin, forsin, forana, etc.), he mij 
leads the tiro into the belief that the a in these compound 
belongs to the preposition, whereas it is part of the subec 
quent article. To print in an Italian text all-o, coll-o, dall-i 
d^ll'O, nell-Oy sull-o, in an Old-French text al-s, dels, woul 
be similar blunders. 

II. The Translation. 

I now proceed to consider Prof. Atkinson's translation < 
the Passions and Homilies. He states (p. 276) that he he 
not been anxious to give "a slavishly literal translation of th 
Irish text," but that he has not " passed over any real diffi 
culty of which he was conscious." This one is bound t 
believe. But the limited extent of his consciousness wi 
appear from the following specimens. I shall first give th 

^ In p. 958, 1. 27, the (?) should be omitted after n^atruaig. 


text, then Prof. Atkinson's version, and then a rendering 
which I fear he will denounce as 'slavishly literal.' The 
nnmbers refer to the pages and lines of Prof. Atkinson's 

wrchindig eraihdecha na hAsfda 7 cristaige urmoir in oirth- 
air uU, ' faithf al overseers of Asia and very many Christians 
of all the East' (278, 11. 3, 4). Eead: 'the pious principals of 
Asia and the Christians of the chief part of all the East ' — 
urmoir being the gen. sg. of the substantive nrmor^ not, as 
Prof. A. supposes, an adjective in the nom. pi. masc. agreeing 
with cristaige, 

midigia in delb hi froigid a leptha in canair but aiged a lepiha 
'he placed the image on the wall near which was the head of 
his bed/ 297, 1. 22. The Irish is corrupt, but easily corrigible, 
even without reference to Laud 610. For but aiged a leptha 
read Mi a aiged, and then translate: 'he set the image on 
the wall (footboard) of his bed in the direction in which was 
^18 &ce/ i.e. in front of him. 

ieofi Ebraide ut ' with such and such a Jew' (280, 1. 36). 
Jtead : * with yonder Jew,' ut for dt. 

anifide * animosity ' and ' savagery ' (281, 11. 32, 36). Read 

^Xi both places, 'senselessness,' Old-Ir. an-inne, from inne 

sense/ with the common negative prefix. 

noco tanic digal . . • for lerusalem ' till the time of the 

backing of Jerusalem' (284, 1. 11). Read: 'till vengeance 

^for Christ's blood) came upon Jerusalem.' So tossach na 

^igla *the beginning of the siege' (284, 1. 17). Read: 'the 

beginning of the vengeance.' In the glossary, p. 642, digal 

(=Welsh dial) gen. digla, is rightly rendered. 

basgaire co-serb icnech etuailngech 'wringing their hands, 
and being filled with the bitterness of intolerable cursings ' 
(290, U. 11, 12). Here Prof. A. has mistaken the adverbial 
prefix CO for the prep. co-n= cum, the adj. serb for the subst. 
serbe, and the adjective icnech for the substantive Henoch, 
Translate simply : ' clapping of palms bitterly, violently, 

in uaim alebi Sirapti 'on Mount Soracte' (290, 1. 37). 
Bead : ' in a cave of mount S.' 

210 Atkinson's passions and homilibs. — uk. stokbs. 

vtdine bid 7 etaig * abundance of food' (292, 1. 9). Read : 
' treasares of food and of raiment.' 

romebaid lasaar . . . dia gnuis 'a light flashed over the face' 
(297, 1. 14). Read: 'a flame brake from his countenance,' 
see p. 797, and note that romebaid is bad spelling for nme- 
maidy the act. perfect sg. 3 of maidim, 

lecmit at ucht feasin hi cele breith bera * we will leave it to 
thine own breast, with thyself to decide what sentence thon 
wilt pass ' (297-8), Read : * we leave hidden (lit. in con- 
cealment) in thine own breast the judgment thou mayst 

aossad * seat ' (298, 1. 7). Read : ' station.' 

oc fiir m'anma dia breith i flaith DS ' watching for my soul 
to carry it into the kingdom of God ' (304, 1. 5). Read : 
* preparing to carry my soul into God's kingdom.' Prof. A. 
confounds f&r with /aire, Old-Ir. aire, cognate with the area- 
nos (' watchers ' P) of Ammianus Marcellinus, xxviii. 3. 

nem^le 'remorse' (304, 1. 13). Read: 'lamentation.' 

Ba fnor tra a dethitiu 7 a chair ' of great carefulness and 
stern rebuke' (305, 1. 4). Read: 'great, now, was his care 
and his justice,' cair=zcoir, sg. gen. corach, p. 598. 

[a'jruthi * more famous ' (306, L 34). Read : ' more 
venerable,' sruithiu (gl. antiquior), the comparative of smith, 

eccraibdige 'unbelief (309, 1. 23). Read: 'impiety.' The 
corresponding adjective is also mistranslated : coradu icraib- 
dechu (impious champions) being rendered (314, L 33) by 
' unbelieving tyrants.* 

cepp dar a choaa ' fetters on his feet' (316, 1. 28). Read : 
'a block (or stocks) over his feet;' cepp being=Lat. cippuSy 
whence also Welsh ci/ff. 

forcongair in rig roth mor do thabairt chuca ' the king had 
prepared a great wheel ' (317, 1. 25). Read : ' the king 
orders a great wheel to be brought to him.' In p. 721 the 
tense is mistaken. 

Ho'immid Oeorgi ' His re-appearance astonished the king 
greatly' (318, 1. 15). Read: 'George went about.' Here, 
as Prof. A. himself has seen (p. 761), ro-immid is a mis- 
spelling of rO'imthig, 

jOKismns's passioxs akd homilies. — ^mr.* stokk. 211 

hoi indanu na ealkraeh een adnoeul . . . co n-estais bia^ta 7 
etkiie ke * he (St^hen) lay . . . without burial at the gate of 
the city so that beasts and birds deyoured him' (326, 
line 18). 

Here are two mistakes. Lutoms is here, not ' at the gate/ 
bat a common nominal prep., meaning ' in front of/ ' before/ 
And e$iais is not, as Prof. A. supposes, in the indicative. Tlie 
very next words {acht ni ros-corb ndch n-atifnanna he, etc.) 
bW that the protomartyr's body was not devoured, but 
miracolonsly preserved. Read : ' he was (left lying) before 
the city (and) without burial, in order that beasts and birds 
might eat him.' 
aU ' foundation ' (330, 1. 25). Eead : ' rock.' 
conanaearsu 'thou art able' (334, 1. 5). Read: 'Thou 
^t been able,' this verb being the redupl. pret. sg. 2 of 
^nicim. The enclitic form, (ni) coetnnacair (leg. caemnacar)^ 
' thou hast not been able,' occurs in the same line. 

na lochrannafor lasad isin loch ' light flashing on the lake ' 

(337, L 28). Read : * the lights blazing in the lake,' i.e. the 

^^ke in which St. Paul's head was lying. That light or fire is 

^tuitted by a saint's relics is a commonplace in Irish hagi- 

^logy. Here it comes from a holy head. 

oirchis dinn ria n-anmr ar iidamunta ' save us from damna- 
"^lon before our time' (347,1. 23). Read: 'spare us before 
^he time of our damnation,' i.e. 'don't torture us until we 
^re damned.' 

imluaidid i foendel he ' harass him with delirium ' (347, 
X. 30.) Read: 'Drive him about into wandering.' foimlol 
(gL peruagatio) ML 121^ 8. So imluadit demnaib ' possessed 
\>j devils' (360, 1. 8). Read: 'who were driven about by 
devils,' and compare Prof. Atkinson's texts 1. 2210 and 
Ml. 90^ 15, 135^ 9. 

cech aincess olchena 'men sick of every evil' (356, 1. 16). 
Read : ' every ailment besides.' 

brirfemne delb 7 idal Mairt iarsin ' we will break the idol 
forthwith ' (356, 1. 26). Read : ' we will break the image 
and idol of Mars thereafter.' 

dolad 'curse' (364, 1. 14) 'distress,' p. 667. Read: 'charge' 

212 Atkinson's passions and homilies. — ^mr. stokes. 

or ' impost.' The word occurs in the ace. sg. (gan doladh) i 
the Four Masters, a.d. 1581, and in the dat. pi. {dohidiC^^ 
dolodib) in the Book of Deir. 

CO ndomhlaa ae 'of the bitterness of gall' (368, 1. 13). 
Read : * with gall/ lit. ' with bitterness of liver/ i.e. the bil^ 
the bitter fluid secreted in the glandular substance of tbe 

erwfli/ ' account ' (371, 1. 23 ; 379, 1. 16). Emails properlj 

* kind,' * species,' here means ' version ' or * recension.' 

atathar do crochad *who is being crucified' (377, 1. 9). 
Read : * who is to be crucified.' 

frinde anair ' westward ' (381, 1. 32). Read : * to the east 
of us ' or ' in front of us.' 

riana facsin 'at the sight of them' (383,1. 28). Read: 

* at sight of him/ scil. the angel who appeared to the women 
at the holy sepulchre. 

riched 'the kingdom of heaven' (388, 1. 4). Read: 

* heaven.' 

ar mhidba a[r\ndi8 * who is guilty before us both * (397, 1. 
30). Read: 'the enemy of us both,' and see Zimmer in 
Kuhn's Zeitschrift, xxx. 43. 

ro'driuchtatar ' they raged ' (399, 1. 25, and p. 690, col. 2, 
1. 17). Read : 'they cried out.' 

in ri talmanday airrig he fri laim in rig nemdai, rendered in 
p. 405, 1. 8, by 'the earthly king is a viceroy at the hands (?/'the 
Heavenly King.' In the glossary the idiomatic expression 
fri Idim is rendered by " under the authority of." It means 
" as vicar (deputy, substitute, proxy) for." See the Tripartite 
Life, Rolls ed. p. 28, 1. 13, and the Four Masters, a.d. 

c&raidecht is rendered by ' arrogance ' (405, 1. 32), by 
'violence' (409, 1. 10), and by 'harshness' (609). It means 
' wickedness.' 

inunarcraid {=imm'forcraid) 'abundance' (406, 1. 8, and 
p. 768). It means ' overabundance,' 'superfluity.' 

erlathrigit (they) 'govern' (409, 1. 24), (they) 'preside,' 
p. 686. It means ' they dispose,' ' arrange,' ' set in order : ** 
cf. lathar (gl. dispositio) Ml. 42^. 



■ Atkinson's passions and homilies. — mb. stokes. 213 

i robris cath fathri for Demun ' he there fought a battle 

f against the DeviP (426, L 13). This common idiomatic 

phrase means 'He, Christ, thrice defeated the Devil in 

battle/ literally, 'broke a battle thrice on the Devil/ ue. 

successfully resisted the Devil's three temptations. 

Cirine 'Quirinus' (458, 1. 21; p. 500, 1. 10). Read: 
'Hieronymus' or 'Jerome,' and compare Ml. 103*, 26, 124*, 5. 
m dentar gait gan Hin gaite ' stealing without the intention 
of stealing is not stealing' (486, 1. 16). The bull is due to the 
translator. The Irish literally rendered is: 'theft is not 
committed without a secret intention of thieving,' or, in 
the language of Blackstone, there must be a vicious will as 
well as an unlawful act. 

Many other mistranslations which I had noted I after- 
wards found silently corrected in the glossary, which no doubt 
was compiled with the instructive assistance of Windisch's 
Worterbuch. Prof. Atkinson was naturally unwilling to 
publish a lengthy list of his peccadillos.^ Fortunately for 
students of his book, the present writer has no such objection. 

robidg 'shook,' 279, 1. 5; na di^la 'of the siege,' 284, 1. 17; 
rmarhait ' died,' 289, 1.' 20 ; socraxde ' more suitable,' 290, 1. 20 ; 
muUdci ' of a jug,' 294, 1. 7 ; noaimaigfed ' would have watched,' 
297, 1. 30; $eoUi9 'burst' 301, 1. 8; timoircid 'collects,' 301, 1. 
29; oe adnad ' hjnnug' 305, 1. 22; Idgmar 'choice,' 305, 1. 28; 
dnehm-a ' confessor,' 306, 1. 30 ; di trath ' a few hours,' 312, 1. 27 , 
lit roerehoit d6 'it availed just as little,' 317, 1. 17; tnairg 'fie,' 
817, L 29 ; id ' fire' 318, 1. 25 ; no adairtha * ye worship,' 320, 1. 3; 
a malartnaig 'thou curse,' 322, 1. 9; ro-faidis 'thou hast hurled,' 
322, L 26 ; rths-eloehsat ludaide ' whom the Jews crucified,' 326, 1. 
17; /iMMfia<^ ' angry feeling,' 322, 1. 21; 'violence,' 353, 1. 28; 
nufaeea he 'he disappeared,' 327, 1. 10 ; dianaig ' thou art hasten- 
ing,' 335, last line ; dU ' doom,' 346, 1. 6 ; firinde 'life,' 356, 1. 5 ; 
eof&rrda 'fervently,' 357, 1. 31 ; fitait 'they know how,' 362, 1. 6 ; 
dith ' woe,' 362, 1. 12 ; ro-eumdaiged ' founded,' 364, 1. 5 ; crochaire 
' malefactor,' 368, 1. 29 ; mae merdrige ' child of fornication,' 396, 
\, Z2\ oe tochail na cloehi 'raising the stones,' 371, 1. 9; hoegal in 

^ In p. 958 he says, '*The translation is occasionally [!] corrected by the Glos- 
sary, $.gJ* [he then gives six instances]. 

214 Atkinson's passions and homilies. — ^mb. groKEs. 

eemais amain 'confidence in the absence of danger,' 372, 1. 21 ; ^tfrrii 
' guard room ' 381, 1. 2 ; atnal ha l6rleo *b& was their wont,' 381 
1. 10; 90chaide 'others,' 382, 1. 13; alim 'we implore,' 1. 11 
tomitiir 'are gathered,' 387, 1. 18 ; crith 'gnashing,' 391, 1. 11 
grMacht ' inspiration,' 392, 1. 23 ; oc frMgdbaU ' taken np,' 393, 1 
31 ; edinehomrae ' comfort,' 394, 1. 31 ; clr^onugud ' calamity,' 398, 
1. 2 ; 808taih ' citadel,' 399, 1. 23 ; ' borders ' (399, L 28) ; eorofegw 
'that I may assign,' 401, 1. 21; gillacht 'childhood,' 402, L 6; 
airitiu 'respect,' 403,1.6; toeeraides 'opposes,' 408, 1. 11; m 
thimna 'my law,' 403, 1. 31; forcetul 'maxim,' 404, 1. 24; 
CO rithinach ' peaceably,* 405, 1. 24 ; trosethi * self-restraint,' 408, 
1. 15 ; /«7/ 'deceit,' 408, 1. 22; airmitiu ' acceptable,' 411, 1. 28; 
retniss ' lifetime,' 411, 1. 31 ;, eumsanad ' relief,' 412, 1. 18 ; oduaA' 
mara 'desperate,' 412, 1. 26; aduathmar 'hideous,' 412, 1. 44; 
itar/uarad * alleviation,' 4 1 3, 1. 3 ; ramdr rodireecra ' loud, anguished,' 
413, 1. 4; imrtm 'entrance,' 419, 1. 32; fuacarthaid 'enforcer,' 
442, 1. U; foehaide 'inflictions,' 452, 1. 32 ; cin tothacht ^ ein detk- 
berius ' without special validity and reference,' 452, 1. 13 ; tai$9eQh 
thar 'were shewn,' 453, 1. 15; cosa %aiget 'with his arrow' (!!] 
453, 1. 17 ; faith 'kiug,' 459, 1. 35; erhdaigimm 'I accept,' 464, 
1. 17; adha hunaid 'permanent abode,' 478, 1. 27; salehar 'an- 
noyance,' 481, 1. 23 ; seristair ass ' is sundered from,' .483, 1. 6 ; i 
dhescad do thecht 'to communicate contagion,' 483, 1. 16 ; adhai 
'argument,' 485, 1. 6 ; spreid 'meaus,' 485, 1. 25 ; huaidred 'deteriora- 
tion,' 486, 1. 22 ; aithne * heading,' 486, I. SO ; on 16 * and therefore, 
486, 1. 32 ; crich 'portion,' 488, 1. 28 ; guirt 'vegetables,' 490, 1. 5 
leimnech 'onslaught,' 490, 1. 9; is direch tuicther so 'this is ex- 
emplified,' 491, 1. 10; goists 'net,' 492, 1. 19; longphort 'fort, 
494, 1. 22 ; crech ' breach,' 494, 1. 27 ; connagut * we seek,' 498, 1. 28 
craihdech ' believing,' 502, 1. 13 ; eoforhthe ' spiritually,' 502, 1. 26 
coduihrachtaoh ' cheerfully,' 502, 1. 32 ; lecca lonna [leg. lomma' 
loisctecha 'mighty red-hot battle- stones,' 507, 1. 33; ni tharraid 'thej 
had not caught,' 508, 1. 5 ; oirfitiud * mockery of song,' 508, 1. 29 
cuile ' comer,' 509, 1. 31 ; 'nest,' 511, 7; il-brethach 'full of pre- 
judices,' 510, 1. 1 ; dergud 'neglect,' 511, 1. 11 ; fetdn 'hiss,' 511, 
1. 35; s-ktrall 'candle,' 511, 1. 35 ; lesugud 'support,' 512, 1. 3; 
aprisc 'short-lived,' 513, 1. 1; tiiigaih 'stiff,' 513, 1. 12; examaii 
' abundant,' 514, 1. 1 ; hantaiscthid 'treasure,' 514, 1. 12 ; cen 4liu- 
gud 'unquestioning,' 514, 1. 14. 

That any one capable of publishing such unlucky guess- 

ATKIHBOk's passions Am) HOMILIES. — MR. STOKES. 215 

work shoald have undertaken a work like the present is one 
of those events which could happen only in Ireland. 

III. The Glossary. 

The glossary consists of 435 pages, closely printed in 

doable columns^ and must have cost much time and labour. 

The author has, for example, counted the number of times 

that the following words occur in his texts, though their 

meaning and use are perfectly well known : and (there) 

'occarring 460 times.' din (leg. di^m) 'occurring about 400 

times.' indiu (to-day) * about 66 times.' inni (the thing) 

'about 75 times.' no (or) 'about 150 times.' oen (one) 

'about 180 times.' Such statistics maybe desirable in the 

case of books like the Yedas, the Iliad, the Odyssey, or 

6?en the Divina Commedia. But to compile and print 

them for a set of Middle-Irish homilies, arbitrarily 

elected and in themselves nearly worthless, seems (to 

^ak frankly) a foolish waste of time, labour, and 

The errors of this, as of other glossaries, are those of 

Omission, and those of commission. Of the former I have 

Only found five instances, viz. ail 'rock' 1638 (where in dail 

%hould be ind ail), an-inde (senselessness) 129, 133; atruag^ 

('very pitiful '= Welsh athru) 8315, where Prof. Atkinson 

prints na truaig for n-atruaig : cosia * footprinted ' 6335, 

"which he mistakes for a Latin word ;^ atelle ' of a star/ 6983, 

6985, which he mistakes for the gen. sg. of the Lat. stella, 

and moaach 'filthy/ 8299. But the latter are numerous. 

Those that are likely to mislead^ may be classified as 
follows : — 

^ Better attruagh, aa in Annals of Ireland, Three FragmenU, ed. 0* Donovan, 
p. 46, line 17. 

^ The Apodonia in Prof. Atkinson's texts, 1. 6335, iB=Apodanea a pedis 
ibi Testigio impreeso, Ducange. 

' Examples of errors whica cannot mislead any one with the merest tincture of 
philology are in p. 621, s.t. aeall-, where Prof. Atkinson says that the enclitic 
fonn is from * the root ad-glad, and in p. 892, where he says that *a(a* is a 
' root-form ' used in the conjugation of * taim.* 

216 Atkinson's passions and homilies. — mb. stokbs. 

a. Non-existing words. 

b. Oblique cases given as nominatives. 

c. Wrong insertions of marks of length* 

d. Wrong omissions of marks of length. 

e. Separations of the same word. 
/. Confusions of different words. 

g. Wrong meanings. 
h. Wrong etymologies. 

I will now give specimens of each of these classes, and con- 
clude by proposing etymologies of some of the words in Prof. 
Atkinson's glossary, which he has not traced to their sources. 

a. Non-existing Wobus. 

accad * striving ' (?). This occurs in 1. 341 : batar icaecad 7 
ic cosnam fri Siluestar (they were fighting and contending 
with Silvester), where we should obviously read ic caccad, 
Caccad for cocad (gl. bellum) Ml. 103^^ 2, dat. hua chogud 
(gl. bello) 103^ 5. 

aichnim 'to commend.' A mere misspelling of aithnim, 
p. 535, the enclitic form of aithenim * I commend.^ 

aimifhiugrad * transfiguration.' * No doubt tairmfhiugrady 
says Prof. Atkinson. The context shows that it is an error for 
remfiugrad 'prefiguring : ' cf. the pret. pass. sg. 3 roremfhiugrad 

athardacht * alteration ' (?). The nature of a man and that 
of an angel are the same, according to S. Augustine; but, says 
the Irish homilist, dhapeccaid in duine dochdid ae ina-thar- 
dacht dn aingel, literally : * when the human being has sinned 
he has gone into his {in-a) passing over {tardacht for tartecht) 
from the angel.' Compare conacera brichtu druad tardechta 
arbelaib Demuin, LU. 120^. 6. 

atoibim (?) ' to drink.' Inferred from atoibet, a scribal 
error for atibet * they quaff.' The s- pret. pi. 3 aMbset occurs 
in the Franciscan Liber Jfff/mnorum, p. 38, 

atttaig 'from the North.' Misspelling of atiinid or otiMith^ 

d*aurthige s.v. bend-chapur. Bead : daurthige, the gen. 


Atkinson's passions and homilies. — mr. stokes. 217 

«g. otdaurtheeh, derfhech, or durthech * oratory/ a very common 
word in Middle-Irish. 
Uastaige * beastly.' Misspelling of biastaide, LU. 31*. 1. 
bocedt * spot.' The word meant is boccdit, O'Reilly's boccoid, 
astern in t. Hence bocoidech (gl. maculosus). 

hudio (s.v. buide ' yellow '). I do not know whether Prof. 
Atkinson quotes this word as being Irish or Latin. It is 
neither. It glosses millenis, in LB. 199% and is an error of 
the scribe or facsimilist for budib, pi. dat. of Ir. 6wk/e=Lat. 

coimsig 'lord.' Misspelling of coimsid or comsid, as in LU. 
40*, 36 ; LL. 224^. 

comaigthech 'neighbour,' comichib 'stranger' (?). The first 
of these words is a misspelling of comaithech, the second of its 
^t. pL comaiihchib. 

cass-galarach ' foot-diseased.' The word meant is coss-gal- 
'^^^A. There is no such word as ' galarach,' 

cmtaige 'Christian,' cristaigecht 'Christianity,' should be 
^^^taide, cristatdecht. 

cuimbrig ' correptionem,' cited under cuibrech, is a scribal 
^iTor for cuimbriy the ace. sg. of cuimbre ' brevity.' 

cumdaigiud*. The form cumdatgt/ie, which Prof. A. sup- 
tV)se8 to be the gen. sg. of this fabrication, is the ace. sg. masc. 
^f the pret. part. pass, of cumtaigim. The cumtaigthe, which 
-de also cites, is the nom. pi. fem. of the same participle. 

dibrachad* ' dart.' This monstrous word is inferred from 
riibrachti, a scribal error for dlbractki, ace. pi. of dibracud * a 

di'lufgim* 'to forgive.' The enclitic form of this verb is 
diigaimy its non-enclitic (or * orthotonic ') form is do'luigim. 
Prof. A.'s diluigim is neither one nor the other. 

dlige 'way.' This is a scribal error for dliged, the reading of 
Laud 610, fo. 13, b. 1. (" Is e sin immorro dliged 7 deimin 
follus tresa tainic inn imaigin noem-so," etc.). 

dluide 'tearing, rending.' Bad spelling of dlutge, the verbal 
noun of dluigim ' scindo.' 

driiichtaim 'to murmur' (?). Fabricated from the ^-pret. 
3rd pi. ro'driitchtatar^ a syncopated form of ro-do-r-iucartatar 
PhU. Tnuu. ISSS^. 15 

218 Atkinson's passions and homilies.— mk, snoKES. 

* clamaverunt/ Compare the Old-Irish noun diucrae 'clamor ' 

-erlangatr. This curious word, the first letter of which is 
the second element of a diphthong, has been inferred from 
Joroerlangair, i.e for-foe-r-langair^ the redupl. pret sg. 3 of 
fulangimy with the verbal prefix /or. 

ernaigim * * to wait/ inferred from etyiaigiis, a misspelling 
of emaidtiSy secondary pres. pi. 3 of emaidim^ or imaidim as 
Windisch gives it. 

'efmaitgt/ii inferred from na patri sechUernaligthi 8011, a 
scribal error for na patre secht-emaigthe 'of the seven-prayered 

fodhrachtaige 'consumptive person.' Bad spelling of fo^ 
brachtaide. Cognate with the atifobracht, anbobracht of Cor- 
mac's Glossary and the Ancient Laics, i. 124, 140, the bracht 
of the Lobar Lecain vocabulary. 

fuigell 'remainder.' A misspelling of futdell, as in L.IT. 
114% 25. 

gennfiige, gSnntligecht should be gentlide (as in Wb. 6^), 

glon-shnathe ' model,' should be gldmdthe ' linea,' ' norma,' 
see Sg. 3^ 20, Ml. 35^ 72» 8, 145^ 5. 

grandaigim * should be grennaigim, as above pointed out. 

ialla-crann 'sandal,' should (if hyphens must be used) be 
iall-acranHj a compound of iall ' thong,' and acrann 'shoe' Ml. 
56^ =W. archen, 

iarnaige 'of iron.' Bad spelling of iamaide * ferrous,' as 
correctly written five times in Prof. Atkinson's texts. The 
dat. pi. iarnaidib is in LU. 28^. 

imgrindim * ' to persecute.' The word meant is in^grindim, 
better wgrendm, a common verb, cogn. with Lat. ingredior. 
The ' iragrindfes ' of the LB. is a scribal error for ingrindfea, 

inbanda (?) 'stream.' This is nothing but in banna *the^ 
drop,' 'the stream,' Prof. A. mistaking the article for a— 
prepositional prefix. 

indehar * manure ' (?). The passage in which this imagin- 
ary word occurs is dogena or do indebar y do otraigib na n-ech^ 

* he will make gold of dung and of the excrements of th 


Atkinson's passions and homilies. — ^mr. stokes. 219 

horses/ where indehar seems to stand for fhindehar — the 
aspirated / being, as often, omitted. With ^find-ehar cf. 
cann-ebar LU. 74% 23y=cann'abar .i. cac, O'Dav. 65. 

ingreintig 'persecutor.' Bad spelling of ingreintid, or 
ingraintid Ml. 130^ 4, the personal noun of ingre)idim above 

intlidigthe 'schismatic' (?) is a scribal error for indluigthe, 
LB. 251, b. 9, cognate with dluigim and dluige, supra. 

leirai*. This we have already seen to be a misreading of 
liir^aisnisen gen. sg. of iSir-aisnSis. 

malartnaig * destroyer.' Bad spelling of malartnaid. 
tnedontach * mediator.' Inferred from the voc. sg. medontaig, 
bad spelling of meddntaid. Compare for the suffix simontaig. 
muscacA 'stream.' The word of which Prof. A.'s muscach 
is a fragment is damuscach * outpour/ 'effusion/ which occurs 
twice in LB. : Dob^rt G&teon tra in cnoi n-oUa forsin cloich 
CO matain . • . conid koAaid fos-fuair arabarach, y in damus- 
cach iisci oc tepersain esti (Gideon put the fleece of wool on 
the stone till morning, and on the morrow he found it thus : 
with the outpour of water dropping thereout), p. 126, 1. 49 ; 
and in p. 164% rop e m^t a shoethair sium narba d6ni tepersain 
fhola olt&s in damuscach allais tanic triana chorp (such was 
the greatness of His suffering that the dropping of blood was 
not swifter than the outpour of sweat that came through His 
body). Prof. A. bisects this word into da muscach. For 
another bisection see tarr infra. 

ochad [M] ' sighing/ a scribal error for ochhad (pi. ace. 
uchhada, LL. 239*), or ochfad (LU. 51*), or for ochsad, F. 

ochlaVAsn* The word meant is/oM^. InProf.A.'s"aochlai" 
the f (infected by the interjection a) is regularly omitted. 

ordnige ' ordained.' Bad spelling of ordnide, ordnithe, the 
pret. part. pass, of ordnim, or of ordnigthe, the pret. part. pass, 
of ordnigim. 

othrach ' dung.' The word meant is otrach, a very 
common form, of which ochtrach Ml. 129°, 2 (pi. octarche 
Wb., 9*, 7), seems a doublet. 

recrubar. The scribe's ** dorecubar/' LB. 163*, is mere 
carelessness for do f recrubar, the pret. pi. 2 o{ /recraim. 

220 Atkinson's passions and homilies. — mk, stokes. 

saith *evil/ A scribal error for saich^ Wb. 8^ 20: ML 
86^ 11 : LU. 17% 23 : LL. 64*> 16 ; 115*> 12 ; 280^ 28, 39,44. 

shnontaig * simonist.' Sad spelling of simdntaid. 

sorcJmidim* *to enlighten/ Inferred from shorcaities, bad 
spelling of sorchaiges, rel. pres. sg. 3 of sorchaigim * I en- 

tarr F. 'end/ This is a good instance of Prof. Atkinson's 
method. The homilist (fo. 108a), describing Judas after he 
had betrayed Christ, says that he had no hope that God's 
mercy would be oflFered to him, cen sailechtu irocaire D6 dia 
thairsin, where thairsin is obviously a scribal error for ihairC' 
sin {—torcsin, 1. 521 of Prof. A.'s texts), dat. sg. of taircsiu 
* to offer/ Ancient Laws, i. p. 208, 1. 21. Prof. A., not under- 
standing this easy passage, bisects thair\c'\s%ny adds an r to 
thairry then invents a feminine iarr with the meaning 'end,' 
and, lastly, translates his di-a thair'Stn by * after that.' 

techailim* (?) * to collect.' Inferred from the imperative 
sg. 2, techail, a scribal error for tecmhail, from do-ec-mallaim. 

tichtaige * frozen.' Read tichtaide ' solidified.' 

tenntige * fiery,' should be ienntide or, better, tentide, 

teprenim * to flow/ Inferred from the pret. rO'thepremet, a 
bad spelling of ro-theprennset. The non-enclitic (or 'ortho- 
tonic ') form of tbis verb is doiprennim (with double n), 
— whence doeprannat (gl. afluant), Ml. 39*, 2, — the enclitic 
is tepretmim, 

lercci ' want.' Bad spelling of ferce. 

iesteman * testimony/ Head : testemin, a loan from Lat. 

tustige * parent.' Inferred from a nom. pi. tustige (mis- 
spelling of tustidi) and dat. pi. tustigih (for tustidib). The 
nom. sg. is tuistid, which occurs compounded in tuistid-oircniii 
(gl. parricida) Sg. 12^. 

uhtad ' scaring.' Inferred from d* ubtad, mere scribal care- 
lessness for fi?'/w6^^«(/. The homilist says (p. 238, 1. 7070) 
that the Devil, * who holds the abbacy and kingship of this 
world/ has been terrified and outraged by Christ's fulfilment, 
d' [f'\itbt\_h']ad 7 do sharugud tna chomailliud Crist. Herd 
fubthad is the verbal noun oi fobothaim (gl. consternor, aris). 

Atkinson's passions and homilies. — mr. stokes. 221 

Sg. 146**. But Prof. Atkinson actually writes 'prob. con- 
nected with auptha, uptha,' which is a corruption of aipthi 
(gL veneficia) Wb. 20*» 20. 

b. Oblique Cases given as Nominatives. 

actaihy Hhe Acts of the Apostles.' The ace. pi. is acta 
(Hev. Celt. viii. 367), and so, doubtless, is the nom. pi. 

ae/intii 'dwelling.' Dat. sg. of adba, LU. 40% 38, and Conn. 

airthirche * eastern.' Gen. sg. fem. of airtherach, 

athi (P) ' avenging.' Dat. sg. of athe or aithey which, in 
p. 634, Prof. A. misrenders by * sharpness, sharp rebuke.' 

btmiU * resort, den.' Dat. or ace. sg. of buale, LL. 225^ or 
btiaiie=z'La.t. bovile. 

dug 'belL' Dat. sg. o( clog, cloc M.=W. chch, pi. clgch, 

congaine * contrition.' Gen. sg. of congan. Prof. A. quotes 
the passage in which his congaine occurs as '' tria c. cride." 
It is tria rath congaine cride (through grace of contrition of 
heart). Compare cen chongain cridi. Ml. 90* 10. 

cuimbrechtaige * captive.' A scribal error for cuimrechtaidi, 
ace. pi. of cuimrechiaid. 

cuthi * pit.' Gen. sg. of cuthe borrowed (like W. pydew) 
from Lat. puieue. 

deathi ' slothfulness.' Dat. sg. of dedthe, a deriv. of dedith 
*unkeen,' 'sluggish' (=de+aith) LL. 54*, 12. Compare 
dthe 'swiftness ' {ar dthi y imetrummi, LL. 266*). The Old- 
Irish dMy which Prof. A. compares, is = Lat. discs. 

dicsain ' looking.' Dat. or ace. sg. of d^csu, Old-Ir. d4csiu. 

dloigi 'disintegration.' Dat. sg. of dlotge=idluige, F. the 
verbal noun of dluigim ' I rend, split.' 

erissi * heresy.' Gen. sg. of eres. Another gen. is herais, 
eris, eiris, Fflire, April 23. The nom. sg. is given by O'Clery 
as iiris .i. michreideamh, where the long e seems due to a 
volksetymologie (^-iris). 

etamaide 'snare.' Gen. sg. of etarnaid 'ambuscade.' 
O'Clery's eadamaidh .i. cealg. 

flrenchi * righteousness.' Dat. or ace, sg. of firitiche^ de- 
rived irom, /irinach (gl. Justus). 

222 Atkinson's passions and homilies. — mb. stokes. 

forbaid (?) left untranslated. This is the dat. sg. of /orba .i. 
fearann, O'Cl. Compare darsin forbaid (over the ground), 
LU. ll?'*. asa l/]orbbaid, LL. 222% da [f'jdrbaid, LL. 229*. 

geim ' gem/ Dat. or ace. sg. of gemm borrowed from Lat. 

gill, only in i ngill ' in pledge.' Here gill is for giully the 
dat. sg. of gell (gl. pignus) Ml. 27*, 6. 

lead ^ laziness.' Should be lesce. 

'loscthi 'heated' [rectius 'burnt']. Should be loscihe or 
loiscthe, the pret. part. pass, of loisdm, 

liithraigi [rectius liithraige] 'bolt, bar.' Ace. pi. of Idthrach, 

margretai * pearl.' Nom. pi. of margriity from Lat. mar- 
gareta. The dat. sg. margreit is found in LL. 237% the dat. 
pi. mdirgretaib in LB. 209% A strange nasalised form mar- 
grent occurs in LB. 138**, 6. 

metrapoile* ' metropolis.' Gen. sg. of metrapoiL 

nmcen 'hatred.' Gen. sg. oi^misciu. 

monotdre 'money-changer.' PI. n. of mono/<Hr=: Lat. monet- 

nit 'nest.' Gen. sg. and nom. pi. of netz=:Welak nyih, 
Lat. nidus from *nizdo8, 

pappe 'vine-leaf (?). Nom. pi. of pappz=zpopp, LU. 97% 3, 
where it means 'bunch,' 'tuft.' Nom. sg. bab 'tuft, tassel' 
in the West Highlands. 

penginde ' penny.' Nom. pi. of pengindz= AS. pending, 

'Scoit. The compound lin-scoit * linen sheet,' from which 
this word is inferred, is in the dat. sg. The nom. is lin-scot, 
where scot (O'Reilly's scod) is borrowed from ON. skaut 
just asfuindfog is from ON. vindauga. 

solisi * light.' Should be solhe, as in 1. 1283 of Prof. A.'s texts. 

speilp 'cloak ' (rectius 'robe'). Ace. sg. of spelp from Lat. 

stelli (better stelky as in 6983, 6985) is the gen. sg. of stell, 
borrowed, like W. gstwyll, from Lat. stella : hence the name 
Stellan or Siiallan. 

toit * a whole,' from Lat. tota, is the ace. sg. of tdt, which 
occurs compounded in the name Tot-mdel (gl. totum caluum). 
Book of Armagh 13% 2. 

ATKIKSOM's passions and homilies.— MR. STOKES. 223 

iriil. Qen, sg. of trell * a space of time.' So hi cind trill 
fidai'Bt the end of a long while/ LB. 221^ 30. The dat. 
8g. is common in the phrase tar trill (for triull), 'after a while.' 

The rest of Prof. Atkinson's lexicographical errors to be 
bere noticed are of less importance, and will therefore, to 
save room, be printed in smaller type. 

e. Wrong Insertions of Marks of Length. 

enid * womid.' Should be emd. 

dimun 'demon, devil.' Should be d^mun, notwithstanding the 
diphthong of damnan (^a/^mv), from which it is borrowed. 

dUff^d ' law.' Should be dliged=W. dyUd. 

ddtwtin 'deep.' In the oblique cases ddimne^ ddimnih the o is 
long ^ petition and for that reason is marked as such. £ut the o 
xn domin (sW. dwjh) is short by nature. 

fidil ' constant,' should be fedil, Infidligit etc. the i is long by 

iUm 'to drink,' should be ihimssW. yfaf, Skr. pihdmi. 

Ugaim 'to forgive, remit,' should be logaim. In Idgthai-se and 
Idgiar (which misled Prof. Atkinson) the o is long by position. 

mart(r should be martir r=m&rtyT, gen. martyris. 

mire ' fury, madness,' should be mire, a deriv. of mer 'mad.' 

Prof. Atkinson's clusdl ' enclosure,' and namd ' enemy,' are 
probably mere misprints for eliisal (from Lat. clausula), and 

d. Wrong Omissions of Marks of Length. 

aigedchaeh^ ' hospitable,' aigidecht^ ' hospitality,' should be dig- 
CO.-Ir. dig-), where the di {6i) is a diphthong. 

aigthide ' awful,' should be digthide, cognate with dg, 

ailim ' to implore,' should be dilim or diliu, from *ad'li6, y/lip^ 
"Whence also XinrofiMi (Bezzenberger). 

airem ' number,' should be dtriw, or drim as in 1. 4427. This, 
like W. eiriff is from ad+rim. So airtnim * to count,' and its par- 
ticiple airmide, should be dirmim, dirmide. 

alaind ' beautiful,' should be dlaind, 

haidim 'to drown,' etc., should be hdidim *I drown.' The verbal 
noun is rightly given as hddud, W. hoddi. 

224 Atkinson's passions and homilie8.*-mr. stokes. 
hanaim ' to grow white/ should be hdnaim, a denonu of icbi= 

hoiugud * putting to death ' {hda^ should be hdiugud. 

bel * lip, mouth,' should be hel. 

helra ^ language/ should be Ulre. 

hlaith, * bUthe ' [!] should be hldith. 

cainim ' to bewail/ should be cdinim, where di is a diphthong. 
Cognate are accdine, icdine * lamentation/ W. ewyno, aehwynoy and 
perhaps Gr. Kiwpo^. 

castel * village/ should be castely as we see from O'Clery's iunn- 
chaisUl .i. caislen daingen, from the doublet eastlal^ the gen. sg. 
eaisteoil in the Four Masters, a.d. 1595, and the gen. pi. ic corgnd 
chastialf LL. 236\ The Lat. castellum, from which these Irish 
words are borrowed, must have been pronounced castiUum. 

ced ' permission/ should be cid^ O.-Ir. cH^ "Welsh cann. So the 
cognate verb eedat'^im, eetaigim * to consent/ should be ddaigim, 
citaigim. So the verbal noun cetugud^ p. 582, should be eetugud. 

cetamus ' in the first place/ should be eit-amMSy lit. ' first attack.' 

eet-cruthaigim *to create for the first time/ should be eit-crulhaigim. 

cetna * first/ ' same/ should be cetna, 

compUt * complines/ should be compUt^ from the Low Latin «w»- 
pUta^ officium ecclesiasticum quod caetera diuma officia eomplet et 
claudit, Ducange. 

crich * limit/ should be erich, 

cu * dog/ should be (?&=Welsh ei, 

de ' smoko/ should be (^, gen. diad. 

derotl * small/ deroile ' insignificance/ should be derdil^ derdiU, 

ditiu * protection/ should be ditiu. 

ec * death/ should be ic. 

enirte * weakness/ should be inirte. 

eseai ' moon/ should be iscae. 

fathacda 'prophetic/ should he/dthacdaf a deriv. oifdith^^LsL tdU9. 

genar * was bom/ should be ginar, 

legim ' to read/ should be legainiy notwithstanding the short 
penult of Lat. %o, from which it is borrowed. 

leim * leap/ leimnech * leaping/ should be ^im, Uimnech, 

len * sorrow/ gen. leoiny should be len. 

log 'reward/ should be I6g. 

lar-gnim * satisfaction/ should be Idrgnim, 

lothor * ewer/ should be Idthor, Idthur (Cod. Bed. Carl. 39^ 4), or 
loatJuir, Sg. 67^ 5=Xo€t/joV, Xovrpop, or Xwrpov. 


me ' 1/ should be m^^Welsh mt, Lat. mS, 

medanaeh, hmUMt^ should be meddnachy melUdir. 

mehignd 'increasing,' should be mHugud^ a deriv. of mit'^W, maini, 

mi- negative prefix, should be mi-. Prof. A. writes correctly mi- 
beSf mi'fftnmf mi-imbertf mi-mbrm, but in the same page mi- 
ehomitaim and mi-dhuim. 

mirhuUa 'marvellous/ should be mirhultay a derivative of 
mtrhuil borrowed from Lat. mirabiU. 

morad, moraim^ morfmwr^ should be mdrad, tndraim, mdrfisiur, 

noemad, noemaim, noemda, noemdacht, all want a mark of length 
on the 0. So does noidendacht, 

aelach * youth,' should be delaeh, a compound of 6c, (5flk?=»W. 
-teuanc^^m form) Lat. tuveneus. 

og-shlan ' wholly pure,* should be dg-Bhldn. 

oige ' guest,' should be dt^e (where the 6% is a diphthong). 

osaic 'washing,' should he.daaio ' foot washing,' borrowed from 
Lat. ohaequiwn, 

plag-liim ' stripe, blow in punishment.' Read pldghiim, the 
pldg being from Lat. pldga, and compare pldghuille, pi. dat. 6 pMag- 
huUib, LL. 244^ 

purgatoir ' purgatory,' should be purgatdir. 

ranic perf. sg. 3 of rtctm, should be rdniCf as the Skr. dnanca 
should have taught Prof. Atkinson. 

Mtleehtu 'hope,' should be adiUchtu, where the di is a diphthong. 

aerihtha 'written' (pret. part. pass, of Bcr'ihaim^'LBX, scriho), 
should be Bcrihtha, 

sena ' denial,' should be aiyut, 

sknaigim, a denominative from slaHf should be aldnaigim. 

tnathat 'needle.' Bead, mdthat: sndtkath (gl. acus) Sg. 107^3. 

iO'Chenely so-chenelachj spreid. Bead, Bo-ekendl, ao-chenilach, sprHd, 

tutt should be OlU. 

ur * earth, mould.' Bead, iir or uir, 

ur ' fresh, green.' Bead, iir=a Welsh ir. 

e. Separations of the same Word. 

addi * abode,' p. 524, is the dat. sg. of aite * house,' p. 635. 

athif p. 552, is the dat. sg. of aithe, p. 534. 

degulta, which Prof. A. (p. 632) gives as the gen. sg. of an im- 
aginary deglad*, is the gen. sg. (with metathesis of I) of deliugud 
* separation ' (p. 633) ; and ro deglad^ which he gives (p. 632) as the 
jDflM. Bee. pres. 3 8g, [!] of an imaginary deglaim*, is the pret. pass. 
Bg. 3 of deligim (p. 633) ' I separate.' 

226 Atkinson's passions and homilie8.*-mii. stokbb. 

nech 'aliquid,' p. 816, is declined in the sing, like an o-stem. 
In the plural (as is the rule in Middle-Irish with neater nonnB 
ending in -aeh and -eeh) it passes oyer to the ^-declension, and 
we have, accordingly, nechi (for neche) in the nom. and aco., neekth 
in the dat. These plural forms Prof. Atkinson puts under ni 
'thing,' p. 822. A similar mistake is made hy Prof. Zimmer, 
in Kuhn's Zeitschrift, xxx. 456. 

Balaigim* * to defile,' inferred from the imperative Bolatg and the 
pret. do Bhalaigy regular forms of, and wrongly separated from, m/- 
chaim * 1 defile, befoul.' 

To these one may add deraibdeeh, p. 678, and its deriTative 
icoraihdige, p. 676 : imareraid, p. 758, and its derivatiye immareradachf 
p. 760 : ittu, p. 774, and its deriyatiye itadach, p. 773 : 90$cila, 
p. 883, and its deriyatiye Buiseelaoh, p. 887. 

/. Confusions of different Words. 

adandad ' lighting up, stimulating,' is confounded with admad. 
The former is from ^ad-adannad^ the latter from *adannad. 

eeU * concealment' (^W. celydd * a sheltered place '), is placed 
under eile * fellow, companion ' (=W. cilydd). The context is acht 
lecmit at ucht fessin hi eele hreith her a, line 609. This Prof. A. 
renders (pp. 297-8) as follows : " But we will leave it to thine 
own breast with thyself to decide what sentence thou wilt pass." 
How he got 'with thyself' out of hi eele is not apparent. The 
sentence obviously means : * But we leave hidden [lit. in conceal- 
ment] in thine own breast (the) judgment thou mayst deliver.' 

l^ir * complete' (=W. Uwyr 'totus, omnis, uni versus ') is placed 
under leir * visible, conspicuous,' of which I know no cognate. 

min 'small, fine, gentle.' Min (= Goth. minSy A.S. mm) is 'small,' 
but min (:= Welsh mwyn) is * smooth, fine, tender, delicate, gentle.' 

mknigim 'I explain,' a denominative from mitiy is confounded with 
minigim ' I mince.' From the former come minigit and mknigther; 
from the latter ro-minaig and minigther. 

g. Wrong Meanings. 

adetig ' abominable, accursed.' The second meaning is wrong, and 
the first had better be * execrable.' 

ae * liver, gall.' The second meaning is wrong: ' gaU ' is domhlas 
ae, literally * bitterness of liver.' 

Atkinson's passions and homilies. — mr. stokes. 227 

aidetchiugud * cursing.' It means ' denying,' and is cognate with 
eiiekim (ex aith-deehim ?) ' I refuse/ etech ^ refusal.' 

mdmiUiud ' perturbation.' This word means * destruction/ as in 
LU. 87*y 28, and many other places. 

ainceM * anguish.' It means ' ailment ' {an-ieeess). 

ainmeeh 'reviling.' This is a deriyatiye of ainim * blemish,' 
(W. anaf\ and means ' blemished.' 

aird ' end, quarter.' The former meaning is wrong. 

airiu9 'place of meeting.' It merely means 'a meeting,' and is 
identical with the [a]trM .i. comdal, of the Tochmaro EnUre : dobai 
hires (.1. comdal) les do Gallaib. luid dochum airisi de Gallaib timcell 
n-Alban andes. 

aithe 'sharpness, sharp rebuke.' It means, 1. ultio; 2. com- 
pensatio, pretium, foenus. See aithe (gl. talio) Wb. 14°, aithe .i. 
^gal, O'Cl., Ascoli, Glossarium Palaeo-hibemicum, xlviii. Ex- 
amples will be found in LL. 224* (<f athi an-ieara for Troidnu)^ 
244* {aithi na g<ma sein), and in the Ancient Laws, i. 218® ((/' aithe a 

anforhthi ' unspiritual' (?). It means 'imperfect, incomplete' (an- 

anghaid ' wicked.' It means ' fierce,' ' cruel.' Ba hanghaid trd 
inn imthuargain LL. 242^. JBa hanghaid . , , in fegady LL. 244*. 
am feochair 7 am anghaid i cathaih 7 a n-irgalaih^ Tochmarc Emire. 
in leoman n-anghaid (the fierce lion), LL. 223*, LB. 128^. 

aihela 'to die.' This verb (rectius athdla) can only mean 'penes' 
or * periet.' 

athnugud ' rebuilding.' It means ' renewing.' W. adnewyddu, 

atdihim ' to correspond, to be in harmony.' This verb properly 
means ' I adhere to ' (from the prefix ad and t6ih ' side ' : cf . the 
Low Lat. aecostare, acostare, from ad and co8ta\ and then ' I cor- 
respond with,' ' I am connected with.' 

ha»B ' hand, palm.' The former meaning is wrong. 

hlaith ' blithe.' This word (rectius hldith) means ' smooth, gentle.' 

hoC'Shlat * light switch.' It means 'goat-rod' : cf. con-ehlatt infra. 

hratdn [leg. hratan"] ' fish.' It means ' salmon.' 

hrdth ' judgment-day.' It simply means ' judgment ' or * doom ' : 
"W. hratod : 'judgment-day ' is Id (or laithe or dia) hrdiha, 

earrac ' stone.' It means ' crag,' ' rock.' earrcih (gl. cautibus) 
Ml. 126* 8. 

eeeha-n ' everything.' It means ' whatsoever.' The cechae cited 
by Prof. A. from L 1255 i&=,cech ae. 

228 Atkinson's passions and homilies.— mr. stok^. 

eepp 'fetter.' It means 'block,' 'stocks,' and, like W. ^ 
borrowed from Lat. eippus. 

cetaeh [leg. citacK] * hundred.' I think it means ' consisting 
hundred,' na mile citacha ' the thousands consisting of hundre 

eisU * treasure.' It means 'chest,' and is an t0-stem formed 
Lat. oiBta, as airse, aneoirey caindelhra, camra, lunga, sita respect 
from <?/9<r£9, anchara, eandelahrumy camera (navis), hngay $eia. 

clerech [leg. cUrecK] * clergy.' It means * cleric* 

cohlige 'cohabitation.' It means 'lying together,' 'copulati 

eoep * lump, ball ' (?). It means * clod, clot, lump, mass,' bu 
'ball.' The dat. pi. is written caipaih in LL. 4^, 18, larsain 
catar Tuatha Bi ina caipaih ciach (thereafter came the Tuath; 
in their masses of mist),^ where caipaih ciach corresponds witi 
nelaih dorchaih ' dark clouds,' of the prose account, LL. 9*, 5. 

coma ' terms, conditions.' It means ' a bribe,' ' gift,' ' subsi 

con-shlatt ' switch.' It means ' a dog-rod,* cf. hoc-shlat supr 

dehlen * weakling, orphan.' The second meaning is wrong. 
16n [leg. Deblen] o ni[as]d^bilis, O'Dav. 75. The word is a 
inutive either of a loan from Lat. dihilis, or of a corruption c 
dedhol^de-adhoL See Glossarial Index to the Calendar of Oe: 
p. ccxlv, and add innan deidhlendn (gl. pupillorum) Ml. 127^ i 

didin. Here % n din didin is rendered by Good Friday. It i 
on any Friday, good or bad, literally 'on last fast,' "Wedni 
being the first fast in each week. 

doit* * finger.' Read ' hand,' and cf. cusna doitih (gl. cum i 
bus) Gildas' Lorica. Cognate seems doe lame (gl. lacertus) 
68* 1, pi. gen. innandoat (gl. lacertorum) Aug. 92. 

domattu 'want, greediness,' domma 'need.* They mean 'pov< 
and are the opposites of sommatu and somma ' wealth.' 

duma * cairn, mound.' Duma by itself never means ' cairn,' 
heap of stones. This is duma clock ' a mound of stones.' 

iecraihdige 'unbelief,' icraihdech 'unbelieving.' The former 
means ' impiety,' the latter means * impious.' 

ecid * he tells.' This is the enclitic form of the 3rd sg. p 
act. of the non-enclitic? ('orthotonic') adcuadim, and means 'he 
or it) told, related, declared.' 

ieomland ' anguish.' This is P. O'Connell's eacomhlann ' w 

^ In Steinmeyer's Zeitscbrift, xxxii. 318, note, Prof. Zimmer translates \ 
"darauf kamen die Tuatha De Danand in ihren nehelkappen.^* But the Ii 
eoep has nothing to do (as he supposes) with the Mod.H.G. kappe, Mid.H.G 

Atkinson's passions and homilies. — mr. stokes. 229 

foul play, injastice.' Examples will be foand in LL. 93*, 110^ 
115*, 225*, and see Windisch's "Worterbuch, 8.v. icondond. 

0pil * he died.' This is the enclitic form of the did eg. present 
indie, act. of athelm, and means ' perishes.' 

erchuitmed ' mitigation.' It means * excuse.' See the Tripar- 
tite Life, Bolls ed. p. 184, 1. 25. 

on ehoimdid (s.y. etaide) ' from the Law.' The words mean, of 
conrse, ' from the Lord.' 

faen * subject.' It means ' weak, feeble.' Now spelt /<w>n ovfaoin, 

JlanU, prep, with gen. 'throughout.' This is a noun compounded 
of >Jar=W.^iJyr* oblique, sloping,' andfot 'length,' governed by the 
prep, dixr or for. It always, I think, means * athwart, across.' Thus : 
iteonnarcsa aen . . . darfiarut nafaigthi ' I saw one (coming) across 
the green,' LB. 213**, 59, for fiarut na hAssia moiri idi * athwart 
the whole of Asia major,' LB. 3\ In a ohroicend do iumochar fiarut 
na eathraeh 'to carry his skin across the city,' LB. 177*, it has 
become a nominal preposition. A similar phrase is in LB. 215, 
1. 50 : eingis dar^fiarlait nafaichthi * he went athwart the green.' 

fohnaiged [M] ' laying waste.' The passage in which this word 
occurs — iariin [ro'^folmaiged leth na eathraeh di — is rendered by 
Prof. A. 'thereafter took place the devastation of half the city by it.' 
It means, of course, 'thereafter half the city was devastated by it.' 
Here the scribe or the facsimilist has omitted the prefix ro before 
the 3rd sg. pret. pass, of folmaigim. Prof. A. might, at all 
events, have known that leth was not a genitive sg. 

for-etur, for-fhetar ' I am able, was able (to do).' The passage 
which he cites — ni mdti foretatar {^zfor-fhetatar) som sin — means 
'not the more did they know that.' 

for-drda ' (golden), glorious.' This word, in the nom. pi. masc, 
glosses ' summi,' and is a formation from ord^Jjat, ordo, like 
£ng. extraordinary. Another for6rda * gilded ' is a formation from 
cSr * gold.' Compare W. goreuro ' to gild.' 

for-niatta ' desperate, furious.' The adj. niatta, of which this is 
«i compound, is derived from niathy the stem of nia ' champion.' 

fortail, fortamail ' strong.' The former word means 'prevailing,' 
•predominant,' cf. ha fortail me for each rity LU. 16^, ha fortail 
Jurthiy LL. 230% pi. n. comhtar foriaili for cerddib skithe gent- 
diuehta, LL. 9*. 

fur * watching for, awaiting.' It means 'preparing,' as O'Donovan 
Tightly renders the word in a passage quoted by Prof. Atkinson. 
galar 'disease.' This is the usual meaning in Irish, but in 

230 Atkinson's passions and homilies. — inu stokes. 

U. 3360 and 4312 of Prof. A.'s texts galar means, as it does in 
Welsh, ' mourning, grief/ So in Land 460, fo. 54* : ueh wh d Ik, 
is trom in galar heith irUcmais inna fireharat * Alas, alas, O God, 
heavy is the grief to be away from the true friends ! ' 

goirs 'healing' (?). It means 'pietas,' 'pious tendance.' 

iach'lind ' fish-pool.' It means ' salmon-pool,' iaoh being the stem 
of the c-stem 4o=.esox, W. eog, A nonu iach (ex *$9oeO') also occurs: 
iach .i. bratan, Leb. Lee. Vocab. 

idnaieim* * to lead.' It properly means ' I give.' The phrase fVi sit 
idnaices eo may be compared with the English ' the road that gives on.' 

Is he immaircess in t-ere-si eo spirtalda. Translated in p. 481 by 
' The offence is thus made the weightier,' in p. 760 by * It is he 
to whom this burden is referable, is especially applicable.' Bead : 
is hi immarc[ur]ess etc., ' who carries the burden spiritually,' and 
compare 1. 7355, ise sin in t-ere trom heress in animm his a n-i^tar 
iffim ' that is the heavy burden which the soul bears with it into 
the bottom of hell.' 

inehlanda 'brood' (?). It stands for in-chlandta 'implanted,' 
and is the pret. part. pass, of inehlandaim, spelt in-elannaim in 
Windisch's Worterbuch, corresponding with Lat. implanto as du 
chlandaim (W. dihlanu) with deplanto. 

itadach ' hungry.' This must be a clerical error for * thirsty,' 
for the cognate substantive iltu is rightly explained by ' thirst.' 

luhair * vow, prescribed duty.' This word merely means lahoTy 
from which Latin word it is borrowed. 

main * treasure ; abundance, riches.' The second meaning is 
wrong : main for mdin, cognate with Lat. munus from *moinos. 

nemile 'sorrow, remorse.' It means 'lamentation' or (as O' Cu rry 
rendered it) * bemoaning.' A cognate adverb occurs in the CogaiP' 
Gaedhel re Gallaibh, p. 62, 1. 4 : co dub, domenmnach, truag, neme^- 
lech, torsech, * darkly, dispiritedly, wretchedly, lamentingly, sadly.' 

nem-choimsi * powerless' (?). But this would be nem-choimsechy 
cf. comsig LL. 223^. Nem-choimse seems the opposite of cuims^ 
'commodus,' Wb. 14% 22*, whence, perhaps, coimsetu, parsimonia^ 

oentuma 'marriageable.' I think this is an abstract noun, 
meaning * celibacy,' * the state of being unmarried,' from dentaitm- 
or dintam (gl. caclebs), Sg. 9% 16*. 

aided 'killing, death.' This word means 'tragical death,' bufc 
never 'killing.' 

or 'top, side.' It means 'coast, edge'; or from *opro, cognate 
with N.H.G. u/er. 

Atkinson's passions and homilies. — mr. stokes. 231 

or^dnia ' organ-toned.' Bather *hom-like,' * pipe-like,' for organ 
(later it-^^pan, from its constant companion stoe 'trumpet'), meant 
'horn' or 'pipe ': see Ml. 11 6^ 8, and ofy^avov fistula, Ducange. 

rig^ * arm.' It is only ' forearm.' 

seg * (milk), sap ' (?). This is a good specimen of Verhallhomung. 
Por in his translation, p. 371, Prof. A. had rightly rendered aeg^ 
Skr. $t^uu by ' strength.' It is corruptly spelt seadh by O'Clery 
and his copyist O'Eeilly. 

Hahrad, rendered ' quivering ' in the translation (p. 508), is ex- 
plained by ' magic blight ' (?) in the glossary. I think it here means 
' distortion.' 

imiit ' cloud.' It means ' smoke.' The host of demons in a tmiiU 
ehiOf Atk. 1. 7237, 'as a mist of smoke.' stmSLtUched diadh 7 dethaighe 
'a dark cloud of vapour and smoke,' Four Masters, a.d. 1600. 

9o»sad ' abode, seat, position.' The second meaning is wrong. 

truith * sage, senior, elder.' The first meaning is wrong. 

tnUhi 'majesty, dignity.' This word (rectius Bruihe) means 
'seniority,' ' venerableness.' 

n/m, 9om ' self, selves.' This pronominal ' nota augens,' rather 
means ' same,' with which word it is cognate. Compare Goth, aama 
' derselbe.' ' Self ' in Irish is /cm, /e*m, fodkin^ fodesin, 

tart ' thirst.' This is the usual meaning, but in the only place 
where tart occurs in Prof. A.'s texts it signifies 'drought.' 80, in 
Fiacc's hymn, 1. 29, it is said of the well Slan : nis-gaihed tart na 
iia ' neither drought nor flood used to afPect it.' So in the Book of 
liismore, 146^2: loddn samhraidh inuair dogheihh »e tart m6r 'a 
muddy pool in summer when great drought has affected it,' and in 
the same MS. fo. 22*, 2 : Bliadan tarta mdir thdinio ann iarsin ' (it 
^as) a year of great drought which came there after that.' 

tortromad ' exceeding heaviness.' This word means * pestering,' 
* overburdening,' ' cumbering,' as in the homily on S. Martin, Retme 
CeUiqw, II. 393, and in LU. 79*, 10. 

tothiaigim 'to desire.' This, the enclitic form of do-thluchim^ 
means ' I ask,' ' I request.' Boot tlukz^JAih. ^tulk, whence 
tulkas ' interpreter.' 

tutt ' smoke.' It is a living word meaning ' stench,' and should 
have been given as tiitt, 

dath gesi [leg. g^se] * the colour of a goose,' s.v. uan. It means 
' a swan's hue.' ' Goose ' in Irish is ged=zW, gtcydd. ' Swan ' is 
giUy gen.ghey cognate, but not synonymous, with {h)anser, xv^fff^^^- 

urmor 'very many.' It means 'a chief part.' In 1. 3, urmoiri^ 

232 Atkinson's passions and homilies. — »«.. - 

the gen. sg. of a substantive, not, as Prof. A. supposes, the nom. pL 
of an adjective. 

I may add to these instances of mistranslation one or two of non- 
translation. Such is dam dilend, which expression Prof. Atkinson 
quotes s.vv. dam and dile, apparently without knowing that it 
means ' a huge (or mighty) stag.' See Irische Texte, Zweite Serie, 
2 Heft, p. 182, for other instances of the gen. sg. of diltu (">Lat 
diluvium) being used as augmentative. Such, again, is the expres- 
sion CO dd which occurs eleven times in Prof. A.'s texts. He 
rightly explains dii by 'place,' but seems (p. 591, coL 2) to think 
that the prep, co hero means ' up to.' But here eo certainly means 
*at;' and the phrase co du »n-debert (11. 2986, 4407, etc.) lit. 'at 
the place in which he said,' corresponds with the Lat. uh$ dieit, 
Trip. Life, KoUs ed. p. 64, 1. 13.^ 

h. Wrong Etymologies. 

acarh [pronounced offarhh'] * bitter,' '*prob.»a^A-;^ar3 with admix- 
ture of Lat. acerbus.^* It is borrowed from the Lat. acerhui, pro- 
nounced by British mouths acervut. So Jr. carmhagaly baihh, from 
Lat. carhunculusy talhus^ pronounced carvuncului hakms by the 
Britons, from whom the Irish learnt these words. 

comus * power ' V mid. The root is med, seen most clearly in Gr. 
/lihome^. Hence also Ir. eoimmdiu *lord'=*com-mediot. 

mehaid [rectius memaid"] is said to be * really a redup. pert from 
\/maid to break forth.' The root is ma^=Skr. math, 

raith in do-raith * quickly, immediately ' is conjectured to be ftom 
* ro-aith.'* Prof. Atkinson doubtless means ro-dith * very sharp.' 
But this would give rdith. The raith in do-raith seems torbelong- 
to the root ret * to run,' whence rethim * I run ' and its perfect 

tar/aid * showed,' "perf. from do-ro-\/^arf." The root is hhat, 
whence also Lat. fateor. 

tuaiS'Cert * North quaiter.' The « belongs to the latter half oE 
this compound, which i^^^tuath-^scertf cf. tuath-bil. The neert^ 
from *8quertO', is=W. sparth in do-sparth * division,' Kh^s, Jtev, 
Celt. II. 333. 

^ CO seems to mean ' at * or ^ as to ' in the following instances : iarain tie Eva 
asin tsnUh : baifor tir co tirmvgud (thereafter Eve comes out of the stream : she 
was on laud a-drving) Saltair na Kann, 1685-86. eo adrad rohuc do each ardrig 
(as to worship, ne, Solomon, surpassed every overking), ibid. 7039-40, and see 
ibid. 3671, 6556. In a hith co a le'eud do Choinc*jUaind (that she was being left 
by CCichulainn) LU. 49*, we have another example; and see LL. 106»> 30 

{co a foleud). 

Atkinson's passions and homilies. — mr. stokes. 233 


HaTLDg thus given specimens {pauca de plurimis) of the 
eight classes of errors in Prof. Atkinson's glossary, I have 
now to propose etymologies of some twenty-four of the words 
in that glossary, which he has not traced to their sources. 

aird 'quarter (of the heavens), point (of the compass)/ Gr. 
ap^ * arrow-point.' 

airecht ' assembly '= Welsh areith, now araeth 'speech.' So 
in Middle-High-German spr&che 1. sprache 2. zusammen- 
iLunft zum zweck einer besprechung. The root is reqy 
'whence also Old-Slav, reha * I speak ' (Bezzenberger). 

airgent (argeint ?). From argenteu8, Vulg. Matt. xxvi. 15. 
arg M. ' coflTer,' from Lat. area, with change of gender. 
bkde ' goblet,' from A.S. bkdu. 

eocraid=coclaid 'weeds, tares,' Cormac, s.v. Rot, from A.S. 
coccel ' darnel, tares,' 

condall 'stalk, stubble/ O.-Ir. connall (gl. stipulam) Sg. 
66^ 22, from Lat. cannula. 

for-barach 'excellent,' identical in prefix, root and meaning 
with the inrep^pri^ of the LXX. 

is 'below,' Welsh f<8,=Gr. eiao) from eVcro). Thurneysen 
fEuhn's Zeitschrift, xxx. 491) connects Latin infra, inferi, 
imus from *tVw-ra, *in8'rl, ^ins-mo-s. 

lethar 'skin,' Welsh lledr, N.H.G. leder, Lat. liber 'inner 
bark,' from *Mfro, *lidro. 
luard ' heavy,' from Fr. loiird} 

merce 'standard,' from merge (pi. mergeda, Atk. 2627), O. 
Iforse merki. 

mulUc, ' the cover of a pateiu' A derivative, like mullach, 
'crown of the head,' of *mull=A.8. molda, Skr. miirdhan. 

prap in co-prap ' suddenly,' praptid, from a British * brap 
5= Goth, brahv {brahvs?). The Irish la bra/ad 8ula^=Qoth. in 
hrahta augins. 

Bab 'staflF,'=Goth. stabs, A.S. stwf, O.H.G. stap, gen. stabes, 
must be borrowed if Kluge is right in referring these Teu- 
tonic words to an Indogermanic root stap. 

^ The dat. pi egmib luardaib, Atk. 1. 8305, may be compared with gair trotnm 
Atk. L 771. 

PhU. Tram. 18SS-80. 16 

234 Atkinson's passions and homilies. — mr. stokks. 

aai'ch * bad * (whict Prof. A. misspells Baith)^ cognate with 
Ir. sechbaid, sechfaid * error/ and Lat. sequior * worse.' 

seg^ * strength' (misspelt aeadh by 0'Clery)=Skr. sahas, 
Goth, sigis, A.S. stgor. In Gaulish it probably is the first 
element of the name Sego-fndros. 

apelp 'robe,' speilp (gl. coopertorium) occurs compounded 
with imm in im-spefp, Corm. GL s.v. Ranc. It is a loan from 
Lat. peplum, with the prothetic 8 which is found also in 
Mid. Ir. S'pr^id 'cattle,* from praeda,^ O.-Ir. s-cipar irom piper. 

stidrad 'guiding, guidance,' a deriv. of stiiiry borrowed from 
some Teutonic word like A.S. afeor^ O.H.G. stiura. 

alitag ' (arch) rainbow.' This is the Old-Irish tuag 'bow' 
with the prothetic 8 found also in s-targa LL. 265% from 
A.S. targe or O.N. (arga, Windisch has connected htag *bow' 
with Skr. Vtvj. 

8ul ' before,' only used with verbs in the preterite, is for 

terc * scanty,' from ^iersquO", cognate with Lat. teaqua 
* deserts,' from *ter8qua, 

cir ' land,' like Osc. teeriim, has lost initial «, and is cognate 
with CTtjpiy^, oTT/ptfft). 

tomm *lump,'=Ti}/i^09, Skr. iunga. 

Prof. Atkinson ends his preface by saying : "No one can 
be more conscious than myself of the imperfection of my 
work, nor more desirous of having it corrected where it is 
wrong. For all instructive criticism I shall be grateful, to 
any other I am quite indiflFerent." Whether he will consider 
the present criticism ** instructive," I do not know. But it is 
at all events well-meant, and the fourteen or fifteen scholars 
now living who are competent to judge will certainly say that 
it is well-founded. 

* The Old and Early Middle Irish form was prcid : cf. Uoman mor laiget for 
prSid nofw wart * a ^eat lion that lies on a prey or on an ox,* LB. 212*: cf. 
also the verb pretue (gl. depredantiura), Ml. 134^ 10. 


THAN ONE GENDER. By Robert von Fleisch- 


[B^ad at a Meeting of th4 Philological Society, February 13, 1889.J 

The Singular fact that in the Old English language 
the same word has frequently different genders was known 
Jong agOy and Mr. Piatt has made it the object of his 
investigations. Of course this fact is not confined to O.E. 
^onoy it occurs in every Teutonic language, the Gothic 
cilone supplying us with no examples, which circumstance 
snay be attributed to the scarcity of the remains of that 
language. So far as I have been able to judge, no rule 
<»in be framed as to these words — that is, nouns with more 
than one gender — for the Teutonic languages in general. 
Therefore each language demands a separate investigation 
for itself, and in my remarks I shall confine myself to 
the O.E. language, referring to the other kindred tongues 
only so far as they serve to illustrate the latter. This 
investigation is attended with peculiar difficulties. In 
the first place, in O.E. texts the gender of the words is 
frequently either not shown at all, or is only doubtfully 
marked. In the next place, many of the older editions 
are not quite trustworthy. But this has been to some 
extent avoided by the learned labours of the editors of 
the Oldest English Texts, the Cura Pastoralis and Orosius, 
the Blickling Homilies, Aelf ric's Grammar, Wulfstan's Homi- 
lies and the Lives of Saints ; so that we now have a fair 
lot of facts from which we can draw our conclusions. 
The materials have all been collected in the Dictionaries 
by Grein, by Toller and Bosworth, and by Piatt and 
Sievers. There remain very few facts to be added, but an 
occasional misstatement requires to be corrected. Another 
difficulty to be overcome is in the arrangement of the 
facts. The first mode is to classify them according to their 
historical order, and the second mode according to the 
position of the words in a grammatical system. The his- 


torical arrangement, as pursued by Mr. Piatt, cannot pro- 
duce any beneficial results ; for not only are many great facts 
impossible of explanation by that arrangement, tut also we 
do not as yet possess sufficient texts, particularly of the later 
periods, to work it successfully. No doubt the historical 
arrangement would be very interesting in itself, but I think 
we shall be forced to wait at least till the publication of Prof. 
Napier's edition of the O.E. Homilies, before we can hope to 
achieve any practical results in that direction. 

With regard to the philological arrangement, we have our 
choice of two modes of classifying the words ; first according 
to their so-called natural genders, and secondly according to 
their grammatical genders. The question as to which of 
these modes we are to choose touches to some extent another 
question, namely, that of the origin of gender itself. Zimmer, 
in his work on a and d suffix, treats of the origin of gram- 
matical gender. He sets out with words like agta and 
agvd, and he takes the masculine as the primary form. The 
feminine form is, in his opinion, of later date, and is due to 
the attempt to separate it from the masculine form by a dis- 
tinction sufficiently great to mark the difierence between the 
two forms without breaking their unity ; further on he repu- 
diates the opinion of those authorities who ascribe a peculiar 
signification to the suffix a, and connect it in some way with 
the feminine gender in general, giving to a a meaning like 
"weakening," "swelling," etc. As to his own opinion, he 
has not succeeded in making it quite clear how a language 
could have been induced to adopt a meaningless form to mark 
a natural distinction. Brugraann goes much more deeply into 
the question in the second vol. of his Comp, Oramniarj p. 100. 
He says that the capacity of the suffix a to denote the feminine 
gender does not originate in any peculiar meaning of this 
suffix. Some words, he says, like matd 'mother,' showed 
this suffix in the root, and these words were like models 
for the groups of other words with natural genders. Then 
followed whole classes of words, such as the abstracts and the 
concretes, which assumed their genders solely by reason of 
their association with the words of natural gender. To 


express his opinion briefly, he puts the grammatical gender, 

to some extent, chronologically before the natural gender. 

This theory is a useful one, as it shows that it is the form of 

the word-ending which chiefly accounts for its gender. I say 

'chiefly,' because all the nouns for persons were bound to 

take the masculine or feminine gender according to their 

seXy as soon as the grammatical distinction of the genders was 

made. In the majority of nouns, the word-ending is a suffix, 

and groups of abstracts or concretes with a familiar sense 

urere formed with the same suffix and the same gender. The 

eoffixes became more and more indistinct under the influence 

of the different phonetic processes; and by a false analogy, 

nouns from one class frequently passed into another, and 

caused the changes of gender. The neuter gender offers a 

peculiar difficulty. It is doubtful if it is either a primary or 

a secondary formation, and if it is secondary, whether it 

arose from the masculine or from the feminine. 

The order which I adopt in enumerating the groups of 
nouns according to their suffixes is merely a practical one, 
and I omit the division into primary and secondary suffixes 
as unimportant for my present purpose. 

I. — The nouns with the suffix ja take their origin chiefly 
from Verbal Adjectives with a possessive, derivative, or 
comparative signification. These adjectives are frequently 
used as nouns ; and so they induced other nouns, which 
had no adjectives as a base, to follow this kind of forma- 
tion. The nouns are partly nouns of agency, partly collec- 
tives and abstracts. The nouns of agency assume generally 
the masc. gender, the collectives the neuter, and the abstracts 
are either feminine or neuter. Brugmann makes an interest- 
ing observation about a double function of abstract nouns in 
his Comp, Chr. vol. ii. p. 444. He says that if the adjective 
which forms the base of an abstract noun, is a noun of 
agency, the abstract will be a noun of action with the neuter 
gender; if the adjective expresses a quality, the noun will 
have the same signification, and the gender will be feminine. 
This rule is frequently broken in the different languages, 
partly from the effect of analogy, partly from the confusion 


of different classes. The division of nouns into collectives 
and abstracts is to some extent a cross division, so that it 
ia at times impossible to tell to which class a noun belongs. 
The same difficulty arises in the separation of these two 
classes from the concrete nouns with neuter gender formed 
with the same suffix yn. 

The lists of nouns with the suffix ./a are collected by Scbliiter 
in bis work " Die mit dem Suff. ja gebildeten deutschen 

The masc. forms in ja. In the Gothic language the masc. 
gender is, with a few exceptions, used for persons only. 
These exceptions are andeis, hwaitets and tbdalja : andek, 
O.E. ende, is masc. in all the Teutonic languages; only in 
O.H.G., do wo find the neuter gender as well as the masc. 

hxaiteis, O.E. hirdle m., is neuter in 0. Icel. 

In O.E. are also to be found the following masc. with 
suffix ya: /tri/cff, O.H.G. hrukki m., 0, Icel. hryggr m. hyll 
m. Mr. Flatt gives some references as to the occurrence 
of the fem. gender, Aelf. Horn. i. p. 38, 1. 12, of mlcere htjlk 
and Cod. Dipl. a 959. Probably this word has taken the fem. 
gender in analogy to d&n. dynn ' noise,' formerly belonging to 
the t Declension, see Sievers Oramm. p. 263, n. 3. 

secy 'sedge' and 'sword.' I cannot see any reason for 
separating these two significations into two different words. 
One not quite conclusive reference is given for » ' sword ' 
showing the fem. gender. Beow. 684, "ac wit on niht sculon 
secge ofersitlan." aecg ' sedge ' ia masc. in the Leechd. v. 
Gloss., neuter in Aelf. Gramm. 69, 16, htec carex : jiia secg. . 
The neuter gender was taken in analogy to g{Brs ' grass.' ^ 
Pry mm, O. Icel. prymr, connected with Lat. turma, pierhape elsoH 
with O.H.G. Irumha, if the later were not rather to be pat Usm 
G. drunjus. wecg 'wedge,' O.II.G. udhi, 0. Icel. itiggr. 

We could apply the rule of Prof, lirugmann to i 
and icecg, taking these words us being originollj,] 
of agency 'the cutter,' ' the mover,' see Sicestl~ '^** 
and tvedye. On the other hand, kKAU j 
to be put under this rule; the* 
signifying a quality,. a' 


The variations in the gender of hyll and aecg are due to 
the psychological process of their connection with words of 
dmilar sense. 

Also the concretes belonging to this class show their con- 
nection with adjectivesy although it cannot be proved in 
every instance. 

bed g., badi n., O.H.G. betti n. Kluge connects this word 
ynHifodio^ giving to ' bed ' the original meaning of ' a place 
dug out ; ' the O. Icel bedr m. has generally the meaning 
* cushion/ but it occurs also with the signification of bed, see 
Cleasby Vigf. A compound of bed shows variation of gender; 
Kiofodf from wig bed ; it is neuter and shows the masc. gender 
only in one place, O.P. 217-21, 'gif se weobud ufan h61 
nsBre.' The preceding passage, 1. 19, is as follows : ' ]>8et the 
scolde ]?one godes alter habban uppan aholodne.' The gender 
of wdofod is apparently influenced by the preceding * alter.' 
bendy G. bandi f., in the O. E. Texts in Bede fem. and 
masc. BlickL Horn, and Aelf. Horn. masc. Sievers {Misc. 
Beitr. is.) suggests the idea that the fem. gender of bend 
is peculiar to the Anglian dialect, fen, Q./a7ii n., O. Icel. fen 
n., O.H.G. fenna f. ; it is neuter in Cura Past, and Orosius, 
masc. in Boeth. 18, and Chron. a. 905, see Grein and 
Bosw. Toll. The passage in Boeth. 'fennas and moras' 
seems to show a sort of attraction to mdran which might have 
induced the masc. form */ennas,' 

Constantly neuter, are kig^ G. hawi^ O.H.G. hewi, 0. Icel. hey ; 
the signification of this word is * what is to be hewn ; * hlWf G. 
htiffi: lyhhf O.H.G. luppi^ 0. Icel. lufy is usually fem. ; net^ G. nati^ 
O.H.G. nexzi\ wed, G. vadi, O.H.G. wetti ; nehh, 0. Icel, nef; wtte 
O.H.G. w{%i\ etycce, O.H.G. atucchi; tveb, O.H.G. wappi, 0. Icel. 
ve/r m. ; rihb, O.H.G. rippi, 0. Icel. rif. 

Concretes with fem. gender in j'a like brycg, cribb, etc., 
are not very numerous. In many cases they are originally 
abstracts like ecg, benn, hell, hc^ (G. hnipi f., 0. Icel. hei^r f.) 
fem. in Beow. 2212, masc. or neut. in later texts, see Piatt, 
and Earle Land Chart. Gloss, masc. in analogy to feld neut. 
in analogy to 'grass.' One borrowed word is to be mentioned 
belonging to this class which shows variation of gender, 
cyll 'leather bottle,' Lat. culeus, 0. Icel. kyllir m. ; in 


Orosius and Vespasian Psalter the masc. cylle occurs; in 
Gregory Dialogus 3. 37, cyll fem. and ci/lle, -an fem. 

An important class are the collectives in ja. Originally 
only concretes were put together to form the collectives ; after- 
wards abstracts also ; in this way, forms confined to the use 
of collectives came into use for abstracts. Bahder says (Die 
Verbalabstracte in den german Sprachen, p. 198), "Plurality 
in time comes in the place of plurality in space." These 
forms in course of time grew typical and attracted other 
words, from which the idea of a collective is more or less 
excluded. Brugmann, /. c. § 152, enumerates the means for 
the formation of collectives. Only this one point is im- 
portant for our purpose, that denominative adjectives are the 
chief factors in the formation of collectives. The suffix is 
Idg. igtw, Gr. ako, the corresponding one for the Teutonic 
languages is -ja ; it has also the same use in Slavic a. e. 
kmnenije to kamy * stone/ drazije to dragu * tram.* The 
neuter gender is the most natural one for collective nouns. 
That this rule is frequently infringed is due to the fact 
that the nouns under discussion follow, as to their gender, 
either that of the individuals forming the collective, or 
the gender of another class of words. This also accounts 
for the frequent variation in gender occurring amongst the 
O.E. nouns belonging to this group. 

The collectives in ja are rare in the Teutonic languages. 
Such are yrfe * property/ G. arhi, O.H.G. erbi\ f^ere 
' plumage,' but f^er f. Besides the n. pi. Jl6ru also the 
masc. form fiSeras occurs, see Toll. Bosw. 

The forms with the suffix -ja and prefix ga- corresponding 
to the Latin forms with con- are numerous. Grimm has 
distributed these forms into ten classes according to their 
derivation. For our purpose this classification is of no 
importance ; nor is the question whether, as Grimm says, 
these nouns are compounds of simple words without ga- and 
the prefix, or whether they are original forms, as Bahder has 
made it probable, l.c, 198. We will only notice that the 
original formations with the prefix ga- had the suffix -ja^ and 
that they attracted other nouns with other suffixes. I give 
the following list of nouns with neuter gender : 


geh€tr§ * bearing,' which occurs only in the plural ^ehdru, and 
could be taken for an indeclinable fern., but the O.K. 6. gahdri and 
O.S, gibdri prove that the O.E. form is neuter, gefilde, O.H.G. 
ffjiidi to /eld m. O.S. m. O.H.G. n. gefrage n. (and gefrige % stem) 
fefglee to folo n. O.H.G. m. (O.H.G. folk is to be compared with 
O.E, h9r§ and \rymm^ perhaps the masc. gender here is due to the 
idea that the chief constituent part of these collectives are masc.) 
The compound alfylce aiidfylce likewise show the neuter gender. 
Both forms with the prefix ga, and without it, are also shown by : 
sMjdS'hlfds to O.E. adj. Mad, gemare-mare ; gemide O.H.G. 
gimuati to m6d n. ; gemieree n. besides gemearo n. to the fem. mearo ; 
$9ride^ O.H.G. gareiti to rAd m. ; geryne O.H.G. garuniy and 
without prefix, O.E. ryne to rUn f . ; gerS]fre to rd^or ; gescy 
O.H.G. gaskdhl to sodh m. ; gereorde beside gereord to reard f. ; 
G. ratda, O.H.G. rarta, 0. Icel. rpdd (Toller mentions a neuter 
re4Mrd, but I have been unable to find any reference for this) > 
ge9eyldr$ to seuldor. Sculdor is masc. in Leechd, vol. ii. § 19, 9, 
* 0^ \Sone swi^ran sculdor ; ' we find the neuter plural ibid. 260, 
12, *o>S ^a sculdru.' The same appears in the Blickl, Horn. v. 
Qloss. Evidently the plural has assumed a collective sense, and 
consequently the neuter gender, Cockayne, Leechd. vol. ii. Gloss, 
compares broker, gebro^ru; getyme n. to O.H.G. zotim O.S. tdm 
0. Icel. taumr m. * bridle,' O.E. tiam m. * family.' On the con- 
nection between the two significations *fridle' and family,' see 
Bev. Prof. Skeat, Et, Diet, ; getyne n. to Hn m. ; getimhre to 
timber ; gewMe n. beside xc(Bde n. to wad f . ; O.H.G. wdt^ 0. Icel. 
Fd^. The relation of gewage n. and wage n. * weight ' to wag 
and wage f. ' scale,' differs from the relation of the above-mentioned 
nouns to the corresponding ones without the prefix ge. gewenge and 
tcenge to wonge n. ; gewrixle and gewrixl to wrixl i ; gewidere and 
gewtder, O.H.G. giwitn\ to weder n. From nouns with the suffix -i 
1 mention the following : ge/eg n. besides gefdg, gehyld besides 
gehealdf geeitn to sdm f . 

II, — ^From a list of neuters formed with the prefix ge and 
the suffix '0 I give a few cases only where a corresponding 
simple word is to be found with a different gender : 

gehan n. to O.S. han^ O.H.G. han m. ; gehed, O.H.G. gibed to 
G. hida m. ; O.H.G. beta f . ; gedrine n. to O.E. drine m. ; gedrep 
n. to drepe m. ; gerim to rim usually n. but Cura Past. 43, 22, 
m. ; O.H.G. m. 0. Icel. n. gerikm to rUm m. ; gest'g to sige m. ; 
getrum to trum m. 



Amongst the feminine nouns with the prefix ge- many are 
formed with the suffixes -ness and -ung as : gecoreness, gedr^- 
fednesH^ gecshtung, gecarnung, etc. These apparently are of 
later date, and their prefix ge- has lost its originally collec- 
tive meaning, like the Latin con- in consiiinm, conturbatio, etc. 

III. — The numerous class of feminine nouns with the 
prefix ge- and the suffix -ti deserves our particular attention. 
This suffix was already in use in the Indogermanic language 
for the formation of feminine nouns of action ; and the few 
nouns of agency formed in this way, like giBst, can easily be 
taken as having been originally nouns of action. The word 
for the action itself came into use for the bearer of the action, 
see Brugmann, l.c, § 99. The fern, abstracts in -ti are partly 
primary and partly secondary ; they are also connected with 
the participles in -to. The concurrence of the final sound of 
the stem with the consonant of the suffix produces a difference 
in the ending sound of the words under discussion, so that 
the connection of the nouns belonging to this group is some- 
times broken. In some cases the fem. suffix -ti is confounded 
with the masculine suffix -tu. These reasons contribute to— 
the variations of gender so frequently found amongst th 
O.E. words of this group. 

Bahder, l.c. p. 76, enumerates the cases in which variationsB 
occur from the original fem. gender to the masc. or neuter. 
I mention here only the O.E. words : G. urrists f ., O.E. (ens^ 
'resurrection ' f . in Cura Past, the masc. genitive (crutes occurs 
only once in Cura Past., f. in L.o,8. xxiii. 259, m. in Aelfric^s 
Gramm.^ 70, 14 ace. unie dn'sf, in Ae(fric*8 Homilies four 
instances, where it is doubtful if the word is masc. or neuter ; 
in Aelf, Horn. 27, 173 neuter, ib. 30, 90, fem. The compound 
(ifst Cura Pant, m., Blickling Horn, m. and f. ; G. flrw.s/«, O.H.G. 
amtf 0. Icel. dst f. ; O.E. ist f. and m. see Grein and Toll. 
Bosw. ; G. gifts in fragifts O.II.G. gift f ., O.E. gift f., the 
neuter plural gijtuy ' nuptiaB,' occurs in Aelf, Gramm, 85, 7 
and L,o,8, iv. 27 (Sievers, Gr. § 267, n. 2, mentions, besides 
giftUy the plurals gcdty/itu, gehgrstu, wist a, and Itiftu). dt 
' food ' {ti stem P) ra. and fem., see Grein and Bosw. Toll. 
cicild * plague' shows the original fem. gender in the com- 


pound word ' cwUde flod' Vesp. Psalter, 28. 10, 31. 6. 
in Leechdoms, m. and n. (plur.) ; grw/t 'sculpture' m. in 
Shrine f . in Lye, ; list m. f. see Toll. Bosw. G. lints, O. Icel. list 
f. O.H.6. m. I mention here tcrdht ' accusation ' although it 
is probably formed with the suffix -/o- ; ivrdht is usually fem. 
Cura Past,, Aelf. Horn, seldom masc, see Grein. 

In the following words the origin and suffixes are doubt- 
ful : O. icaihts f . and tcaiht n. in ' niwaiht, niwaihts.' These 
two forms show perhaps the occurrence of both a -ti and -to 
suffix* O.H.G. makes a distinction, using the masc. mht for 
persons, and the neuter wiht for things. O.E. (corresponding 
to the Gothic) offers the fem. and neuter gender. References 
are given in Grein and Cosijn. Wulfst. Horn. 139, 4 fem. 
fulwiht 'baptism' masc. in Cura Past, in Poetry fem. and 
masc. or neut. Aelf. Horn, n., Wulfst, Horn, n. 144. 16, 33. 13, 
232. 16, masc. 229. 2. fierst 'space of time,' O. laeLfrest 
aing. f., plur. n., O.H.G. f. and m. or n., O.E. m. Chron. a., 
1086 n. (see Piatt, analogy to fcec). The two words /r^c and 
fierst may have influenced each other : fcec is n., in Wulfstan 
102. 15 m. ' ofer ealne geares fsec' 

The feminine was the original gender in all these cases, 
but it varied (1) to the masc. from analogy with the great 
number of masc.-abstracts in the West Germanic languages, 
8ee Kluge, Nominale Stammbildungslehre, § 102, where he 
points out that masc. nouns with the suffix -i frequently 
oorrespond in the West Germanic languages to neuter nouns 
with the suffix o in Gothic and Scandinavian ; it varied (2) 
to the neuter from analogy with the collectives. 

The nouns with the prefix ge- and suffix -ti which offer 
variation in gender are the following: ge\eaht f. in Poetry 
(see Grein and Bosw. Toll.), n. in C. P., Aelf. Hom. and 
Benedictine Rule ; ge]>dht m., in Poetry (see Grein) ; the sing. 
IB neuter in Prose C. P., L.o.S. Nat. 135, the plural is masc. 
The masc. gender is taken from gejpanc. The distinct form 
in -as accounts for the fact, that the masc. gender was pre- 
served in the plural. Gesceaft G. gaskafts f., O.H.G. gasknft f. 
O.E. Texts C. P. Poetry, Blickl. Horn, fem., Wulfst. Hom. 
8. 1, 34. 1, 186. 5, fem., Aelf. Hom. 4. 72, ii. 11, 186, neut. 


The three above mentioned words show no Umlaut. Kluge 
puts ge\>eaht and ge\6ht to the forms with the suffix -to, but 
the Umlaut is also wanting in geaceaflf which is proved to be 
formed with the suffix -/i, by the G. gaskafU and gaskapjan, 
Oe^yld 'patience/ O.H.G. giduH f., cognate, according to 
Brugmann, with ablatio. It is fem. in O.E. Texts ; usually 
fem., rarely neut. in G. P. ; fem. and neut. in the Blickling 
Hom. ; neut. in Aelf. Hom., Shrine and L.O.S. Oenyht 
* sufficiency/ O.H.G. ginuht f. It is usually fem. Sievers, 
Misc., gives one instance for the neuter gender from Booth. 
gemynd ' mind/ G. gamunds {,, O.H.G. gimunt f . It is fem. in 
the O.E. Texts, in 0. P. neut. and fem. Shrine 51. 2, 73. 3, 
fem. Blickl. Hom. neuter once fem., Aelf. Hom. neut. 
20. 240, ii. 30. 408 ; Wulfstan neut. 137. 20, L.o.8. neut. ; 
Prajf. 51, Nat. 118. The occurrence of G. gamin\>i n. with 
gamunds offers no comparison ; for in gamin\i the suffix -ja 
is added to the suffix -tL Qecynd ' kind ' in C.P. fem. and 
neut., Shrine 118. 8 fem., Bb'ckling Hom. f., Leechdoms ii. 
330. 2, fem. ; Aelfr. Gramm. 243. 16, Aelf. Hom. ii. 12. 206, 
20. 169, L.o.S. Nat. 87 n. Sievers, Misc., mentions the 
indeclinable fem. gecyndo from Leechdoms, and says that 
gecyndo and gecynde were formed from the plural geeyndu. 
It is also possible to see in gecynde the adj. gecynde used 
as a noun, and to take the fem. gecyndu as formed by 
analogy to the abstracts in G. -ei and i\a, gehygd (to 
hyge m.) ' thought * in O.E.T. f. in Poetry f. and neut. ; 
oferhygd fem. occurs in C.P., in the form of an indeclin- 
able fem. oferhygdo in Blickl. Hom. and Poetry ; also the 
gen. oferhygdes is found in Poetry, ingehygd is neut. Wulf. 
51. 26 giren^ grin 'snare* n. in C.P., n. and f. in O.E. Texts 
(fern, in V.P. 'f , 17. 6, 118. 110). 

The same variation is shown by the compound foncyrd 
'damage,' usually fem. Toller gives two examples for its 
neut. gender, from Aelfric's Homilies, weor^mynd 'honour' 
C.P. (Cosijn ii. § 23) sing. m. and fem., plur. neut.; in 
Poetry, see Grein f. and neut. (shown by plur. tceor\>myndu 
Gft. 434) Aelf. Hom. 26. 36, etc., and L.o.S. xi. 291, etc., masc. 

G(']>onc, O.H.G. gidank m., O.S. gi\anko m. (from the o 


Declens.) It is usually roasc. like jxmc, so in C.P., while 
the same text forms, from the compound inge]>onc, a neuter 
sing, and a masc. plural : ge\>onc is further masc. in Blickling 
Horn., masc. and n. in Leechdoms, neut. in Aelf. Hom. 19. 89 
and Wulfstan 20. 9 ; 202. 26. I mention further two words 
in "ja with the same variation of gender as the above- 
mentioned nouns with the prefix ge- : the abstract o/ermide 
•pride/ n. in Poetry, see Grein, fem. in the form ofemikdu 
in C.P. The collective G. avi^i n., O.E. ^owd * flock/ is but 
rarely n., see Grein, usually fem. O.E.T., Aelf. Gram., Aelf. 
Horn., probably in analogy to ^ow. 

IV. — The abstracts with prefix ge ending in 'S correspond- 
ing to G.- %^a are fem. like the abstracts in % without prefix. 
The exceptions which the later ones afford are : mbylif& 
* offence/ it is usually fem., but neuter in Elene 401. /erh^ m. 
and n. (see Grein) like feorh m. n. 

y. — i-STEMS. Most of the nouns belonging to this class, 
which show variation of gender, have already been mentioned 
amongst the stems with the suffix -tu Those which remain 

masc. and neuter : gieJp * pride,' originally masc. like O.H.G. 
gelff O. Icel. gjalfr. It is also usually masc. in O.E., rarely 
neuter (O.S. gelp n.) ; we have in C.P. three instances of 
neuter gender against nine of masc, see Cosijn, ii. § 23. 
hilt * handle,' O.H.G. gahilzi (O. Icel. hjalt is o- stem) 
originally neuter, usually neut. in O.E., masc. in Salomon 
223 n. pi. hiltas (O.E. fem. hilte corresponds to O.H.G. helza). 

masc. and fem, sd, G. aaiica m., O.H.G sio m., 0. Icel. seer 
m., O.S. sio m., O.E. in the older texts and in Poetry 
m. and f., in Aelf. Hom. and L. o. S. fem. ; the feminine 
gender is due to the analogy of Sa ' water.' 

seel 'time' usually masc., see Grein; masc. Ores. 164. 
13, Aelf. Hom. 4. 90, ii. 13. 236, L.o.S. vi. 15 ; fem. 
Gen. 186, Gft. 6 (from the analogy of tid). rf6 C«-8tem ?) 
' small stream ' fem. ; SarfS Qd, 3 masc. ; gleng * ornament ' 
masc. in Blickl. Hom. ; fem. Wulf. 148. 22 ; wiell * well * 
(alsoya- stem wielie m. C.P.) m., Neot. 77 fem. 

VI. — u-STEMS. Nouns with a short base formed with 


suffix -u are not very numerous. Some words signifying 
masculine persons follow this formation. 

hreffo * prince ' which is exclusively poetical like the correspond- 
ing 0. Icel. bragr ; also magu, G. maffus, is only found in Poetry ; 
it was replaced by mt^ G. me^s. One noun, sunu, preserved the 
old inflection, and only in later texts does it form some cases after 
the and n Declensions. 

The other nouns of this class either dropped their suffix u, 
and followed the formation of the nouns with the suffix o, or 
they joined the Declension of searu and gie/u. We have in 
analogy to the stems in -tea : the plural sceadwa from sceadu 
like O.H.G. scaio, scatawes ; the gender of sceadwa is doubtful ; 
the genit. sing, medeices and the plur. medeica from nieodu ; it 
is neuter in Lb. ii. 53. Toller's reference for the masc 
gender Fins. 39 is given after the inaccurate copy by Hickes. 
The other Teutonic languages, O.H.G. metOy O. Icel. mj</6r^ 
and the Lettoslav. medus and 0. Slav, medu, prove the masc.^ 
gender to be the original. The analogy of the short syllables 
d st^ms has caused the fem. gender in sceadu, see Grain ^ 
and frid&u frPS is masc. in Orosius, Park. Ghron., but n- 
in the Laws. Other neuters are scead and li]> *limb,* G- 
li]>u8 m., 0. Icel. li^r m., ; li\> is masc. and neut. in Leech- 
doms, ii. 36 p. 242 ; the same variation occurs in O.H.G. 

The long syllable masc. and neuters with suffix -u followed 
in their declension the o stems. The following words show 
the variation from the masc. to the neuter gender : 

li]>, G. lei]>us m. ; O.S., 0. Fries., 0. Icel. neuter ; O.H.G. 
masc. and neuter, O.E. neut. G. fairlucus m., O.H.G. ferah 
n., 0. Icel. fjor n., O.E. feorh usually neut. Toller gives 
a reference for the masc. gender from Cr. 439. rusty O.H.G. 
rod m., C.P. m. and n., Shrine 35. 13 n. ; fldd, G. flddm, 
the gender is said to be fem. but without reference, O.S. 
flod m., O. Icel. Jio^ n., O.H.G. fliiot m. and fem., in O.E. 
masc. and n. ; hearg * temple * is doubtful. If Sievers is 
right in putting it to the w-stems, the plural hearga would 
be the organic form ; hearga occurs once in Cura Past. 
as against several heargas, Cosijn puts this word amongst 
the -stems, and takes the form hearga to be a mistake ; but 


hearga is also found in other texts (Ex. 34. 15, Sievers 26. 1.30), 
see Toll. Bosw., who states that hearg is both masc. and fern. 

The variation of masc. and fern, gender is shown hyJISr; 
it is fern., but occurs as masc. in Beow., the 0. Icel. Jldr 
is m., M.H.G. Jltwr masc. and fern. From the atenPi in -tu^ 
JUd has already been mentioned. These words with suffix 
'tu were originally masc. They partly passed to the o- 
Declension, preserving the masc. gender, as in dia\>, ford, 
^urat and luat^ partly they were confused with the fern, 
stems in -ti; G. kustus m., 0. Icel. kostr m., O.E. cyst f. 
• choice ; ' G. liiftus m., O.H.G. and O.S. m. f., O.E. if/[fi 
m. Ezod. 74, f. in L.O.S., Leechdoms and Aelf. Hom. Sieyers 
mentions the neuter plural lf(flu, but some references for the 
neuter singular are given by Toller. O.S. and O.Icel. klust f. 
answer to O.E. hit/at * hearing,' which is both f. and masc. 
in the Leechdoms. G. lists f., O.E. listy is fem. and masc., 
see Toller. 

Cosijn, concluding from ^fcerelta* C.P. 257*, which he 
thinks is the gen. sing., puts also fcereld under the tz-stems. 
I see in the iormfoerelta a gen. plural. Sievers (Beitr. i. 
529) has shown that the word is formed with the suffix 
'tro'y fcereld is usually n., but masc. in Aelf. Hom. 34. 221, 
perhaps from analogy to words with similar sense as : gong^ 
pd^, sfS, iceg. 

Still another word, (pppel, which is put in this class is 
doubtful as to the suffix. This word is no doubt a borrowed 
one, and the Etymon which is generally given is a form 
like abellm^ from malum Ahellanum. The -u suffix is con- 
cluded from n. pi. appla. The O.H.G. masc. aphuly pi. ephili^ 
belongs to the «- Declension, the 0. Icel. neuter epli to the 
'ja Declension. Probably there were two simultaneous forms 
in -i7 and -w/, the former being preserved in O. Icel.. in 
the O.H.G. plural and in the O.E. ap;;/?^/, pi. applm^ the 
form in -w/ in the O.H.G. singl. and the O.E. plur. ajrpla. 
Eluge makes a distinction as to the gender in O.E. between 
the two significations *eye-balP and 'apple,' saying that 
cpppel * eye-ball' is neuter in sing. Against this, see one 
reference from Booth, in Toll. Bosw. and C.P. 69. 17. Cosijn 


gives from the C.P. one example for cepplas 'pupilbe,* and 
states that only the form mppla is used for * mala.' 

VII. — The svffixes with I as characteristic consonant. The 
suiBx ila is used for masc. nouns of agency as bifei^ bydel 
cnjpelf fengely ri/fiel, strengei, pengeL It is further used 
for diminutives^ as gicely hypel^ tuxl^ cicel; cystel from cysfen 
* castanea/ has become attached to this group. The gender 
of these words is masc., so also in hyrdel * hurdle/ though 
its primary word is fem., G. haut^s, 0. Icel. ^tir^, O.H.G. 
hurt. The fem. icundel, beside wundele^ shows no Umlaut^ 
and does not belong to this group, cyrnel is masc. and neat, 
in Leechdoms, the neuter gender is taken from the primary 
word corn. Also many masc. instrumental nouns are formed 
with -e/fl, as hridely cyrtely fetel^ gyrtel, grindel, htcitel^ rysel, 
sticely stypel, trendel, wyrpeL 

The O.E. has also some fem. nouns signifying tools formed^ 
with an -/ suffix : fiol, O.H.Q. flhala^ scedfl, O.H.G. scdfla^ 
ncedl, G. nipla^ sicol corresponding to the O.H.G. fem. 
sihhila is masc, see G. L. 15, Aelf. Gram. 73. 6. The 
fem. swingel in Aelf. Hom. 38. 54, may have taken its 
gender from the fem. swinge in Vesp. Psalter and C.P. 
In C.P. occurs also the fem. stringelk, which is formed 
like jxBcele, hacele, as against G. hakuls m., 0. Icel. hpkuU 
m., O.n G. hachul. The borrowed nouns with this forma- 
tion are enumerated by Pogatscher, Lautlehre des Lehnworte 
im a. e. He mentions also the fem. condel f., § 262, and says, 
" one ought to expect a masc. condel or a fem. condele if 
it were a popular word." But there is a masc. condel pre- 
served in candeks leoma Wright W. 154. 15. 

A fem. noun for tools is also O.E. geafl, O.H.G. gahala f. ; 
the plural geaflas signifies * maxilla.' The masc. gender of 
this word shown by the termination is probably due to the 
influence of ceqflasy a word with the same signification, and 
geagL The latter noun is usually masc, but one example 
for its neuter gender is in Leechdoms 1 1. 28. Toller mentions 
a masc. herecumbol, but the word does not show the gender in 
any of the references I could find, and it is more probably 
neuter like the simple word ciimhol and the other compounds 


Mfor-heorucumbol. setl seld n., but Ameld 'hermitage' m., 
ee Grein (like G. sitls^ O.H.G. sezzal). tungol is neuter in 
be older texts: Orosius, see Cosijn, § 9, m. and n. in Poetry- 
ad in Aelf. Horn. (masc. ed. Sweet 5. 83, n. 6. 172) ; it occurs 
so with the termination of the n Declension in Aelf. Gram. 
). 6y and Aelf Hom. 6. 170. The masc. gender and the 
isaing of this word to the n Declension are due to the 
.fluence of steorra. Susl ' torment ' is neuter in the older 
xtSy see Cosijn, § 9. Piatt gives examples for the fern. 
^nder from Aelf. Hom. and Aelf. Gram. (I add Aelf. Hom. 
ref. 62, 8. 220, 16. 135, 28. 170, ii. 5. 78, Wulfstan 138. 25). 
he fern, gender is due to the influence of the above-mentioned 
roup of f em. abstracts, as hicil, hreofl and ddl ' disease ' ; the 
tter is also found as neut. in Aelf. Hom. ii. 10. 150. 

The great number of masc. nouns with / suffix also induced 
le word i^el to pass from the neuter to the masc. gender. 
iel is neut. in O.H.G. twdil and O.S. 6\iL Toller gives 
ir the neuter gender three examples from Beda. Segel and 
le two borrowed words castel and diqfol show both masc. 
id neuter gender. Segei masc. in O.H.G., neut. in O.S. 
id O. Icel. In Aelf. Gram. 86. 3 occurs the masc. 
Dg. \>e8 segl and the neut. plural )>d« seglu. Castel has usually 
le gender of its Etymon ; it is masc. in Chron. a 1069. 
iqful is in the singular, mostly masc, rarely neuter ; as 
ural, mostly neuter, see Cosijn ii. p. 6; it seems to be 
mter both in singular and plural in Shrine Martyrology, 

52 and 141. The masc. singular and the neuter plural 
« shown by the O.H.G. tiuvaL dio/ol followed the 
lalogy of god, which likewise forms the plural as a masc. 
id neuter noun, for the masc. godas in Orosius, see Cosjin. 
lie neuter godu occurs in Ores. 34. 21 ; for references from 
her texts, see Grein and Toll. Bosw. It would be very 
teresting, could we see in the neuter plural godu the 
ndency to distinguish the heathen gods from the Chris- 
in god, and to point out the former as idols. The O.H.G. 
tut. abgot seems to strengthen this theory, but the G. gu/) 
bich, although masc., has a neuter form, and the 0. Icel. 
K, which is always neuter in the older texts, suggest 
Fhil. Tnas. 1888-80. 17 


aDother reason; see in Gleasby Yigfdsson the interesting 
historical remarks given under go^. 

VIII. — The suffix -bIo chiefly with an intermediate vowel 
f, and taking therefore the forms h^ is used first for con- 
cretes, and then for abstracts. The transition from the 
concrete to the abstract signification is conspicuous in some 
instances, forms in -eh and in -el are frequently found ii^ 
simultaneous use, thus: gyrdela-gyrdel^ sticels-sticel, brideh* 
bridel, pricels-pricel, scytteh'Scyttel (L.o.S. xxi.. 419). The 
gender is mostly masc. Proved as masc. are : byrgels, btgek, 
brldeky brredels, gyrdels, sciccels, sticels, rcedels, tcdfels, Kcegeh ; 
riceh is neut., acytiela is neut. in the older texts, Vesp. 
Psalter 106. 16, 147. 13, masc. in L.o.S. iii. 348, xxi. 
419, Wulfstan, 230. 31. The 0. IceL skutiil is n. ; it sig- 
nifies an ^implement shot forth,' but also like the O.E. 
word * bolt or bar ' in skutla hlv6 v. CI. Vigf . ; frntels * vessel,* 
Kluge and Sievers write fceteh^ which form would answer to 
O.H.G. gif&zzi. I take fcBtels to be enlarged from a word 
fcBtely the probable diminutive of frnt n., and to be formed 
in analogy to the words in -h. Its gender is usually masc. 
neuter in Lacn. p. 16, No. 16. The gender in twegen fceteb 
Oros. 21. 16, is doubtful. Cockayne says in Leechdoma 
ii. pref . 37. Numerals admit of a substantive in the singular 
and he cites ^rie cucler from Leechdoms, nigantyne tcinter anc 
twegen mona]> from Bede, and the above-mentioned passag< 
from Orosius. Cosijn gives more examples for the same use 
p. 42 and p. 112, but it is remarkable that in all th 
examples the words following this rule are gSar^ monaS. 
icinter, niht. Gear is usually neuter as in all the Teutoni 
languages ; it occurs as meisc., twice in Orosius and in Libc 
Scintillarum, dagas and gearas, perhaps in analogy to tk 
masc. winter and sumor. The words monc^, winter^ and n^ 
may have followed the analogy of giar^ and cucler^ thou^ 
usually masc, may have retained the gender of its Latin bsL 
in some cases, as in )»r/« cucler, 

IX. — The nouns formed with an m, suffix are masculiii< 
Variation of gender is shown by/cpSw * the embracing docmB, 
O.H.G. fadamy O.S. fathmoSy plur., 0. Icel. fdSmr. fdSm 


is usually masc. in Genesis 6. 16, fem. ; itcpsfm (G. rahstua) 
usually masc. in Gen. masc. and fem., see Grein, masc. in 
O. P. Blickling Hom., Aelf. Hom , L.o.S., Benedictine Kule ; 
fern, in Wulfstan 148. 6 on fulre wsestme ; worsm worms 
' pus ' is neut. in C.P. masc. in the form wynm in Aelf. Hom, 
ii. Tob. 452. 

X. — The sufSxes with n as characteristic consonant (ex* 
eluding those of the n Declension) form nouns for masc. 
and fem. persons, as \>eoden, dryhten, ]>iowen, ]>lwe«, etc. ; 
neuter diminutives as ticcen, cycen, only blegen * blain * is 
feminine in analogy to bkedre. The abstracts formed with 
HI-, ini'^ oni-, aini- are partly fem., partly neuter. 

The words which show a variation of gender are : wisten, 

which is formed with -n/dr, and is both fem. and neuter 

in Orofiius and C.P., in the later texts only neuter, (efen 

masc in O.E. and all the other Teutonic languages occurs 

as neuter in Elene 139. It is doubtful if dfen belongs to 

this group, but it certainly followed the analogy of the 

neuters of this group in occurring occasionally with the 

neuter gender. The diminutive fylmen ' film,* is neut. in 

^elf. Hom., fem. in Leechd. Lb.'p. 242. 

The two borrowed words segen and cymen which show the 
9ame word-ending -en are masc. and neut. heo/on, G. 
Mimins, O.S. hehari is masc. in the older texts; it follows 
the analogy of eotSe, partly only as to its gender : seo, 
J>€08 heofon Leechd. (v. Sievers Misc.) Aelf. Gram. 86. 11, 
Aelf. Hom. 35. 17, ii. 3, p. 40, L.o.S. xiii. 165, ace. sg. 
\&ii heofony Leechd. i. 404. 5, partly as to its gender and 
declension: gen. dat. ace. heofonan Aelf. Hom. 21. 231. 
246. L.O.S. iii. 500, xi. 121. Wulfst. masc. gender in ]>ces 
heofones 100. 4 fem. ^cere heofone 231. 32, seo heofone 92. 16. 
XL — With the suffixes -^ro, tro-ro — the words ending in 
^or-tor — nouns are formed, which are, as Bopp says, the in- 
animate performers of an actiou, and also in analogy to these, 
nouns for the action itself. The original gender of these 
nouns is the neuter. Bahder points out that the masc. 
gender is substituted for the neuter in 0. Icel., but very 
seldom in O.E., and he gives as examples for O.E. : hleahtor 


hle<j&or and kr^or. Toll. Bosw. calls hlid^or neat., but efen- 
hlidSor maac. I could not find any reference for these words in 
which the gender is shown. The same is the case with hr&Sor. 
Therefore hleahtor is the only one which is certainly masc. 

Variation of gender is shown in mor^or usually n., but 
masc. in Blickling Horn., like mor^ which is both masc. 
and neut. (see Piatt), coi^or usually n. like O.H.G. choriar, 
is fem. in Chron. a. 973. /rdfor is usually fem, like O.S. 
fruohra, O.H.G. fluobara f., but masc. in later texts, Aelf. 
Horn., see Piatt and L.o.S. iv. 91. 

XII. — t suffixes. I have already spoken of the nouns with 
the sufiBxes ^ti and -tu. and have still to mention the 
verbal and denominative abstracts in -at and it. The t of 
the sufiBx 'ii caused i Umlaut, and the nouns thus formed 
followed the ja Declension. The original gender is doubtful. 
The Gothic affords only one example of this formation : the 
neuter stiiciti ' patience.' These abstracts were confused with 
the collectives in Old Frisian and O.H.G., and consequently 
were exclusively of the neuter gender in these languages. 
O.E. nouns formed with -ot are : the masc. or neuter eo/et^ 
eofoi ; the masc. stceofot, the masc. ]>Sotcet, Aelf. Horn. ii» 
22. 326 (I can find no reference for the neut. gender 
assumed for this word by Grein). Neuters formed with -it, 
i.e. : ifja are niencet, onceiet, rtjmet, liget is neuter in Blickl. 
Hom., masc. in the plur. in Lambeth Psalter and Wulfstan, 
122. 11. A fem. ligetu occurs in Vesp. Psalter and Hymns in 
Wulf. 207. 26 ^4rc ligette. The fem. gender is probably due 
to the influence of the abstracts in G. i]fa. We may compare 
hyruetu and elfetu. They likewise had originally a more 
abstract meaning, signifying a quality. 

XIII. — The Nouns following toe o Declension, so 
far as they have not been mentioned above, are divided 
in the following list according to their original gender in 
O.E. : Masc. varying to neuter — hcec ; neut. in O. Icel. bak 
and O.S. ; hac masc. in 0. Fris. hek and O.H.G. {•an stem) 
bahho ; in O.E. n., masc. in O.E. Texts, Vesp. Psalter 128. 
3 ; frMs * freedom/ G. freihals m., O.E. masc. the neut. 
plural is found in ^freoha and fcestena ' in the Laws, see 



T.B, Jrioh is influenced in this case by the following word : 
ord 'point/ O.H.G. ort m. n., 0. Icel. oddr m., O.E. ord 
masc. neut in plur., see Grein ; rwced * hall/ O.S. rakud m. 
O.E. m. n. see Grein ; dd * funerdl pile/ O.H.G. eit m. 
O.E. m., in L.o.S. p. 110. 3. o^^cet ^cet dd. The neuter 
article is probably a clerical error due to the preceding \>(et. 

Neuter varying to masc. — brim *surf* n., 0. Icel. n., in 
later O.E. Texts masc, see Piatt, dolh * wound/ O.H.G. 
0. Icel. n., G. m. O.E. n., L.o.S. xx. 67 m. holt * wood * 
0. Icel. O.H.G. n., O.E. n., in Gen. 21. 33, L.o.S. xix. 
219 masc. (analogy to tcudu, tceald), herd, G. huzd n., 
O.H.G. hart m., 0. Icel. m. n., O.E. n. in L.o.S. xxiii. 
716 masc. hrdw * corpse/ O.H.G., O.Icel. n. O.E. n. Shrine 
and Lambeth Psalter masc. horh * dirt/ O.H.G. horu n., 
n. and masc. in Leechdoms, see Gloss. ; sSaw * juice/ O.H.G. 
sou n. is neuter ; the single example for the masc. gender : 
se sSaw Leechd. ii. p. 18, is probably a clerical error, see 

Xieechd. ii. Gloss. ; lof * praise,' O.H.G. n. m. O.Icel. n. O.E. 

in O.E.T. and Cura Past, n., Beowulf m., Aelf. Gram. n. ; 

mearh * marrow/ O.H.G. marg n., 0. Icel. liiergr m., Leechd. 

^n. and n., see Gloss.; wamm * spot,' G. tcamm n., O.E. n. and m. 
Masc. varying with fern, — die * ditch, dike,' 0. Icel. dik 

11., O. Fries, m., O.E. m. Orosius 74, 18 se die: fossa; in 

later texts masc. and fem. ; die seems to be more frequently 

masc. when it has the same signification as O.E. tceall; 
Uah *lea,' O.H.G. m. n., O.E. m. f. in CD., see Sievers 
Misc.; strdl * arrow,' already in O.E.T. m. and f., the 
synonymous word fldn shows the same variation fldn m. 
f. C.P. V. Cosijn ii. jj 2 (it occurs also as fern, fld n. 
Declension) 0. Icel. fleinn m. The gender of earh in 
Andreas 1333 is doubtful, it occurs in later Texts as fem. 
ante (n. Decl.) see Sievers Misc. ; tcdl * plague ' is twice 
masc. and twice fem. in Orosius and Cura Past., see Cosijn ii. 
§ 15, masc. in L.o.S. xvii. 72, O.H.G. wuol masc. 

Neuter varying to fem, — trfc * dwelling ' n. fem. in 
to dnre wlc Aelf. Hom. 28. 21. ii. 28. 382, to "Scere wic. 
CD. p. 218 a. 1002, and in the form idee in Aelf. Hom. 
17. 68. The form dat. wlc without the ending -e, confirms 


the idea of Piatt, that the fern, is taken from the neut. 
plural. I mention here also swelgend 'whirlpool/ a part 
pres. used as subst. m. and fern, in C.P., see Cosijn, ii. 
p. 51, and CD., see Sievers Misc. (Beitr. ix.). 

Mfisc. /em. and neut are : Idc 0. Icel. leikr m. O.H.G. 
n. m., O.E. Idc n., in the older texts: C.P., O.E.T. 
Bliekl. Horn. ; fem. in Shrine, Aelf. Horn. 8. 80 mid 
wnigre idce^ masc. L.o.S. vii. 119 ; ace. \>lne idc L.o.S. 
xiv. 34 is sing, or plur., neut. or fem. The fem. gender 
of /dc is either taken from the neuter plural, or is formed 
by analogy with synonymous words, sldh * slough ' occurs 
as n. masc. and fem. in CD., see Sievers Misc. 

The words which I have mentioned do not exhaust the list 
of O.E. nouns with more than one gender. I have omitted not 
only many dubious instances, but also the nouns which change 
their gender in passing to the n Declension. 

The explanation of the variation of gender in many of the 
instances which I have given is to be found in the fact that nouns 
followed as to their gender 1. t?ie analogy of other nouns (o) with the 
same or similar signification^ as : hae^ (feld or gaers), hyll (dun), 
holt (wudu), ssel (tid) sffi (ea), tungol (steorra), weofod (alter), faec 
and fierst, which affected each other, gear (sumer, winter) {p) with a 
contrary signification as: deofol (god), heofon (eorj^e), 2. the analogy 
of a class of nouns formed in the same way ; thus the nouns with 
prefix ge- followed the analogy of the collectives, as : gej^eaht, 
gesceaft, ge]7yld, genyht, etc. ; the nouns with suffix -ti, the analogy 
of those with suffix -tu and vice versa ; e.g. ; aerist, tefst, est an<L 
cyst, hlyst ; see further : sceadu, frio^u, susl, e^el, ©fen, Itgetu. 

Some nouns took the gender of other nouns with which the^r 
were coupled in frequently recurring phrases : see fen, freols. 

The derivative forms took the gender of their primary noun^ in. 
ferh^, eowd, cymel. 

A neuter plural is formed from a masc. or fem. singular, the 
plural expressing a sort of unity: sculdru, giftu, cwildu, weor^- 
myndu ; a masc. plural from a fern, or neut. singular : fi^eras 
gej'ohtas, ingo^oncas, hiltas, geaflas. 

Some nouns are neut. in older texts, but masc. in later ones, as : 
brim, dolh, hord, worsm. 





(Head at a Meeting of the Fhilologieal Society on Friday^ April 5, 1889.) 

^It object in the following short and somewhat rambling 
paper, is to comment on a few points in Russian phonetics 
and word- formation, which can only be explained by a study 
of the early documents of the language. The points to 
which I desire to call attention will be recognized as pre- 
senting diificulties by those who have made a study of the 

(1) The beginner is apt to be embarrassed by the diffi- 
culty that the genitive case of the adjective and pronoun, 
aro {ago), ero {ego), is pronounced ava, eco, and when a is 
accented, ota, thus 466pbiH {dobrii) * good,* gen. 4o(}paro 
(dobrago), pronounced dobrava. 4ypH6d [durndi) *bad,' gen. 
^ypnaro {durnago), pronounced durnova. In the latter case 
some authors write oro {ogo). Prof. Malinowski, in an article 
in Kuhn's Beitrage, traces the origin of this to the b in the 
possessive adjective, thus oaOBi {otsov) 'belonging to a father,* 
gen. oaoaa (otsova). Prof. Sobolevski, in his JcRuiH no 
HcropiH PyccKaro flabiKa (Lectures on the History of the 
Russian Language), thinks that it arose as follows : the r (g) 
in these genitive cases was pronounced A, as it still is in some 
Russian words, thus xopomaro (khoroshago), 4o6paro (dobrago), 
Moero (moego), were at one time pronounced kharashaha, 


dobraha, moyehd ; but in the course of time the sound of h was 
lost, and there was a hiatus. This hiatus, according to a law 
of the Slavonic languages, instances of which we are con- 
tinually finding, was supplied by the letter b (pronounced r). 
Thus they became pronounced as if written xopomOBO {khorch 
shoto), 4o6poBO (dobrovo). Instances of this spelling are 
found in Old Russian : thus in an inscription on a cross of 
the date 1434 we read : 6orojtnoBO npeo6pa3KeHHfl (bogoliepoto 
preobrazheniya) *the transfiguration of the one agreeable to 
GFod.' So also in the Laurentian Codex of the Old Chronicle 
ascribed to the monk Nestor we get noBOcru (povosti) for 
oorocTbi {pogosti) 'cemeteries,' and in some of the Russian 
dialects we find KOB^a {kovda) for Kor^a {kogda), roB^a (tovda) 
for Tor^a {togda), etc. 

(2) Some Russian nouns ending in *& (tx), b (i) and o form 
their N., G. and D. plural in la (ya), lewh (yet?), bhitb (yam), as: 

6paTL (brat) Spaibfl (bratga), SpaibeBS {bratyev) * brother.' 
ciyat {atuPj, cryaba (stulya) * a chair.* 
SflTB (zyat), SflTBH (zyatya) * son-in-law/ 

The history of these forms is illustrated by Old Slavonic, 
where the plural frequently became a collective noun, and 
was of the feminine gender ; thus O.S. 6paTHfla (bratiya)^ fern, 
'brothers' (collectively). The same form is seen in modem 

(3) After the numerals 4Ba (rfra), ipH {tri), Hersipe (chetire), 
and also o6a (oba), f. oGi (obi), both, in the case of n;ia8culin^ 
nouns, the suffix -a is added if the noun is in the nominative 
or accusative case. This is often wrongly explained as » 
genitive case ; it is however the remains of a dual form, and 
we shall find that if an adjective is used, it is put in the 
nominative or accusative plural, as nepBbie 4Ba Sojbmie croja 
(perrie dva bohhie stola) *the first two large tables'; a practice, 
however, seems coming in of using sometimes a genitive 
plural from false analogy, as ^Ba 4pyrHXb coiflHenifl (dm 
dnigikh sochineniya) *two other works.' In all other in- 


•tanoeSy except the nominative or accusative, the numeral is 
in the same case as the substantive, and is treated as an 
adjective^ as qersip^Mi Kopa&iflMb BoeHHbiMi (chetlryom karab- 
ipam voennhn) * to four ships of war.' 

(4) One of the most striking features in Russian is the 
extreme poverty of the tense-system. This, in the modern 
state of the language is restricted to a single past tense, 
which is really a participle ; according to Leskien it was 
originally a nomen agentis, and has gender ; thus we say 6hWh 
(hi/) 'be was,' 6bua (bila) 'she was,' 6bii0 (bilo) * it was,' with 
this the persons of the present tense of the verb 6biTb (bit) 
'to be,' were always found in Old Slavonic ; thus raarojaji 
iecMfc (glagolal yesm) * I have spoken.' But it began to dis- 
appear quite early ; thus, in the Codex Suprasliensis, MaiH 
BbcKpbMHJa (mati vUkr&mila) * the mother nourished,' without 

iecTfc (yest). It is still, however, preserved in Chekh, and in 

X^olish is only partially lost, which accounts for our being 

^ble in that language to remove the suffixes from the past 

;^)articiple, and affix them to other words in the sentence; 

bus we may say in Polish either dobrze pisalem or dobrzem 

Ual *I have written well,' ja pilny jestem or jam pilny jest *I 

m industrious.' The suffixes may also be added to particles, 

Bom nie przyszedl tcsywac sprawiedliwych ale goresznych do 

•^okuty *I came not to call the righteous, but sinners to 

Tepentance.' In Chekh we still get such expressions as the 

following : ja uciljaem * I studied.' 

(5) The imperfect and aorist, which existed in Old Slavonic, 
and still exist in Bulgarian and Serbish of the Eastern 
branch, and Sorbish of the Western. The first of these 
began to disappear from Russian early. In copies from Old 
Slavonic originals, in lives of Russian saints, chronicles, etc., 
it is not rare, but it is not met with in the official documents, 
nor in the Rusakaya Pravda, the first code of laws, which is 
of the eleventh century. It is impossible to tell the exact 
period when it was lost, but it begins to be very rare in the 
thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. Schleicher, writing in 


Kuhn's Beitrdge, yd. y. p. 209, tbougbt tbat he detected a 
relic of it in the modem Russian particle Shidb {bish)^ which 
is used when persons are trying to recall something which 
they cannot easily remember, as KaRi Sflms ero soByrfc {kak 
biah ego zovut) ' now, how do they call him P ' This particle 
Schleicher connected with the imperfect 6ibme {b^ahe)^ bat 
the connection seems fanciful, and we cannot wonder that 
Sobolevski does not agree with him. 

The case of the aorist in old Russian documents greatly 
resembles that of the imperfect. It is met with frequently 
in translations, in the chronicles, etc., but in official docu- 
ments rarely ; traces of it are found occasionally in the 
bilini or legendary poems, and the conditional particle 6u {hi) 
is the only remains of it in the modern language. In the 
same way Polish has preserved the form bych. 

(6) It is only by studying Old Slavonic that we are able 
to understand some peculiarities of the first declension, in 
-I {&) as pa6i» [rahii) *a slave' (-a declension). Thus we are 
constantly told in Russian grammars that the genitive 
singular of masculine nouns in -h (li), B (I), H (f), signifying 
divisible matter, often takes, especially in familiar language, 
the suffix -y (w) or -k) {yu) ; thus, ne xothtc jh bm cupy {ne 
khotite li vi slru) * don't you desire any cheese ? * or 4»ynTB 
caxapy (funt sakharii) *a pound of sugar.' We get -y (u) 
also in the locative case instead of 4 (e), as vh ro^y (t?' godu)^ 
where we should have expected ro,^4 {godi). Again, the 
usual genitive plural of these substantives is in -obt» (or), as 
pa6oBT> (rabov), etc., but many substantives are found in which 
the genitive plural is like the nominative, as caDOnb (sapog), 
gen. plural canonb (sapog) 'boots,* coa.^arb (aoldat), genitive 
plural coj^art (soUiat) * soldiers ' ; this is the proper genitive 
plural of the first declension, and the fourth, as given by 
Miklosich, that of the -m stems, has been in a great 
measure lost, and its forms have infiuenced the first de- 
clension in the gen. dat. and loc. sing, and the genitive plural. 
This genitive singular in -m, in which some see Polish in- 
fluences, is gradually displacing the old genitive in -a (see 


Archiv far SlacUche Philologie, vol. xi. p. 455), especially ia 
the colloquial language. In the same way, according to Dr. 
Wright (Old High German Primer, p. 42), the -w declension 
rapidly disappeared from Old High German, but has left 
traces in the other declensions. It is fairly preserved in 
Slovenish; in Serb it has almost disappeared, but has in- 
fluenced the first declension as in Russian; thus, compare 
the Serb pofiH (robi), po6-OB-H (robovi) 'slaves' (Mik. Ver- 
gleichende Gram. voL iii. p. 33). 

In Malo-Russian -u becomes the ordinary genitive of nouns 
expressing inanimate things. The use of the -u decl. is more 
pronounced in Polish, and explains the anomalies of such 
double forms as cldopowie and chiopi, the nominative plural 
of chhp * a peasant,' also the dative in -oici, as in Chekh. 
In Polish grammars it is laid down as a rule that the 
genitive case in -u applies to inanimate things; but we 
find it frequently violated, as mqi z narodu *a man of the 

(7) The -m (t) stems in Russian of the fourth consonantal 
declension have a peculiarity not found in the other Slavonic 
bnguages. The singular has almost fallen out of use, and is 
supplied by a diminutive form ; thus, peoeooiTb (rebenok) * a 
child,' plural peGflia (rebi/ata), where we have the anomaly of 
^ masculine singular and neuter plural. Not many nouns 
Wong to this declension in Russian, and they mostly signify 
the young of animals. In Slovenish they are more regular, 
^teie *€L calf,' pi. ieleta, Serbian lane * the ball' (of a musket), 
pl. TaHcra {taneta). The declension in Chekh is much fuller ; 
thus we get hrabe * count,' hfabata, knize, knizata. It is also 
rich in Polish. 

(8) The article, as is well known to students, is apparently 
Wanting in the Slavonic languages, but has in reality been 
preserved in the termination m (it) biu (i/) in adjectives, 
which is always lost when the adjective is used as a predicate, 
as BejHKJd KopoJb {reliki korol) 'a great king,' Kopoib BejHKi> 
[korol velik) ' the king is great.' But Sobolevski sees traces 


of the use of the demonstrative pronoun as an article in sacli 
expressions as KaKaa-TO AHFJHqaHKa 4aia uni aro {kakaya-^ 
Anglichanka data mni eto) *Gi certain English woman gave n&e 
this ; ' and the form is still extensively used in the dialects^ 
as MYSRHKa-TO (muz/nka-to) ' of that peasant/ 4opora-Ta 
{(foroga-ta) * that way/ etc. Sobolevski thinks this is the 
same use as we find in the Bulgarian postposition of the 
article, about which all kinds of opinions have been held, 
and some have imagined that this position of the article in 
the Albanian, Roumanian, and Bulgarian languages, which 
have little else in common, except juxtaposition, is owing to 
the influence of some language originally spoken in those 
parts, Dacian or something of the kind. 

(9) A puzzling form in modern Russian is the word for 
* ninety * — ^CBflHOcro {devyanoato). This is in Old Slavonic 
4eBflTb4ecflTb (devyatde^yat), which is easy enough to unde^ 
stand. Prusik, a Bohemian scholar, has tried to explain it 
as follows. He connects the -cro with the -ginta in the Latin 
form nonaginfa, and the Greek -Kovra in hfevrftcovra ; this is a 
relic of the old form for * ten,' according to Vanicek, the first 
syllable having dropped o£f, just as viginti is dtiginii, 'twice 
ten.* The Indo-European n has been changed into rf, pe^ 
haps from false analogy with ^ecart (deayat), for in Old 
Prussian we get newints * the ninth.' 

We find another irregular numeral copOKS (sorok) * forty/ 
which must be worn down from the Greek TeaaapoKovra* 
The Old Slavonic was HerbipcAecarB (chetiredesyat). 


LIBRARY, By Karl D. Bulbring, M.A., Ph.D. 

JiTON prophesied that ho would be the last transoriber of 
part of Richard RoUe's "Pricke of Conscience." In 
e of that. Dr. Richard Morris edited the complete poem 
1863 for the Philological Society. And now the final 
k, a new edition founded on all the materials handed 
n to us, is taken into consideration, though nearly fifty 
3. of the work are preserved. First of all, these MSS. 
9 to be carefully examined and classified. This pre- 
nary work has already been partly done by Dr. Percy 
Ireae, who in the beginning of last year published an 
irably written dissertation on the eighteen MSS. of the 
n in the British Museum. He found out their pedigree, 
gave ample proofs of its correctness. With the aid of 
valuable paper I have since examined the four MSS. 
erved in the Library of Trinity College, Dublin, and 
d them into the pedigree. As Dr. Andreae's treatise has 
' had the limited circulation of a German doctorate disser- 
>n, and as I should anyhow have been obliged to repeat 
h of it, in order to make my own investigations intel- 
>Ie, it seemed better with a fuller account of his paper 
;ive his and my results and tests in a systematic order, 
ank Dr. Andreae for his obliging consent to this plan, 
also express my obligations to the Rev. T. K. Abbot, 
icipal Librarian of Trin. Coll., for his great kindness to 

262 Mss. OF rolle's Pricke of Conscience, — dr. bulbring. 

rae in Dublin. I am also indebted to Dr. Fumivall, who h 

touched up my English. 

The MSS. in the British Museum are : 

Harleian 1205, 1731, 2281, 2377, 2394, 4196, 6922 

Additional 11304, 11305, 22283, 24203, 25013, 32678 ; Lan 

downe 348 ; Arundel 140 ; Royal 18 A. v. ; Egerton 657 

Cotton Galba E. ix. 

The four MSS. in the Library of Trin. Coll., Dublin, are : 

A 4. 4 ( = D 4). Complete. The poem is bound with 
translation of the Psalter, which I am editing for th 
Early English Text Society. The two works are writtei 
by diflTerent scribes. The binder of the Tolume has pu 
several leaves in the wrong place. 

D. 4. 8 (— D 8). It ends with line 9474, leaving out th 
Epilogue of 150 lines. The first page is darkened b; 
gall-stain, which makes part of it illegible. The poen 
is followed by the translation of the Seven Penitentia 

C. 5. 7 (=D 7). The poem bears the heading (in red ink 

" Speculum huius vite,'* and is much shortened; its fira 
eight lines are omitted. The last line preserved is 6965 

D. 4. 11 (=D 11). Begins with 1. 446. Considerabl 

abridged. Ends with 1. 9394, to which is added **Fr 
pe wkilk paynes god va achylde Thurgh f>e prayer of h 
moder my Me. Amen, Folowea vertus ^ hates [. . .] -R 
sua may ]e to [. . •]." 

For the following inquiry compare the genealogical in 
facing p. 262. In order not to alter the meaning of the nami 
chosen for the MSS. sources by Dr. Andreae, I have be< 
compelled to destroy the regularity of his scheme, which wi 
be of less serious consequence. As many MSS. follow differe: 
sources in difierent parts of the poem, Dr. Andreae arrive 
at three different pedigrees, basing his investigations on lin 
1836-1927 for the beginning, 5126-5204 for the middl 
and 9335-9402 for the end. In order to save space I ha' 

1 This line is preceded by 6923-30, 6947, 6949-66, the text of which is qu 


Gbnealooical Tree of 23 MSS. of the Pricke of Co 


3(D11) ... 



2(D11) ... 

3 (Addit. 25013 B. Mus.) 

3(Addit. 11304 B.Mus.) 

?3 (Coraer MS.) 

Addit. 32578 B. Mus. 

1 (Harl. 2394) 

2 (Harl. 6923) 


1 (Addit. 11304 B. Mu8.) 



1. 2 (Egerton 657) 
HarL 1205 

Addit. 22283 B. Mus. 
1 (Lansd. 348) 

2(Harl. 1731) 


1. 2 (Harl. 2377) 
1. 2 (Arundel 140) 

1. 2 (Harl. 2281) 
1- 3 (Harl. 1731) 

Koytj 18 A.V. 

Addit. 11305 B. Mus. 

Addit. 24203 B. Mus. 

2. 3 (Harl. 2394) 

1. 2 (Addit. 25013 B. Mus.) 

1 (Harl. 6923) 

2 (Addit. 11304) 
HarL 4196 

Galba E. ix. 










• •••■••• 

A *** 



• •■••• I 






-> < 










M8S. OF bollb's Pricke of Conscience. — ^dr. bijlbring. 263 

made these three pedigrees into one. The numbers 1, 2, 3 
before the mark of a MS. (in parenthesis) indicate that only 
the Isty 2nd, or 3rd part of the poem belongs to that class. 

The original, IT (see the Table facing p. 262), splits into two 

Tersions, Z and Q. The two copies of Z, Galba E. ix. and 

Harl. 4196, contain the best known text of the poem. 

Apart from some quite irrelevant exceptions, they agree with 

each other in every respect ; even their spelling is nearly 

the same. Neither of them, however, is complete ; but 

when joined together they furnish a text of the entire work 

which is so unimpeachable that within the 600 lines which 

Br. Andreae made the basis of his inquiry there is only one 

single case of a certain alteration made in Z. * In line 5167 

the correct reading is /)at vale f>e nauel (MSS. 2377, C, A, 

except 32578 and D 11). Dr. Morris was therefore right in 

choosing these two MSS. for his edition. 

All the other MSS. which have been examined as yet, 
must have been transcribed from a common source Q, or 
from copies of this source, as they all contain a nimiber of 
oommon alterations, which cannot be independently intro- 
duced by the MSS. 

This lost, or hitherto unknown, copy Q must have been a 

^od copy as well, for there are only few alterations to be 

traced up. Line 1855 pe b. and pe s. — 1888 na, na omitted.— 

imipm] it.— 1902 lykenys.— 1917 and ilka omitted.— 1922 

discr,'] )>us d. — 6157 alswa added after and. — 9374 )>e whilk. 

Of Q three different groups of copies were made : C, Y, 
and X.ii. The following alterations are found in the Addi- 
tional MS. 24203 of the Brit. Mus., in Add. MS. 25013 and 
11304, as well as in Hari. 6923 and 2394. These MSS. form 
the group C. 

1) 1. 1836-38 (MS. 6923) : first aght a man drede, ah 
ckrkes tcate tcele, pe dede for payne pat he sail fele off pe hard 
stour at }>e laste ende. 

Lines 1880-1 : He says )>e deede of pouert J>at deres 

Has na mercy, ne reuerence beres. 
The lines 1920-1 are omitted. 

2) Lines 5147-8 omitted. 

264 Mss. OP rolle's Pricke of Conscience, — ^Diu BiiLBRiKe. 
Lines 5182 : I sail %ay ]ow {)ow say Addit. 1 1304)9 ^if}e in// 


5178-9 : on a whyt cloud and als doms man and sitte euen 
about ]?. Y. n. Y.L. and ah] als a, Ad. 25013 ; als Harl. 
2394, Ad. 1 1 304; and aJ] sett Ad. 25013; syttyng Ad. 
1 1 304; about] abouen C.ii; pat] J>e Harl. 2394. 

3) As in the last part of the poem C is only represented 
by two manuscripts, which both belong to the subdivision 
C.i, it is impossible to say whether the common alterations of 
these two were made by the scribe of or of C.i- In both 
MSS. the lines 9339-56, and 9359-62 are omitted; lines 
9357-58 run thus : 

j^e whilke j^ai sail haue als a joy to gyder, 
when j^ai in saul and body comys ]>edir. 

Lines 9339-56 and 9359-62 are omitted. 

The five MSS. of C form two divisions, C.i and C.ii. For 
the first part of the poem we have only one MS. (Addit. 
24203) in C.i ; it is impossible, therefore, to tell whether 
the deviations of the beginning of this MS. are due to the 
writer of C.i or of Addit. 24203. 

For the middle part C.i is characterized by the following 
peculiarities: the lines 5144-45 are transposed. — 1. 5149: his 
dome in )>at place he sail halde (C.ii puts he sail before in). — 
1. 5158 : als god J>urh )>e prophete says (C.ii schewes) vs.— 
1. 5171 : cryst sail noght AUyngges )>an (/. -4. in C.ii) come 
(Harl. 2394 has com doun instead of /. <?.). — 1. 5190 : a lytell 
way fra ]>e cyte of Jerusalem (C.ii has a I, space fro j.). 

The copier of C.ii transcribed the last part not from C, but 
Irom X.i. The tests for the rest of the poem are : In 1. 1837 
C.ii leaves out the article before payn, — ^1. 1849, luffes mare 
mene sais (C.i samen) ]?an (C.i adds a) man and his wyf. — In 
1. 1857 if is omitted. — 1. 1864, thyng for twynnyng, — 1. 1867: 
of tcham] )>ar C.ii, whar C.i. — 1. 1871 : \e is omitted. — 1. 
1885 : the second till is omitted. — 1. 1891 : ]?at so wys. — L 
1910 and (C.i-|-till) ilke a ta and fynger on (C.i of) hande. 
— 1. 1912 : and ilk a lyme on ayther (C.i other) syde. — ^1. 
1915 : at a pulle (C.i pluk) with ]?e rotes all abowt. — 1. 
1922 : pus om. — 1. 5155 : he says I sail all men togider calle 


MS8. OP rolle's Pricke of Conscience, — dr. BtLBRiNG. 263 

(C.i all men after saps; Addit. 11304 togider after sain). 
Besides cf. lines 6149, 6171, and 6190, under C.i. 

In Dr. Fumivall's copy of the Pricke of Conscience^ which 
he was kind enough to lend me, there are numerous entries 
made by him concerning a MS. which belonged to Mr. Corser, 
lines 1836-7 have the remark ** are altered " ; only class C 
has considerable alterations in these two lines ; they are 
printed above under C. Of the verses 1880-1, Dr. Fumivall 
has written out the reading of the Corser MS. 
" He saij), J>e dej? of pouert )>at derej? 
Ha]) no merci, ne no reuerens here]) " ; 
which is the alteration cited above as a characteristic of class 
C. Besides, lines 1920-1 are omitted, as in C. The middle 
part as well belongs to C ; for lines 6147-8 are left out. But 
two other alterations which Dr. Furnivall has noted are a 
peculiarity of the Corser MS. alone : Verses 6153-4 (Latin) 
are omitted, and the verses 6167-66 are placed after 6170. 
The end of the Corser MS. is not derived from C, as it neither 
omits the lines 9339-66, nor 9369-62 ; as in Addit. 1 1 504 
and 25013, the end of the poem may possibly have been taken 
irom the source A.iii. The MS. contains very long inter- 
polations, of which Dr. Furnivall has lent me copies. 

Y, the largest class of MSS. derived from Q, includes three 

of the Dublin copies, D 7, D 8, and D 11. I first give all the 

"^rarioas readings of these MSS., compared with the printed 

^Ution. For shortness sake I have often put the mark Xi., 

«A, etc., instead of D 11, D 8, or D 7 when the alteration had 

^ready been made in a previous source. Thus, it will, later 

^)n, oft^n suffice to simply repeat the numbers of the verses 

"where the characteristics of a group are to be found. Dialectic 

and purely graphical deviations, as Aem, to, scheweth, instead 

ot/>aim, till, schewes, are omitted. 

1) 1836 owy)> a man 8, aujte mon 7; dr, pe c?.] dr. ])i8 dethe 
8, to drede a.ii, to dr. dee)> 7. — 1837 of pe (/.] om, X.i, of 
dee)> 7 ; paf^ om. 7, swa^ ful 7. — 1838 om, 11 ; sf] houre 7. — 
1839 />e, . />e ft.] saule and body sail sender 11. — 1840 om. 
11 ; pat] ]>anne 7. — 1841 /.] loueden 7, wald A ; flf^] euer 
Aiv ; to] om. X.i (except D 7) ; dtc] lende 11. — 1842 ofpam] 
FbiL Tnuii. 1888^. 18 

266 Mss. OF ROLLERS Pricke of Conscience. — dr. bulbrino. 

om. A ; fro oJ>er go 7, 11. — 1843 pam] of 7 ; Bot makes Boro^ 
to parte in tua 11. — 1844-61 om. 7, 11. — 1849 somen] to gadi 
8; his] otn. 8. — 1851 a. J>erfor is many a kler s. 8. — 1852 no 
be/ore }e 8 ; And a skill is als men may here se 11 ; And fc 
certeyne skyllis as je schul see 7.— 1863 whi />, it.] ]?ei wol 
feyne 7 ; ai/] euer 8, om. 7. — 1854 for . . god] for ])at god \ 
for god A, on is 7 ; ais s.] says in 8, als witnes A. — 185 
fi/rst] f. \>Q Q (f. ofn. A) ; for god first to geder hem kn. 7 
L] is k. 8. — 1856/or] is 11 ; J?at on 8 ; noght] not wel 7.- 
1857 if] om. 7; >at o>er 8.— 1858 both] ofn. A.— 18C 
/>€ . . /or] alsua J?ai sail 11; er] om. 7, a.ii — 1861 aj 
euermore 7 ; after] om. A.iv ; In payne or blis ay 1 
tog. 11. — 1862 \>er(. J>e peynes of hem byn moo 7, Fort] 
J>aire sorow is wele \>e mare 11. — 1863 />e tane . . j 
toper] J>at on . . ]?at o)>ir 8, ayther . . o]?er 7, 11 
goo 7.— 1864-9 om. 7.— 1864 /is] >e 8.— 1865 strayes 11.- 
1866 ilka countre 11. — 1867 sp. . . trh.] in all places 11.- 
1868-9 om. 11 ; men] he 8. — 1870-1 om. 8; transposed! 
(and in 2377) ; Ne] om, a.ii ; er n.] sail n. be 11 ; Vn-to i 
m. takes he r. 11 ; For dee]) whan come]? ha]? noo pyte 
kyng ne lord what euer he be 7. — 1872 Ne] om. 8, a.i: 
he . . .]he sp. by no 1. 8, he wol non spare 7, heghe nor la? 
A.ii. — 1873-4 om. 7 ; he ]?e 1. nel fro hym 8 ; /)e] for \>e i 
Nor baulde for boste ]?at ]?ai can blawe : Deede will wayn( 
for nakyn wight 11. — 1875/. sch.] vs sch. 8, sais full A.i 
As seyel> s. B. in his lore 7. — 1880 pore 7 ; he . .p.] < 
pouerte deede 11.— 1881 Ne] om. 11; ]?e ryche A.iv; 1 
tase A.ii.— 1882-3 transposed A.iv.— 1882 till] to >e 7.— 18J 
till, till] vnto, vnto 11 ; of man] om. A. — 1884-9 otn. 7 ; tciL 
does A; do] om. A. — 1885 ////, till] om. 8 ; Nouther to k. n< 
e. A. — 1886 Ne till] to 11 ; ne to] om. 8, 11; ne no] ne 
nor 11. — 1887-8 om. 11 ; heghe] om. 8; tgll tier] to 8 {twice).- 
1889 men] J^yng 8; In ilke a place deede base p. 11. — 18J 
For th. dot he al schal p. 8, And th. his power sail all p. 1 
But dee]" schal make here al to p. 7. — 1891 ah] ])at 8 ; seie 
S. 7; wtjfie] fill w. 8, 11. — 1894 f>ou] we 8, )e jow 11 ; pe^ oi 
A iv. — 1895 men] om. 8, A.ii; />.] om. 7. — 1896-1925 om. 7 
///•] euery 8; And d. s. maistre euer ilka m. 11. — 1897 1 

OF kollb's Pricke of Conscience. — dr. bulbring. 267 

certee jet nane d. him c. 11. — 1898 F. non 1. 8 ; Of sotelte 
may nane be alike 11.— 1899 tilt] om. X.i ; /)e d.'] thing he 
11.— 1900 all] men 11.— 1901 />U8 d.] descryues hit (hit om. 
D 11, a.ii, 657) X.i.— 1902 For] om. A; lykenys Q (11 ad^ls 
i) ; till] vnto 11.— 1903 if i. ».] of hit 8 ; >. in a man gr. 
mlde be 11.-1904 Oute of his h. >e tre s. sp. 11.— 1905 
h. h.] er)>e 8 ; And lapped aboute with his herte str. 11. — 
1906 And] om. 11 ; m. sch,] sulde rise 11. — 1907 ilk a] euery 
J; With rotes fested on J?is wise 11. — 1908 A. ilk a] And 
Buery 8, Ilka rote and 11 ; a man] man is 8, his 11. — 1909 
Sulde haue 11 ; //. ] faste growande 11, faste 8; pare] om. 
11. — 1910-11 om. a.ii ; in] om. X.i ; ilk a] euery 8 ; J>at] ]?e 
8. — 1912 ilk a] euery 8, all his 11 ; lymmes 11 ; ilk a] euche 
8.-1913 >are with sulde all be o. 11.— 1914 And >an at >e 
tre ware p. o. 11. — 1915 tyde 8; all] om. 11. — 1916 rot 8; 
r.] r. vp 11, ryn 8. — 1917 ilka] euery 8 ; and ilk a] om. Q; 
Bathe syn and vayne and euery 1. 11. — 1918 no m.] non 8 ; 
in h.] om. A. — 1919 «.] mot 8 ; whils it myght 11. To soffre 
}>i8 it ware full sare inserted 11. — 1920 And'] om. 8 ; hald I] 
om. A. ; d.] deede is A. — 1921-3 om, 11 ; sir. a. h.] bittir 8. 
— 1922 tch. h. I.] throw is castyng 8. — 1923 Lykenit dethe 
to suche a J?yng 8. — 1924 And ]?are fore ilk (ilka 11) m. A ; 
ilk] euery 8 ; bef.] a for 8, om. A. — 1925 pe b. d,] ))at le])ir 
8, >e deedes A.— 1926 For . . ill] F. g. and il all X.i ; Bath 
euell and g. all 11 ; Bo]?e yuel and g. schul wij? it mete 7. — 
1927 euell 11 ; to drede X.i; B. yuel m. a. it most to drede 7. 
2) 5126 For as 7 ; leytnyng 8, 7 ; out g,] go\> oute Y 
(oute om. 11). — 5127 it] hym 7, om. 8, 11 ; s^de] om. 8. — 
5128 Ryght] om. X.i; man s.] god s. Y (Crist 7) ; schal before 
>e 7 {also in a.i).— 5129 S. a.] S. 8; dr.] ferly 11.— 5130-48 
om. 7 ; d.] d. and 8 ; na . . hiyn] withouten X.i. —5131 on.] 
owt to 8, in 11. — 5133 in] of Y (a in). — 5134-5 transp, 11 ; 
And] om. X.i. — 5135 to] and 8 ; ilk] ilka 1 1, ewche 8. — 5136 
Euen als mekill and als aide 11. — 5142/^//] J'is 8 ; here] om. 
8, 11 ; es rp] vp is 11. — 5143 with] in Y. — 5144 worldis 8, 
11. — 5145 in] om. Y. — 5145* of man"] om. X.i. — 5147 or.] he 
11 ; deme] \q dome 8. — 5148 aU] om. 11 ; seme] come 8. — 
5149 a] Jat 8, J?e 11 ; in a pi.] And in ]?e vale of Josephat 7; 

268 Mss. OF rolle's Pricke of Conscience, — dr. bulbrino. 

his] om. 11. — 5150 Of alle maner men bo]?e jong and holde 
7.1—5151 We>ir 8.— 5155 JJ. «.] om. X.i., saU I 11.-6156 
ill] into 8 ; /.] deme 11. — 5157 And {om. D 11) aUua }\t saia 
he >U8 Q.— 5158 Ak /te] And 11 ; to vs 11.— 5163 m, sali, J>e] 
om. 11.— 5164 «/j] to 8, 11.— 5165 /. . n.] sitte sail I 11.- 
5167 V. of] nauyl of ]?e 8: men] me 8, he 11. — 5168 im.] 
amyd 8, euen emydcfts 11 ; tr^ outen] with outyn dout 8, om. 
X.I.— 5169 /. m,] noght elks X.i; a^ to Y.— 5170 AU] 
Bot >e 11.— 5171 >an f. Y ; Fully d. s. n. Or. c, 11.— 6173 
vp] om, il; h. 8.] ]?an sail he 11. — 5177 Lo] He says, />an] 
right 11.— 5178 On a cl. bathe fair (D 11 white) and bright 
X.i. — 5179 Abouen \>. v. euen openly 11. — 5180 all] ilka 11. 
5181 skyl 8; £. />e 8.] Alsua 11.— 5182 J>am] om. 8, 11; 
Men . . /)at] Now sail }e here wha som 11. — 5183 I. )>at is 
8.— 5185 >at o>er8.— 5186 amyd 8 ; />at8t] euen 11.-5187 
And] om. X.i.— 5188 of C] om. 11.— 5189 is X.i.— 5190/w/] 
wel 11.-5191 Forthi X.i (a therfor).— 5192 On.] On 8 ; of >e 
e. 8 ; pu8for] ))at is 8 ; To deme for he may J>an J>us s. 11. — 
6193 now] om. 11, 8. — 5195 Whare my moder was b, with 
mylde mode 11. — 5196 )ju8 schal he sey to J?e company 8; 
In wham for jow I t. (=X.i) fl. and bl. 11 (bl. a. fl. A). — 
5197 lie . . ^e] He m. s. her besid as je 8, Lo here alsua je 
may 11.— 5198 Is B. 8.-5199-5200 om. 11.-5201 He m. 
8.] om. X.i; h h.] And here als 11. — 5203 for }. had 11; 
many a 8. 

3) 9337-62 om. IP; 6/.] om, Xi.— 9338 War joy is mor 
]>. man c. n. X.i. — 9339 For] om. X.i; hundr.] om. A.i. — 
9340 countre 8.— 9341 /}are] om. X.i.— 9343 />ai all] >ey 
X.i. — 9344 Gret ioy vnto heme ))ay schul be 8. — 9345-8 am. 
A.— 9349 For] om. X.i.— 9350 /^ai s.] om. X.i.— 9352 may 
X.i; o]?er 8. — 9353 i. m.] euche on 8. — 9354 euery, euery 
8. — 9355 ener] om. X.i., o))er ; o]?er 8. — 9356 neuer be/ore - 
nounibred X.i. — 9357 i/k m.] ]?ay schul haue 8. — 9358 sail, 
haue] am. A.i ; all] bo]?e A.i. — 9359 Euer with outen eny i— 

^ D 7 continues thus: (1. 51.53-4) Congregahoy etc.; then: And ^ere her^ 
acouute siraijtele Of alle her lyfffmg what euer ^ei be. After which it goes on wittl 
1. 52o:i-60, 5263-4, 5271-2. 5281-2, 5277-8, 5287, etc. 

2 Also the lines 9327-8 and 9331-4 are om. in D 11.— D 7 ends with 1. 6966. 

Mss. OF rollb's Pricke of Comcience. — ^dr. bulbring. 269 

X.i. — 9360 ay ft. n.] be ay 8. — 9361 ioy . . ancf] is mor to 
fele o>er 8.-9362 8. ft. m.] om. Y ; of fie] of >i8 Y.— 9363 
/fare^ om. 8, 11 ; clo)>it as w. 8.— 1866 ]>. s. lyue ]>. and do 
na th. 11. — 9366 ay ^.] god euer 8, god ay J>are 11. — 9367 
in a r.] om. Y. — 9368 In a vers >us openly A, D 11. — 9372 
And"] am. Y; o/*/.] and Hghtnes 11. — 9373 werkis A (except 
22283) ; aj/] euer 8,o?n. 11.— 9374 In] In >e Q.— 9375 Bot] 
om. 11.— 9378 And'\ om. Y.— 9379 ay] euer 8, 11; wh.] willij? 
8; salQ to 8.-9382 haue >an A.i.— 9384 ma'] alkyn 11 ; 
myght A (except D 8), D 11.— 9385 ^e ofg.f.] of god 8.-9386 
payn A.i; pan] om. Y; ^r.] der Y (except II304, 22283). — 
9387 here\ jow 8; /. . men] je herde what J?ai 11. — 9388 
p. . ./.] J>at in heuen 8, loyes of h. \. 11. — 9389 /p] om. 11 ; 
m. /.] her 8— 9390/w/] ay Y (om. D. 8, 11 304); pnrf.'l 
endeles 11. — 9391 toith outen e."] Within and oute 11. — 9392 
«»] haue in X.i, all] om. Y. — 9393 be . . sere^ Gret torment 
of many 8.— 9395-9470 om. 11.— 9396 In] om. A.— 9397 
abowt hem in hel 8. — 9398 euer] om. A.i ; may A. — 9399 
«e] om. 8. — 9402 Schal ]?ay X.i ; and of] and X.i. 

For the first part of the poem proofs for Y cannot be 
^ven ; the tests for the rest are pointed out in the lines 
«126, 6128, 6133, 6143, 5145, 5169, 5171 ; —9367, 9372, 
S378, 9386, 9390, 9392, which see above. Other altera- 
tions in 1. 9344, Gret joy vnto hem self shal be (h. «. 
^h.] ]>aim seluen sh. 32578, hym self sh. 1 1 304, heme ))ay 
schul D 8).— 9353 and 9357 man om.— 9358 all o;n.— 9361 
J)are . . and"] es more to fele or. — 9366 god ay (D 8, A.iii, 
22283: euer). — 9368 In a vers of metir ]?ussch. — 9388 joyes. 

From Y were copied the middle of D 8, the end of D 11, 
and X.i, the source of an important group of MSS. ; in the 
beginning X.i includes all three Dublin MSS. of the class Y. 
For alterations of X.i see lines: 1) 1837, 1841, 1899, 1901, 
1910, 1926, 1927, and 1864 /t] om.—2) 5128, 5130, 5134, 
5145», 5155, 5168, 5169, 5178, 6187, 5191, 5196, 5201.— 
6163 /e om. (except 657).— 5170 Ah] Bot.— 6173 sail he.— 
6197 and 5201 He m. 8. om.— 3) 9337, 9338, 9339, 9341. 
9343, 9349, 9352, 9365, 9356, 9359, 9392, 9402.-9393 be 
^.] grete tourement(es). 

170 Mss. OF rolle's Pncke of Conscience. — ^dr. bulbrikg. 

X.i is the source for class A, for the beginning of D 7 and 
D 8, the middle of D 11, and for the end of the Addit MSS. 
25013 and 1 1 304 (and perhaps of the Corser MS.). In the 
genealogical scheme the beginning of D 8 and D 7 is deriTed 
from the supposed copy A.iii and the end of the Addit. MSS. 
25013 and 1 1 304 and the Corser MS. from A.iv; but A.iT, 
the source of the middle of D 11, and A.iii are perhaps only 
one copy, which would then be called A.iii. 

The two copies of A.iv have the following alterations in 
common : 1836 mon. — 1890 /tf, hand^ am., and see lines 1841, 
1861, 1881, 1882-3, 1894. 

Alterations introduced by the scribe of A.iii are : 9335 
/w«] J?is. — 9338 j^ore more joy es ]?an. — 9339 mil »i.] may. — 
9340 cefe'] centre. — 9349 joye.— 9351 nuni] soule.— 9358 
saule a. bodi. — 9379 sail om. — 9391 tr. ^./.] for ])air syn and. 
— 9400 be . ./>avi] last wit ]?aim. 

The writer of A altered his original in these lines : 

1) 1841, 1842, 1854, 1855, 1858, 1883, 1884, 1885, 1902, 
1920, 1924, 1925,-1852 sail] may.— 1855 >e saule.— 1865 
flyttes (fihtej? 22283, strayes D 11). — 1867 spares . . tcham] 
of all men A.i, of all landus A.ii (inne a. 1. 657, of echo 
londe 1 1 304, in all places D 11, of hem alle 1205). — 1875 
>us om,; full ryghte.— 1880 >e ow.— 1890 sail all.— 1904 
Thurght] out of. — 1914 If] And [am. 1 1 304) )>en if; tyte 
om. — 1918 as lang . . sw///] whils it myght (while hit a.ii, ]>e 
while hit 11304, 1205). — 1926 For] om. \ sail] alle (bath 
2394, 1205, om. a.ii) sail. 

2) 5131 Euen om, — 5151 \qt (1205 where) salle alle m. — 
5165 he 8. om. — 5166 men om. — 5177 scJiew him right D 11] 
syttin syght. — 5196. — 5204 scharp om. 

3) 9345-8, 9368, 9373,9384,9396, 9398.— 9361 yoy om.— 
9389 men om. 

Two further copies were made of A. The one, A.i, con- 
tains the following deviations : 

1) Beginning (MISS. Addit. 32578 and Harl. 2394) : 1867 
Of all men has he p. — 1880-1 hase] has he ; tas] takes he. — 
1882/^^ . .] no mercy he schewys. — 1 888-9 seculers: powers. 
— 18b;0 sail a;>«.— 2) Middle (MSS. 32578 and 6923) : 5167 

MS8. OF bolle's Pricke of Comcienee. — ^dr. bulbrino. 271 

/ff/] }>e. — 5173 ayre] ayre J>an. — 5174 o«] in. — 5192 on A] 
als on. — 5197 Lokes ; «c] may ae. — 5201 Loke(8). — 5203 For 
jhow had j }>ar m. b. — 5204 ear was i b. — 3) JEnd (MSS. 
32578 and J) S): 9339, 9358, 9382, 9386, 9398.-9357 
J>. ilkone shal baue in h. (i. b. otn. 32578). 

A.iiy tbe otber copy of A, is characterized by tbe lines ; 
1838 hard] last; last] oni.—l867 (see under A).— 1875, 1881, 
1895. — For the rest of tbe poem certain alterations of A.ii 
cannot be given, since the MSS. of group a.ii follow different 
sources. Only very few of tbe lines 5126-5204 being pre- 
served in D 7, it is difficult to find its exact place in tbe 
genealogical tree. As it is a very bad MS., it did not seem 
wortb while to make fuller extracts^ in order to compare them 
witb the MSS. of the British Museum. All that I can say 
of the place of tbe middle part of the MS. is this : In 
line 5128 it has Crist instead of ^nan son as C.ii ; G omits 
6147-8, and D 7 omits 5130-48, but as D 7 preserves tbe 
reading go/> out in 1. 5126, where C alters to comes, tbe 
coincidence witb C.ii in line 5128 seems to be merely 
accidental. Apart from this, D. 7 has three alterations in 
common witb class a.i: 5126 goJ?e oute (=X.i) ; 5128 r^g^it 
om. (=X.i), add in the same line schal is put before /)e as in 
class a.L 

Tbe two subdivisions of A.ii are a.ii and a.i. As to 
the former, which is formed by the beginnings of D 11 and 
MS. 1 1304, compare lines 1836, 1860, 1870, 1872, 1910-11. 
— 1852 men may. — 1855 />e saule A.] saule. — 1866 Inndes'] 
$ingular (D 11 countre). — 1874 /e om. — 1899 J>«(/.] it 11304, 
he D 11. 

The tests for a.i are: 1845 a om. — 1853 ay oni, — 1881 
rycb.— 1882-3 ow.— 1886 A.] grete.— 5128 sail nfter swa.— 
6132 be after m. Alterations for the end of the poem cannot 
be ascertained, as the only two MSS. of this class, i,e. 
Harl. 1205 and Addit. 22283, ^^^ belong to tbe subdivision a. 

This group has tbe following peculiarities in tbe beginning 
and tbe middle : 

1. 1885 ner. ti/ll] to knyght | 1905/^ om. | 1. 5126 /.] leyt | 
5147 defne] dome | 5148 a/s h. s, «.] sbal be bis come j 5149-50 

272 Mss. OF rolle's Pricke of Conscience. — dr. bulbring. 

\q dom he schal )'enne holde (J'e d. ]>. he schal h. 1205) 
anentes ]>e vale (dale 1205) of I. tolde. | 5151 men om, \ 5152 
c. s. /A.] witnese]) | 5155 togeder after men \ 5158 he th. om. | 
5165 /] he I 5170 at ora. | 5174 ah om. | 5183 of I. es «.] 
J>ere is swete | 5191 saW] wol. 

Whilst it is certain that these alterations were introduced 
by the writer of a,^ it must, at least for the present, remain 
doubtful where the deviations in the end of the poem were 

9353 ilk w.] | vche | 9363 pare om. | 9374 gr,'] ay (euer) | 
9395 in ora. — 9397 about ])am after sal. 

As Harl. 1205 and Addit. 22283 are also the only MSS. 
of class a having the end of the poem, as well as the only 
ones of A.ii, each of these alterations may have been made 
either by the writer of a, or of a, or of A.ii. a.ii, which 
derives from a, is the source of Addit. 22283, ^^^ ^^^ 
beginning of Lansd. 348 ; they show the following common 
alterations: 1. 1839 salt fra pe 6.] schal forJ>e | 1. 1841 pai 
L ay] euer )>ey wold | 1844 and'] om. \ 1847 bih.] schal | 1855 
frgst . . «.] hem bo>e | 1857 if] om. \ 1860 /or] om. \ 1864 
partyng | 1880 /te says] o?n. \ 1894 kn. p.] wyte>e | 1897 it] 
hym I 1898/or here om. | 1900 /e] om. \ 190-i w.g.] growe> | 
1904 and] om. \ 8uld] to | 1905 /.] wrapped | 1907 /.] faste | 
1922-23 07n. \ 1927 i.m.] euele. 

a.i is only represented by one MS., Harl. 1 205, which 
may therefore be a direct copy of a. 

The fourth MS. of Trin. Coll., Dublin, D 4, belongs to 
group )3, which is such a totally corrupt copy of B that Dr. 
Andreae has not considered it worth while to give the read- 
ings of its derivations in full, so that I had to recur to the 
MSS. themselves in the British Museum, in order to fix the 
exact place of D 4. 

The existence of X.ii can only be proved for the second 
part of the poem, as the beginning and the end of Harl. 
173 1 follow a copy of )3, the middle, too, being often cor- 
rected after 13. That B and Harl. 173 1 follow a conmion 

* It must always be kept in mind that a, a, A, etc., may as well represent a 
series of copies by as many diiferent scribes. 


OP bolle's Priche of Conscience, — dr. bulbring. 273 

source, is evident from these facts : In 1. 5132-3 the rymes 
are transposed. — Line 5147 is preceded by the heading " Of 
]?e stede }>at crist shal come to deme jnne." — 5190 full am, 

Harl. 1731 must be a copy of the source of B, as it has 
the original text, instead of the alterations of B in line 5126 
III a 8ch. t — 5127 and schewes it om. — 5130 na . . him] 
fcithatiten, — 5131 even o.] a]enes, — 5186 sica] am. 

Other alterations found in the MSS. of B are : 1837 
of dej? is. — 1849 to-gyder. — 1856 anoJ?er skil is for. — 1864 
departyng, cleped. — 1872 He ne sp. r. ne p. — Instead of 
1890-91 b repeats 1868-9 and 1874-5, /3 only the latter 
two. — ^Line 1902 is preceded by the heading " How a 
philosophir discryej? de]>e." 

For the end of the poem the class X.ii is represented by 
MSS. of the subdivision /3 and only one MS. outside of it ; thus 
the present materials do not suffice to ascertain whether the 
common alterations of ^ and that single MS. (Lansdowne 
348) are due to the scribe of B or X.ii, as Lansd. 348 may not 
be derived from B. Of such alterations the lines 9335-9402 
afford only one instance, as 13 is shortened considerably ; this 
is in 1. 9366, where lone is altered to preyse. 

b, the better subdivision of class B, is characterized by the 
following readings : 1890-1 (see under B). — 1852 as \>o\i 
myjt se.— 1862 is >e m.— 1906 >e m.— 1914 sone.— 1915 
pul ; flr//] om. — 1918 a] om. — 1925 may dr. — 5134 and] om. — 
5157 y^i^] om. — 5168 icit/t outen'] om. — bill pan] om. — 5182 
}>am] om. — bl9& fast] om. — 5197 als] may. — 5204 icith] om. 

But the following alterations, which are found in Lans- 
downe 348, cannot be ascribed to the writer of b with certainty, 
as they may just as well have been introduced by B or X.ii : 
9347 ilk, />ai] om. ; se] be. — 9352 can. — 9359 w^re, na] om. ; 
ir.] endyng. — 9360 /or] bot ; ])ai sail, at] om. — 9361 /^/<? and] 
am.— 9362 s. be] is.— 9364 of] and.— 9375 in h.] om.—93S7 
I r. h] je herde. — 9401 als . . b.] J?ei schul se. — 9402 pai s. s.] 
om. ; of sm.] sm. to be. 

There are no proofs for the position of the end of Lans- 
downe 348 in the pedigree, but presumably it was copied 
from X.ii, or perhaps from B, or from b : a comparison with 

274 M8S. OF rollb's Pricke of Conscience. — ^dr. BtLBRiNO. 

/3 leads to no result, as its text is too cormpt, and the verses 
9335 seq. are not preserved in the two MSS. of b; but as the 
alterations of Lansd. 348 neither agree with A, nor C, nor Z, 
we may with probability suppose that it derives from X.ii (or 
B, or b). 

I now give all the various readings of D 4 compared with 
Harl. 4196 (Z). This list also shows most of the various 
readings of /8, which are generally easily made out by a 
comparison of D 4 and Addit. MS. 1 1305. It will be seen 
at once that almost all the alterations found in D 4 were 
introduced already by the scribe of /8, only a few being added 
in the next copy <f), which is the common source of ^.ii 
and D 4. 

1836 aght . . /e] a man drede]). — 1837 peynis 13 ; fie, pat^ 
%icn] om. — 1838 And de]) is jcluped )>e 1. e. — 1840 for to ^. — 
1841 coueytejj to-g. euer. — 1842 And non /9. — 1843 gret ^.— 
1844 sadder </> ; bej> to-g. in loue ^. — 1846 oft pJ] )>oruj godia 
grflfce aboue )3. — 1846 and'\ & ]>e lengur 13. — 1847 By-twene 
hem is (shal be 1 1305) ^, — 1848 Ac <f). — 1849 to-ged<»re Jan 
-fani.— 1850 For (/3) wh. hi go> ; or+in /3.— 1851 Euir to- 
gedere hi wolde be stille 13, — 1852 & ])i8 is o skele as me (as 
a man 1 1305) may se 13. — 1853 Whi + ]?at ^ ; ay to-g,] in 
company ^. — 1854 For \>e bok sai)) )>at (For almighty 1 1305) 
god with (thorugh 1 1305) his grr/ce & wit ^. — 1855 F. \>e b. 
& )>e 8. to-g. he {uithout he 1 1 305) kn. ^. — 1856 Ano]?er skele is 
fornon of hem may no]?ing do. — 1857 ]fat6}per wole assenti. — 
1858dridde4-i8 )3; schulle]) bo])e to-gedir. — 1859 at . . .] & 
to his dom ]?anne {without Jeanne 11305) be ynome /S. — 1860 
)>e fer))e is for whanne hi come]) jn ]?er ifere /3 (thider/or jn 
\er 1 1 305). — 1861 Hi sch. afterward \n o company be eu^ry- 
where j3. — 1862 &])er-fore (-fthe 11305) more is hare peyne 
& care ^. — 1863 \>at on </> ; \at o])er </>. — 1864 departynge; 
c. pe] clepe]) (!).— 1865 ])e wich (]?at 1 1305) fleej? ab. as doj) 
)?e wyndes (a manwys 1 1305) bre]? /8. — 1866 londis+boJ?e ^. 
— 1867 no maw (thing 1 1305) ower /8. — 1868 eny man /8.— 
1869 Wher ]>at dej? (he 1 1 305) c. he suflFreth no man 
(-fto 1 1305) 1. )3. — 1870 For loue for (ne 1 1305) hate 
for nissche ne for {mthout for 11305) hard /9. — 1871 He 


Mss. OF ROLTJS*s Pricke of Conscience. — dr. bulbring. 275 

wole of no m. take r. — 1872 For he ne sp. r. ne p. — 
1873 Ac ])e lif of hem he by-nemi}> in a drowe. — 1874 8o 
}>at d. ha}> + DO <f). — 1875 J>h8 sch. r.] telle)> to (vnto 11305) 
V8 arijt yS.— 1880 pe] om, ^8.— 1881 tase] he ne ha> ^.—1882 
to+]>e; w. m. achJ] men cunnej? schewe fi. — 1883 to+)>e ; 
men /8; to non o^er J>ewe /8.— 1884 For de]> wole haue no 
(do]> neither 11305) reuerence ne f. ^. — 1885 Ne frendschip 
of /S ; of /8.— 1886 of /8 ; ^0] om. 13 ; wo] o>er ^8.— 1887 of /3 ; 
o/A.] lowe ne heye of /8.— 1888 ft/ll na^ of {ttcice) ^8.— 1890 
Wher«-fore (And J?frfore 11305) seint Bernard saij? \>U8 in 
his writyng /8.— 1891 ]>at (And counsailith 1 1305) ech maw 
schulde {without ech. 11305) be jwar of dej^is comyng /8. — 
1894 He 8ai)> wete \o\x wel J>flt dej> wole by )>e passe )9. 
—1895 (?.] For (+why 1 1305) hit is c. ^ ; 6.] (Wi. )3. — 
1896 de]) schal ; euerich. — 1897 jut+what hit is ^; 1^] om. 
i8.— 1898 ^er is no man.— 1899 ]>e d.] >ing hit. — After I. 
1899, the follmcing two lines are added: 

Ne ymagyne ]?oruj no wit what hit is, 
Ne what schap hit ha]? in liknis jwis. 
1900 Ac; ech man greuij? sore /8. — 1901 w^lel as he ( + ha]? 
1 1305) lemed in lore fi. After 1. 1901, the following head- 
ing is inserted in red ink (in all MSS. derived from B) : 
• How a philosofre discriuej? \>e payne of de\>.' — 1902 
Here he lykne)> (f). — 1903 ]?e wich ^; swa"] om. /3. — 1905 ]>e 
wich {\>at it 11305) mijte ate laste a rote (lyf instead of a, r. 
1 1305) t^ of (oil 1 1305) bringe /S. — 1906 & >e c. ate m. out 
come (sbede 1 1305) mijte /8. — 1907 & to ech a {without a 
1 1 305) i. a r. schulde dijte /8. — 1908 & ]?flt ech a v. \>at is on 
(iche V. of 1 1305) a ma/inis b. fi. — 1909 IT.] Also h.— 1910 
& \>at to ech a (& to eu^ry 1 1305) to fyngur & h. also ^. — 
1911 pulke t. gr. + J?er-to. — 1912 & \>at on ech a 1. \>at is on 
eny a a. — 1913 A rote of )>ulke (the 11305) t. schulde \>er'On 
abyde /S. — 1914 )>awne jif J?ulke (that 1 1 305) t. were p. a-boute 
/8. — 1915 So j>at ]>e rotis aresin & schewed hem wttA-oute /8. 
— 1916 ))anne schulde \>e flesch \>er'With (must \>e rotes wi)> 
)>e fl. 1 1 305) aryse /8. — 1917 & ech {euery 11305) v. & s. in 
hys wyse )9.— 1918 a] >an a ^ ; in A.] om. ^.—1920 I holde 
/8; more + strong 13. — 1921 & hardur in \>e tyme ac (in hia 

276 Mss. OF rollk's Pricke of Conscience. — ^dr, bulbeino. 

tyme but 1 1 305) hit nis nojt long ^. — 1922 whilis he was alyue 
0. — 1923 of d. he wolde discriue (dyde skryue 1 1 305) ^8.— 
1924 Wher-f. ech ^ ; hit is afore jseid )8.— 1925 a. t] May 
gTetlyff; bytter] ow. ^.— 1926 gode+men )8.— 1927 & ech 
a mannis body hit (is 1 1 305) wele clene waste ^. 

2) 5126 He sai)) as ))e lyjtninge (+out 1 1 305) goj? in a 
sch. t. p. — 5127/rflr] Bleue (clene 11305, euene 2281) froiS; 
a. sch, it in] in to B. — 5128 m. «.] crist. — 5129 (1.) and'\ om, 
ff. — 5130 he"] \>iis (and 2281) he ; w«tA-oute eny lette adonn 
13, — 5131 Ajens ]>e m. of o. in his propre persouw 13. — 5132 
in his m. he st. to heuen. — 5133 in h,'\ wel euene. — 5134 
such+a 13; ))anne vp stey ^. — 5135 doune . . . ] & deme 
\>OTw good fey fi. — 5136 Vuele raew & goode. — 5137 Als] 
For (As 1 1305) ]>us /3. — 5142 is her^ vp itake anon ff. — 5143 
into 13; i«/3; & + irt /3.— 5144 he schal /3.— 5145 Als] Rijt 
as (^) now; iy>] om, fi. — 5145b ( + And I1305) So he schal 
c. in ]>e {, of m. ^. — 5146 & alle )>ing deme as he well can /8. 
— After 1. 5146 the following heading is added in red ink : * Of 
\>e stede \>at crist schal deme jnne* X.ii. — 5147 adoun for to 0. 
5148 In-f ))e ff. — 5149 In a jo.] On }>e er}>e ))anne (On erj>e 
1 1305) 13, — 5150 In ]>e vale of iosaphat as him self wolde /8. 
5152 As god vs (to vs god 1 1305) telli)) by I. his p. 13. — 5156 
jn + to 0. — 5157 />er-to fi, — 5158 As bi ]>e same p. god telli) 
vs ^. — 5163 to the d. aryse 13, — 5164 c.+i» alle wyse ^.— 
5165 he .<?.] om, fi; namely] \n my propre p^rsone^. — 5166 Men 
to d. ^ ; w. + echone ^. — 5167-8 om, 13. — 5169 for to 0. — 
5170 As+>e ^.—5171 Cr,] Wher-on cr. ^; J>an rf.] om. fi. 
5172 For by- fore (afore 11305) he ha}> ]>e kiwde of maw (of 
]>e er)^e 11305) jnome fi, — 5173 B. vp] Ac ; sitte + as a lord 
/3. — 5174 h. wr. 8. + )>i8 word 13. — 5177 Lo+he sai)) 13; him 
schewe fi; pan] om, 13. — 5178 In fi; and . . . ] with alle his 
angelis arewe 13, — 5179 Eiien'] om, fi ; n.] as hit wer« in 
houynge p, — 5180 se h, h.] h\m ise in dow sittynge )8. — 5181 
Ac \q skele ; sitte ]>erQ fi, — 5182 Bi )>is sawe ech man may 
lere. — After 5182 th£ following heading is added in red ink: 
Whi god wole ))e dom 3eue in ]>e vale : Of iosaphat more ))an 
in eni o)per stede. — 5183 F. ]>ai (thilke 1 1305) v. is iset in 
awey lete (!) /3.— 5184 >e+heye /3.— 5185 >at o>er /S.— 5186 

Mss. OF rolle's Pricke of Conscience, — ^dr. bulbring. 277 

]>e wich is (stondith 1 1 305) amidde )8; swa] om. fi. — 5187 
&+al8o fi. — 5188 fast . . .] & of {tcithout of 1 1305) seint 
marie — 5189 Also \fer is \>e cite of B. ^. — 5190 N. fer fro 
J>e cite of I. 'fi. — 5191 Wher-f. cr. on ]>at d. schal s. ))ere 0. — 
6192 J>e (+harde 1 1305) dom to jeue & segge {without & s. 
U305) ^^ 0^ 11305) M^ manere /8. — 5193 here+is; all n.] 
om. — 5194 I+Je wich ())at 2281) is <f). — 5195 wuried. — 5196 
I tok fl. & b. witA-out vilenie /8. — 5197 /o . . . yhe] also lo ?e 
mowe 13. — 5 1 98 J?e cite of B. fi. — 5199 j wrappid & jut honowrid 
lasae /8. — 5200 cribbe+I was ileid fi ; ane, ane'] om. (f), — 5201 
dgge+also fi (also say 11305). — 5202 )>e cite of I. nei at 
joure h. fi. — 5203 many + an hard 0. — 5204 sare . • .] al 
aboute bi-sett (y-bett 1 1305) fi. 

3) 9329 For J>ulke (that 1 1305, Jys 173 1) coroune is \>q 
coroune of blis fi. — 9330 & {without & 1 1305, 173 1) ^e 
stone is ioye jfat neuir schal mis fi. — Then 9363 follows 
{in 13) : & hi schuUi)) be ]>ere (be fedde 11305) & jcloj^id in 
clo]?e fi. — 9364. With a yoiful sijt ]>&t schal no ]>ing to hew 
be lo]?e. — 9365 . . ./>are'] & hi schnlli]? Je (Jer 1 731) worche 
in <f>. — 9366 eu^e pmse ; sesing. — 9368 esJi he fi; /w«] 
om.— 9371 With] He sai> (That is 173 1 ) w. </».— 9372 with+ 
J>e ; />ai s. be"] be clenli /8. — 9373 ay /.] of god \>e prrisiwge 
i9.— 9374 whilk] ]>e wich <}).— Then 9*636 follows: hi schuUi).— 
9336 with] & euere Hue in. — 9337 blysful] mn. ; heuene+))at 
ha]? now ende. — 9338 Whedir god vs graunte ))«t we mowe 
wende. — Then the following heading comes : Of )>e contrarie of 
J>flt blisse. — After which the MS. goes on tcith verse 9439 : ]>q 
ainfulle schulle fele as I haue told : 9443 Owtrarious (!) hete 
& aft^ward to moche cold. 

Almost every line has an alteration made by fi. 

1) 1857peynes; ]>at] om.— 1842. 1843. 1844. 1845. 1846. 
1847. 1850. 1851. 1^52. 1853. 1854. 1855. 1858. 1859. 1860. 
1861. 1862.— 1864 J>e] ow.— 1865. 1866. 1867. 1868. 1869. 
1870. 1875. 1880. 1881. 1882. 1883. 1884. 1885. 1886. 1887. 
1888. 1890. 1891. 1894. 1895. 1897.— 1899 >^] >ing.— 1900. 
1901.— 1902 lykne>.— 1903. 1905. 1906. 1907. 1908. 1910. 
—1911. >er-to added.— 1913. 1914. 1915. 1916. 1917. 1918. 
1920. 1921. 1922. 1923. 1924. 1925. 1926. 1927. 

278 Mss. OF rolle's Pricke of Conscience. — dr. bOlbring. 

2) 5126. 5127. 5130. 5131. 5134. 5135.— 5137. >a8 added.— 
5142. 5143. 5144. 5145. 5145 b. 5146. 5148. 5149. 6150. 
5154. 5156. 5157. 5158. 5163. 5164. 5165. 5166. 6167-8. 
5169. 5170. 5171. 5172. 6173. 5174. 5177. 5178. 5179. 
5180.— 5181 skile; eitte >ere.— 5183. 5184. 5186. 6186. 
5187. 5188. 5189. 5190. 5191. 5192. 5196. 5197. 6198. 6199. 
5200. 5201. 5202.— 5203 an added.— 520^. 

3) 9329. 9330.— 77i^ lines 9331—62 are om.— 9363.— 9364 
which in Hat I. 1731 runs thus: With ]>e syjt of God )?at ys 
to hem no ]?yng lo)> ; in Add. 1 1 305 : The sight of God is to 
hem not lothe.— 9368. 9372. 9373. 

made a small number of alterations : Cf. 

1) (MSS. 2281, 1 73 1, and D 4) 1840.— 1841 tog. euer.— 
1844. 1848. 1853. 1863. 1874. 1902. 

2) (MSS. 2281 and D 4) 5126 ouf] om.— 5194. 5200. 

3) (MSS. 1 73 1 and D 4) 9365, ichich in Add. 11305 rvns 
thus : Thei shul do there noon other thynge. — 9371. 9374. 

As in division /S.i there are two MSS. only for the beginning 
of the poem, i.e. Harl. 173 1 and Harl. 2281, we cannot giv 
instances for the rest. That D 4 is not a copy of /S.i 
evident from the numerous deviations of Harl. 1 73 1 & 2281— 
in which D 4 does not share. In ^.i the lines 1870-1— 
1888-9, 1898-9, the red heading after 1901, 1922-3, 1926-7= 
are om., but they are preserved in D 4 — 1883 elde o/"] oldaa 
^.i.— 1914 ff/te] ouer /8.i. — 1915 So B] om. ^.i ; ar. (Sf sch^ 
B] most arise and shewe ^.i. 

Royal 18 A. v. and Addit. 1 1 305 form a separate grou[> 
)3.ii, for which Dr. Andreae gives these two tests : 1837 (j/* 
/>e d.] therof.— 1884 (uv] >o. 

All the sources are now described. 

Dr. Andreae showed that at least 19 sources must have 
existed, from which the British Museum MSS. were copied. 
My investigation of the four Dublin MSS. has added at least 
three more supposed sources to the list ; 1) ^ as the source 
for D 4 and /3.i. 2) Y as the source for the middle of D 8, 
the end of D 11, and the class X.i. 3) a.ii as the source for 
the beginning of MSS. 11304 and D 11. To this, perhaps, 

M88. OF bolle's Pricke of Conscience. — dr. bulbrino. 279 

A.iv has to be added as the source of the beginning of D 7 
and D 8. 

As yet no MS. has been found which is the source of any 
other existing one. The whole number of sources whose 
existence is proved is 23 (the original being included) ; this 
number has been found by special inquiries into the materials 
of 22 existing MSS. It is remarkable that not one of all 
the 23 sources of the 22 remaining MSS. is known, and 
that only these 22 apparently last copies are preserved. 
This fact would be surprising if we did not suppose that a 
considerably larger number of MSS., both sources and actually 
last copies, have been lost, or have not yet been found. 

There are a great number of MSS. in other libraries, 
especially at Oxford. But it is most likely that the vast 
xnajority of those once existing are irretrievably lost, as it is 
Arery improbable that the want of sources left by the exami- 
nation of the first 22 MSS. will be supplied to any great 
extent by the about 20 other MSS. which still remain to be 

All this shows that Richard Bolle's poem was one of the 
SDost popular works of the end of the Middle Ages ; and 
that, therefore, a new edition of it, with all the many varia- 
tions of its different copies, is much to be desired, though it 
may result in no great improvement of Dr. Morris' text. 
Whoever has an opportunity of examining one or more of 
the remaining MSS. should not hesitate to contribute his 
share to the work. 

While the above paper was in the hands of the printer. 
Dr. Fumivall provided me with extracts from two MSS. of 
the poem which are preserved in the Lichfield Cathedral 
Library. I beg to repeat the expression of my gratitude to 
him for his great kindness, and add that I shall be equally 
obliged to anybody else who, not wishing himself to take the 
trouble of classifying, will send me^ extracts of other MSS., 

* Address ffrrm Dan. Biilhring^ Voerde in We^iphaiiaf Oertnany, or send 
them to Dr. Furnivall, who will be glad to forward them. 

280 Mss. OF rolle's Pricke of Conscience. — dr. bulbrino. 

a great many of which are dispersed in public and private 
libraries over all England. 

The two MSS. at Lichfield have the numbers 6 and 18. 
MS. 6 is written on vellum, in a large and bold hand of about 
1410. MS. 18 is on vellum, in two hands of the late 14th 
century, A filling If. 1-58, and B If. 69-110. I first give 
all the various readings of the same 300 lines as above. 
Where no number is put to the variation, it is common to 
both MSS., the spelling being that of MS. 18, whose language 
is very curious ; only in a few lines where the reading of 18 
is added in parenthesis, is the spelling of 6 given. 

1) [If. 71 MS. 6; If. 266 MS. 18] 1836 men (a man MS. 6) 
schulde dr. ded in here (on his 6) h. — 1837 Jat 6 ; peynys 
18 ; pCypat] otn.; sfca] wol. — 1838 laste schour and (of \>e 6) 
ende. — 1840 departyng ; for to. — 1841 to-gyddere euere for 
to. — 1842 n.] And neyther (non 6) ; w. + gladly, — 1843 is \>e 
loue be-twyxyn (euere by-twene 6). — 1844 saddere ; twa, . .] 
Jey (two 6) ben to-gyddere in loue. — 1846 oft /?.] be godis 
grace a-boue. — 1846 more+is )>e 18 ; and+Je lengere. — 
1847 bih.'] By-twene (>at be-twyxyn 18) hem schal be. — 1848 
If. 716, MS. 6] Ac 6.— 1849 Louyn + hem 18; to-gyddere; 
Jan + a 18, +de\f a 6. — 1850 Wh.'] And qwedir; gon; or+ 
iw. — 1851 Euere to-gyddere }>ey woldyn dwelle stille. — 1852 
For (Ac 6) ))i8 is o sk. as men (me 6) may se (yse 6). — 1853 
Qwy4-)>at; euere in o cu/wpanye. — 1854 For god wele (seyj? 
6) thoru is grace and is (otn, 6) wyt. — 1856 ))at fyrst )>e soule 
(body 6) and ]>e b. (soule to-gadere 6) kn. — 1856 />e <.] J>flt 
o^er 6; no thyng. — 1857 to)>er Q>at o)>er 6) -h wele. — 1858 
thr.-)-skil is; b. fog, «.] schole (-hbo]?e 6) to-gyddere. — 1859 
))e-f dredful 18; at . . ."] and to hys dom ))onne y-nome 6. — 
1860 f. + skil is; er c. )>.] comyn in fere. — 1861 ay . . .] 
after-ward in o cu/npanye ben euere (eufry where 6). — 1862 
)>erfore J:>e more is here peyne and kare. — 1863 ]?at on 6 ; Jot 
oj^er 6. — 1864 departynge ; be"] \>er 6 ; clepyd ; j>e'] om. — 
1865 fleo))-f al 6; fra . . .] as doth \e breth. — 1866 l.+boje^ 
— 18G7 And^ lie ne 6 ; no thyng ]?at he hath ouer p. — 1868 
ne + for 18; pat )/i. ;//.] J^au ony man 18, \fat eny man may" 
6. — 1869 /iC^ j'atded; he+ne 6; suffryth no man 1. (a-lyue 

M88. OP bollb's Pricke of Conscience. — db. biJlbbing. 281 

6).— 1870-1 ow.— 1872 [If 72, MS. 6] For he ne sparyth 

ryche ne (no 6) poure. — 1873 ne. .."] be-nemyth J>e lyf wyth- 

(byn. lyjff off hym 6) inne a throw. — 1874 /e] So ))at; ha])+ 

no 6; of'\o 18.— 1875 Austyn 6; pus ach.'] tellith vs wol 18, 

>erH)ff V8 telle> a 6.— 1880 8eth+>at 18; na> 6.— 1881 tase] 

math 18, ne haj> 6. — 1882 irwc] oni. ; conne)) schewe 6. — 

1883 Ne to hold men for here days fele (fele'] be)) bote fewe 

6). — 1884 DeJ (Both 18) wole haue no reuerense ne f. — 

— 1886 Ne frenschepe of k. ne of (q/*] om. 6) e. — 1886 Ne of 

p. byschop ne 6)per pr. — 1887 tylt] of; man of h,"] low ne hey. 

— 1888-9 om, — 1890 Jer-fore ( + 8eynt 6) Bernard seyt )>U8 in 

J^is (hys 6) wrytjrnge (=1874). — 1891 For eueri (ech 6) man 

fichulde be war of dedis comwynge ())retnynge 6) (=1875). — 

1894 seth (seyj 6) \ai ded wole be ))e passe. — 1895 For it is 

oomoun ; men'\ otn, — 1896 ilk^ ouer al iche {in 6 oxier alle 

comes before vysyte). — 1897 But (And 6) jet qwat it is no man 

discrye (dyscrmeB) kan. — 1898-9 om. — 1900 iche ))ing felyth 

sore. — 1901 pus . . .] tellit as he hath leryd (y-lemed 6) in 

lore. — 1902 is preceded by a line in red : How a phylesophre 

discrijt ded.— 1902 For] Here ; lyknith.— 1903 myt so.— 

1905 ]?at it myte at J?e laste lyf ))er-on brynge. — 1906 out . . .] 

at J>e mouth out come myte. — 1907 euery a i. ())oute 6) a rote 

Bchulde dyte. — 1908 And ))at iche v. ]?at ())e wuch 6) is in 

( + a 6) manys b. — 1909 a r. /.] rotis 18 ; fant] harde 6. — 

, 1910 And to iche ( + a 6) f. and hond also. — 1911 ))e tre gr. 

4]><*r-to. — 1912 And on iche a 1. ]?at is on ony s. — 1913 

With'] ]?e; Je tre schulde ))er-on abyde. — 1914 Bot (As 6) 

if J>at iche ()?ulke 6) tre were ouer al (o. al] om, 6) puUyd a- 

boute. — 1915 ))at )?e rote (rotes 6) muste a-ryse and schewyn 

hym with-oute. — 1916 ))anne schulde ))e rotis ))er-wyth sone 

a-ryse. — 1917 And iche a veyn schewe [sch,] and synowe 6) 

also in his wyse. — 1918 a] )>a«ne; in h,] om. — [If. 28, MS. 18] 

1919 /w] it 18; suld] om. 18.— 1920 And] om,; I holde 18; 

more+ strong. — 1921 And hardure in his tyme but (as 6) it 

Listyth (ys 6) not long.— 1922-3 om,—\\{. 73, MS. 6] 1924 

ilk] ich a 18, ech 6 ; it is a-forn i-seyd.— 1925 May gretly 

dredyn ]>e lorde d. br. — 1926-7 om. 

2) [If. 127, bk. MS. 6; If. 69, MS. 18] 5126 lytynge 
PhiL Tranf. 1888-80. 19 

282 Mss. OF rollb's Pricke of Conscience. — ^dr. Bt^LBRiNO. 

(euenjmge 6)+he seytj ; in+ a. — 5127 Clene fro ; and sch. \ 
m] in-to ; westw 18.— 5128 mania. — 5129 (1) anrf] om, ; fo 
to. — 5130 doune . . .] witj-outyn any let a-doun. — 5131 A-jeni 
\>e m. of o. in his propir persoun. — 5132 Qwer+))at; in + his 
vp eJ] in-to heuene. — 5133 J'e . . . ] his f. wol euene. — 513 
In sweche forme as he ))anne vp stey. — 5135 He schal a-je 
come and deme thorw good fey. — 5136 and i//J men and badd 
18. — 5137 aungel 18. — 5142 is here take vp (vp y-take 6) i 
non. — 5143 iw-to 18; in flesch and in bon. — 5144 werd/s.- 
5145 seyn now (n.] oni, 6) hym i«-to. — 5145* And so h 
schal (schal he 6) come a-^en in (a^en c. into )>e 6) forme < 
man. — 5146 And alle |>ing deme as he wel can. — 5147 
preceded by Of ))e stede ))at cryst seal deme Inne, in red,- 
5147 adoun for to.— 5148 In + )>e; seme'] come 6. — 514 
8chal+))anne. — 5150 ))e qweche is ))e uale of iosaphat as l 
{he'] hym sylf 6) wolde.— 5151 Qwer+>at.— 5152 tellitj I 
poule his (ioel )>e 6). — 5155 i schal before alle men. — 515 
iwto. — 5157 says pus] tellitj us 18. — 5158 As god be ) 
prophete seytj J?us (schewy]? to vs 6). — 5163 to ))e doi 
a-ryse. — 5164 in] om, 6; co//j + i/i alle wise. — 5165 he . . ." 
chal syttyn in my propir p^rsone. — 5166 at// . . .] as ))ey b 
worthy ]?o men eumchone. — 5167-68 om. — 5169 for to. 
5170 As + )>i. — 5171 Qwer-on crist schal not fuUeche coi 
— 5172 Be-fore he hatj ))e kynde of erde be-nome (y-nc 
6). — 5173 B, rp] Ac vp-on 6; sitte+as a lord. — 5174 In 
holi writ seytj J:>is word. — 5175 Lo he seytj cure 1. schal ' 
schewe. — 5176 In a qwit cl. witj his aungel in (angeles 
rewe. — 5177 aboute 6 ; ]?e 18 ; n.] as it were honge (y 
heuynge 6). — 5178 se . . .] hym se in dom stronge 18 
hym in doun syttynge 6. — 5181 Ac 6 ; skil ; sitte ))< 
5182 here . . . ] be ]?is sawe here. — 5183 sett] set (am, 
a way lete. — 5184 J)e+hey. — 5185 in )>at o]>er. — 51 
qweche stondyn in (stont a 6) myddw of {om. 6) J?r 
(world 6) wyde.— 5187 And + also.— 5188 fast . . .] a 
{a.] cm. 6) of cure lady marie. — 5189 in pat c] alsc 
place. — 5190 fait] om. ; fro+)^e cete of. — 5191 god ; 
day before ]?ere 18, before schal 6. — 5192 ]?e grete don 
in )>is manere. — 5193 her -his; all now] om. 18, now i 

M88. OP rolle's Pricke of Conscience, — dr. bulbrtng. 283 

io8apliat+]>at is. — 5195 Qwer+))at ; my modir before berijd 
18. — 5196 Of quam i tok fl. a bl. with-outy» uelanie. — 
5197 lo h. als] also her; now] stonde 6. — 5198 ))e cete of 
iemsalem (+J>e 6) qweche is ny to jou (pwre honde 6). — 
5199-6202 ow.— 5203 for ?ow before y 6; many + a.— 5204 
9are . . .] al a-boute beset (be^.] me yset 6). 

3) This test-passage is neither in MS. 6 nor in MS, 18; after 
I 9199 (And to siluer and to gold ))at is of meche yalu) both 
MSS. go on with 4 littes for Dr, Morris' 9200-9474, 2 lines 
for Dr. Morris' 9475-9532 ; as follows : 

But (Ac 6) al the rytchesse )>at euere in )>e word was 

Is to ]?e lest ioye of beuene not wort^ a nas 

For ))er is al )>ing ))at ony man may crave 

Or ellt» desyre in thout for to haue. 

Now is ))e laste part of ))i8 bok mad 

And all )?e materis ))er-of ben to jou (+be6) rad. 

Lines 9535-45, 9569-70 are omitted. 

That both MSS. belong to the ^ version is at once evident 
from a comparison of the above variations with the readings 
of the Dublin MS. 4 in the lines 1842. 1845. 1846. 1847. 
1850. 1851. 1852. 1854. 1855. 1858. 1859, etc.— 5129. 5130. 
5131. 5134. 5142, etc. 

The lines 1840. 1841. 1844. 1853. 1863. 1902. show that 
the two MSS. belong to <f}. 

Both MSS. omit the lines 1870-1, 1888-9, 1898-9, 1922-3, 
1926-7, as the two MSS. of /3.i do. Besides there are many 
other common alterations. 

Harl. 2281 and 173 1 (=^.i) leave out the red heading 
after 1901, which is preserved in the two Lichfield MSS. 
Common alterations of the latter two (f. i., in lines 1910 and 
1913, and most distinctly towards the end of the poem) 
moreover show that the Lichfield copies are derived from a 
separate source. 

Their pedigree therefore is : 

L 6 ) ^ ... 

L 18 1 ^•"^' 

1. 2 (Harl. 2281) \ ^. I (^.i-c^-^-B-X.ii-Q-U. 

L 3 (Harl. 1731) j ^•'- 



Rev. Prof. Skeat. 

[Bead at a Meeting of ths PhUologieal Society ^ June 7, 1889 J 

Chess. The etjnnology is known to be from A.F. eschecSy 
really the pi. of eschec, check. But it is interesting to know 
whether the c in the ending cs was lost in E. or in A.F. 
The answer is, the latter. For the A.F. form esches, see 
William of Wadington, Manuel dea Peches, 1. 4106 ; Romance 
of Horn, 2551 (in both MSS.). In fact, the pi. esches is quite 
regular. Similarly, blans was the pi. of blanc in Norman. 
See Gaston Paris, Extraits de la Chanson de Roland, p. 43. 

Cieling. I have shewn that a possible origin of this word 
is from O.F. ciel, heaven. Perhaps this is illustrated by a 
passage in the A.F. Romance of Horn, 1. 2709 : * Cielee iert 
la chambre par art dentailleor De un umbrelenc bien fait; 
bon fu linginneor/ I find that Godefroy quotes this from 
Michel's edition ; my quotation is from that by Brede and 
Stengel. See also cel^ in Godefroy. I do not, however, 
fully understand the passage. 

Clever. The E.Friesic word is kliifer (Koolman), explained 
by * gewandt, geschickt, aufgeweckt, anstellig, lebhaft, 
munter, behende.' 

Coble, a kind of boat. This word is given and defined by 
Halliwell. He refers us to Morte Arthure, 1. 742; but in 
that passage coblez seems to mean * cables.' Matzner and 
Stratmann give no example. But in the Lindisfarne MS., 
Matt. viii. 23, the Lat. in nauicula is glossed by ' in lytlum 
scipe iiel in ciwple.* Johnson's Diet., s.v. cobble^ quotes 
* cobles, or little fishing-boats ' from Pennant (no reference). 
See Jamieson and Brockett. 

Cosset, a pet- lamb, a pet. Used by Spencer and Ben 
Jon son ; see Nares. In Webster's Dictionary, a derivation 
is suggested from the word cot. This does not seem very 




likelj at first sight, but there is some evidence for it. 
Sonmer gives an A.S. cotsdkta, a * cot-sitter/ or dweller in a 
cot, with no reference. But here we get help from Schmid's 
glossary to the Anglo-Saxon Laws and from Ducange. The 
•Latinised plural coUeti, synonjnnous with villani, occurs in 
the Laws of Henry I., cap. 29 ; ed. Thorpe, i. 632 ; and 
again, spelt cothseti, in the same, cap. 81 ; ed. Thorpe, i. 589. 
Schmid remarks that the same plural occurs repeatedly in 
X)omesday Book, spelt coscez, cozets^ and cozez, where z 
originally stood for the sound of ts. See also coscez in 
Ducange, where we even find a form co8safu8, with a sug- 
gested derivation from cot and sit. The A.S. cote, a cote, 
Appears as cot- in composition ; see the A.S. Diet. Perhaps 
^>os8et meant at first ' a dweller in a cot ' ; and, as applied to 
a lamb, a pet-lamb kept in the house. So the G. Hauslamm 
means both a house-lamb and a pet. Hence the verb cosset, 
to pet. See Cot-lamb. For the pronunciation, cf. best for 
beist, and boatswain; bless for bletsian, etc. But difficulties 

Costrel, a bottle. Used by Chaucer, L. G. Wom. 2666. 
Also spelt costret ; see Matzner. It is from the O.F. costerel, 
allied to costeret, costelet, all given by Godefroy, and sig- 
nifying a pannier, basket, jar, esp. a jar or measure of oil 
or wine, as in the phrase ' un costelet de vin et de olie,' a 
measure of wine or oil. All are diminutives of O.F. coste, 
a measure of capacity, used for fruits taken to market, a 
pannier or basket of a certain size. 22 costes went to the 
muid (Lat. modius) ; so it was not very large. Ducange 
gives * costa, cista, calathus, F. panier.* It seems natural to 
connect it with Lat. costa, rib, side, but I cannot say that 
the connection is clearly made out. Lewis and Short quote 
costa corbium from Pliny, 16. 18. 30, § 75. Littr^, s.v. cdte, 
notes that this term is used in basket-making to denote the 
projections {nenmres) formed by the flexure of small osiers 
round the larger ones ; which perhaps explains the word. 

Cot, Cot-lamb, a pet lamb. In Grose's Prov. Diet. (1790), 
we find * cotts, lambs brought up by hand ; cades.' In 
Wright's Vocab. ed. Wulker,col. 749, 1. 1, we have the form 


kodhtnb in a Vocabulary of the 15th century. If these can 
can be connected, then kodlonib would stand for cot-lamb, i,e. 
a lamb brought up in a cot. See Cosset. 

Crack, a mischievous boy. Shakespeare has the word twice. 
I believe it is short for crack-rope, a contemptuous term for a 
rascal, occurring in Dodsley O. Plays, ed. Hazlitt, iv. 63. In 
the same way, tcag is short for wag-halter, and is an equiva- 
lent term. Thus Cotgrave has: * Babouin, a craftie knave, 
a crack-rope, a tcag-halter* Todd's Johnson has crack-rope, 
without a reference, defined as * a fellow that deserves 
hanging.' It means rather ' a fellow that has escaped the 
gallows, because the rope broke.' It seems to have been usual 
not to hang a man a second time in such a case. 

Craier, Crayer, Crare, Cray, a kind of small ship. Shak. 
has * sluggish crare ' ; Cymb. iv. 2. 205 (old edd, care) ; see 
also craier in Halliwell ; cray in Todd's Johnson and Nares. 
M.E. crayer, krayer ; Morte Arthure, 738, 3666. From OF. 
craier^ creer, a vessel of war ; spelt craier in 1339, and creei — 
in 1334, according to Godefroy, and apparently a Normanj« 
word. Low Lat. craiera, in a charter of Edw. III. A.d. 1360 ;s 
also creyera (Ducange). Widegren gives the Swed. krejare^ 
a small vessel with one mast ; but this is evidently a lat^ 
form, and does not help us. Beyond this I cannot go. Th^ 
suggestion, in Webster, that it is derived from the G. krieg ^ 
or Du. krijg, war, is in no way borne out. It does not account 
for the spelling, and we should rather expect the word to b^ 
of English origin. I would propose to derive it from, th^ 
A.S. crecca, M.E. creke^ crike, a creek. This word was Latin- 
ised as creca, and meant both a creek and a port or harbour. 
A Low Lat. ^crecarins would give the O.F. forms exactly, and 
might mean *a ship frequenting the harbours.' 

Cross. The great difficulty of accounting for the form 
cross is well known. Mr. May hew points out to me that crosa 
is also the O.Irish form, found in the * Leabhar Breac,' ed. 
Atkinson ; see the Glossary. Of course this Celtic cros is 
from the Latin crux. In O'Reilly's Irish Dictionary, we find 
croSy a cross, a hindrance ; crosaim, I cross, stop, hinder, 
debar ; crosanach, cross, perverse ; crosog, a small cross, per- 


vereenees, etc. I find A.S. cros, as in * Normannes eras ' ; in 
Sirch, Cart. Sax. in. 367 (a.d. 963-984). 
CadgeL I have suggested that this word is of Celtic 
rigin, but it is probably Teutonic. I have given no example 
iriier than Shakespeare. It occurs, however, once in Middle 
Qglish, and, in fact, as early as in the Ancren Riwle, 
292, 1. 1, where it is spelt kuggel. Further, the A.S. form 
properly cycgel, of which the dat. pi. is spelt hycglum in 
e Hatton MS. of Gregory's Pastoral Care, ed. Sweet, 
297, 1. 1. The ace. pi. kigclaa occurs in Cockayne's 
\rine^ p. 163. The remarkable spelling quodgell is quoted 
Dm a piece called ' Fasquin in a Traunce ' in the volume 
L * Dialect ' in the Gentleman's Magazine Library ; re- 
inted from the Gent. Mag. for 1820, pt. 1, pp. 115, 116. 
be A.S. form is not given in any Dictionary. 
Cullis, a very fine and strong broth, strained and made 
ear for patients in a state of great weakness (Nares). 
Iiis is a common word in old dramas ; Nares gives several 
camples, which could easily be multiplied. The M.E. form 
colU (see Matzner) ; also spelt kolySy coHce, colysshe. This 
from an O.F. co//«, coiileis (see couleis in Godefroy), later 
ulis. Cotgrave gives * Couiis, masc. a cullis, or broth of 
>iled meat strained;' and the adj. couliSy gliding, whence 
tags couliSy lit. gliding pottage, i.e. gliding through a 
rainer, used in the same sense as coulis alone. It was 
erefore originally the masculine form of an adjective, 
iswering to Low Lat. * cola fid us, from colare, to flow, to 
rain through a sieve. Similarly port-cullis means * gliding 
ite * ; and the only difierence between cullis, broth, and the 
His in port'Cullis is that the former is masculine {cola t ictus), 
id the latter feminine (colaticia) ; see coulis, coulisse in Cot- 
•ave. And see Wedgwood. 

Dogger, a kind of fishing- vessel. It occurs in Ilexhara as 
Du. word ; he has : * een Dogger, a Fishers Boat ; ' also 
I Sling or casting-net ; also, a SatchelL' He gives also : 
Oogge, an English Mastif ; een Dogge-boof, a great Barke.' 
Iso : * Dogger-zandi, a Shelve of white sand, or a Quick- 
nd in the Sea.' He also notes the verb : * Doggen, or 


doggeren, to Dogg one, or, to follow one secretly.' But the 
word is said not to be old in Dutch. Again, the Icel. Diet 
has : ' Duggtty a small (English or Dutch) fishing- vessel ; 
[mentioned] a.d. 1413, where it is reported that thirty 
ISiti^v^fiski'duggur came fishing about Iceland that summer.' 
Hence the word seems to belong neither to Dutch nor Ice- 
landic, but rather to English. Minsheu's Diet. (1627) gives: 
* Dogger y a kinde of ship ; ' and says it is mentioned in the 
Statutes of 31 Edw. III. ; Stat. 3, cap. 1 ; which is perhaps 
the earliest notice of it. Perhaps it is connected with 
dog\ but evidence is wanting. When Hexham defined 
Dogge-hoot as * a great Barke^ one wonders whether he saw 
the joke. The Du. Dogger-zandt answers to E. ' Bogger-bank.' 

Dot. I have marked dot as Dutch, because I could find 
no early example. However, there is an A.S. dott, a little 
lump; see Bosworth's Dictionary, new edition ; and Dot in 
the Supplement to my Dictionary. 

Draught-house, a privy (2 Kings x. 27 ; cf. Matt. xv. 17). 
Some connect this word with draff, husks, refuse ; but this is 
wholly a mistake. Draught is short for with-draughty pre- 
cisely as dramng-room is short for mth-dratcing-roam, the 
prefix being lost owing to lack of stress. With-draught 
means ' a place to which one withdraws,' and is a translation 
of the O.F. retrait, Cotgrave gives : * ae refrahir, to retire, 
or withdraw himself ; * whence * retraicte, fem. a retrait, 
retiring, withdrawing ' ; and * retraict, masc. an ajax, privy, 
house of office/ In the Curial of Alain Charretier, aa 
Englished by Caxton, ed. Furnivall, p. 7, 1. 23, we are tolA 
how the courtier has to dance attendance all day long upon 
the prince ; * he shal muse ydelly alday, in awaytyng tha* 
men shal open the dore to hym, of the chambre or iq/th- 
draught of the pry nee.' Here the original French has, a. 
noted at p. viii, Vuys du retrait ; and M. Paul Meyer draw» 
attention to Caxton 's habit of rendering some of the wo 
of the original by two consecutive synonyms. Hence tcyt. 
draught and chambre are both translations of the same 
raasc. sb., as to the meaning of which there is no ioxibt. 
It must seem very strange that a courtier should wait upoa 


A prince under such circumstances, but the matter is put out 
of doubt by no less an authority than Lord Bacon, in his 
Life of Richard III., ed. Lumby, p. 82: 'Whiche thyng this 
page wel had marked and knowen . . . For ypon this pages 
wordes king Richard arose. For this communication had 
ie [the king] sitting at the draught ; ' to which Bacon adds 
tiie contemptuous comment, ' a conuenient carpet for such a 
counsaile ; ' see the whole passage. This is a clear instance 
of a page bringing a message to a king by actually venturing 
into his retraiL In some cases the prefix was not lost, but 
preserved in a corrupted form. The th in with was assimi- 
lated to the d in draught. Hence the form widdraught, 
Bpelt icyddr&ught in Clark's edition of Willis's Architectural 
Sistory of the University of Cambridge, vol. ii. p. 245. 
INext, one of the d's was dropped, and we get the form in 
Phillips' Diet., viz. * wydraught^ a water-course, or water- 
passage, a sink, or common shore ; ' where the reference is, 
by a slight change, to the withdrawal of refuse or of water. 
In this form, it is extremely common in old leases, which 
mention * sewers, drains, wy-draughts* etc. ; and Ucy-draughty 
a sink, or drain,' is in Halliwell's Dictionary. Some years 
ago, I was asked to explain this prefix fr^-, but I gave it up; 
it is now perfectly clear. Hence draught is merely short for 
mth'draughty and draught-hou^e for with-draught house. Dr. 
Fumivall's glossary explains with-draught as mth-drawwg- 
room ; which is quite correct radically ; only we must make 
a distinction as to the sense in which with-dratcing-room is 
used, and not consider it as all one with the modern drawing^ 
room. The G. word Abtritt is formed with an analogous 
development of meaning. In the New Testament, we also 
have mention of *a draught of fishes,' which is merely 
another use of the same word. The derivation is from the 
verb to draw. 

Draughts, a game. The game of draughts means the game 
of moves. This we know from Caxton's Game of the Chesse, 
and the Tale of Beryn. Draughty in the sense of * move,' is 
a translation of the F. trait. See my note to Chaucer's 
Hinor Poems, p. 255, 1. 653. Wedgwood has a similar note, 


and cites Ital. tiro^ a move, from tirare, to draw. Cf. 'a 
dratni game/ 

Faldstool. A.S. fceldestol ; A.S. Leechdoms, ed. Cockayne, 
vol. i. p. Ixxii, 1. 3. 

Fanteague, a worry, or bustle, also, ill-humour ; HalliwelL 
To be * in a fanteague * or * in a fanteeg^ i.e, to be in a state 
of excitement, is a familiar expression. The word is in 
Pickwick, chapter xxxviii., where fanteegs means * worries,' 
or 'troubles.' It is clearly from F, fanatique, adj., 'road, 
f ran tick, in a frenzie, out of his little wits ; ' Cotgrave. 
Hence it is allied to Fanatic, 

Firk, to beat. Used by Shakespeare; see Nares. Nares 
remarks that it is said to be from the Lat. ferire. But it ia 
the M.E. ferken, to convey, also to drive, etc. ; see Matzner. 
Further, it is the same word as the A.S. fercian^ to convey. 
Ettmiiller reasonably supposes it to be derived irom/aran, to 
go, fare. 

Fit. This difficult form is commented on by Wedgwood 
in his book of * Contested Etymologies.' We must, however, 
distinguish between the senses. It is best to take the easiest 
first. Fitf 8. a portion of a poem, now obsolete, is certainly 
the A.S. Jit, Jitty a song, poem, or verse. I do not think this 
is disputed. Fit, s. a sudden attack of illness, is derived by 
Wedgwood from ' G. ft / an interjection representing the 
sound of something whisking by,' etc. But it is plainly the 
M.E. fit, a contest, an attack, a bout, sufficiently illustrated 
by Matzner ; and from the A.S. ft, fitt, a contest, allied to 
fettian, to contend. I think Wedgwood has been troubled 
by my supposition that the A.S. Jitt, a verse, and A.S. Jitt^ a 
contest, are the same word. If it will simplify matters, I 
am willing to dissociate them. But when we remember that 
a fit or poem was, I suppose, so much as was sung at once, I 
see no difficulty in supposing that, as the harp passed round 
at the feast in olden times, each singer contributed his fit, or 
portion, to the fit, or contest. The allusions to contests in 
singing are surely common in many languages. We next 
come to the adj. fit, and to the verb to fit. First as to the 
verb. Of this Matzner gives no example ; yet fitten, to set 


order, or array, occurs at least five times in the Morte 
thura It is probably derived from the adjective, and we 
ill see presently that Wedgwood takes the adj. to be of F. 
jin. There is a very strong objection to this when we 
[ that Hexham gives the M.Du. ritten, * to accommodate, 
itt, to serve ; ' which would seem to be a Teutonic word, 
ian gives the same, and says it is Flemish. I see no 
iperable difficulty, as Wedgwood does, to the connection 
tf .E. fitten^ to set in order, with the Icel. fifja, to knit 
)ther, to cast on stitches in making a stocking. On the 
trary, the notion of casting on stitches is closely allied to 
: of fitting or preparing the work, if indeed the ideas are 
identical. To knit a stocking is the same thing as to fit 
:ogether. In provincial English fit commonly means 
idy.* Lastly, as to the adj. fit. It is, apparently, quite 
te word, only found, as yet, in the Promptorium Parvu- 
im and in later books. I see no difficulty in supposing 
t it is derived from the verb, and merely means fitted or 
pared. In the Morte Arthure, 1. 2455, an army is said to 
Faire fittyde one frownte,' Le, well arrayed in the front, 
tdgwood's proposal is to say that ^ fit is a shortening of 
O.E. \i,e. M.E.] feat^ oxfete^ neat, well-made, good (Halli- 
1), from F. faict^faitj made, fashioned, viz. after a certain 
tern or certain requirements.' There is no good evidence 
t the M.E. fete is an old word ; the quotations suggest 
t it arose in the fifteenth century.. The proper word for 
^11-made * was JetiSy used by Chaucer, and answering to 
. factitiuB. Perhaps fete was suggested by it, as the 
glo-F. fet meant no more than * done ' or * made,' like the 
mf actus which it represents. At the same time, I am by 
means disposed to reject this suggestion ; whilst I also 
i to my former view. So many E. words result from two 
three sources, that I think it very likely that the use of 
' as an adjective was due to some confusion between the 
b fit above, the adj. fetis^ well-made, and the A.F. fet, 
le. In any case, Wedgwood makes one good point, in 
ch I at once concur, viz. that the compound verb to refit 
uinly arose, primarily, from the M.E. refeet, representing 


A.F. refct, Lat. re/ectus ; precisely as our benefit represents 
A.F. ben/et, Lat. bene /actus. See, in the Prompt. Parv., the 
entry : " Refecyd [probably an error for refetyd^ or refeei^ or 
refeted; refectus; " and the examples in Way's note. When 
Dr. Bradley is at work upon jfit, he will have to consult the 
slips for reft at the same time. I also note here that several 
other words which may or may not be from the same root 
should be examined, as they may yield further information. 
I would instance Goth, fetj'an, to adorn ; G. fitze, O.H.G. 
fizza, a skein ; Dan. Jid,/ed, a skein ; Norweg. fit, the end of 
a texture or piece of woven stuff; Icel. feti, a strand in the 
thread of a warp. See also the article on E. Fries, /etse, a 
fragment, in Eoolman. 

Fives, a disease of horses (Shakespeare). Put for virenj 
which is short for avivea. See Avives in the New E. Diet. 

Flabbergast, to scare. Probably for flapper-gaaty i.e. to 
scare away with a fly-flap. Cf. M.E. gasten, to scare, in 
Stratmann and Matzner. Also : ' Flappe, instrument to 
smyte wythe flyys : Flabellum ; ' Prompt. Parv. And see 
the quotation, in Richardson, from Wilson, Arte of JRheto- 
rique, p. 201. 

Flaw, a gust of wind (Shakespeare). Cf. Swed. Jl^ga; 
M. Du. v/age (Hexham) ; Du. riaag ; Low G. Jlage (Brem. 
Wort.) ; M.E. flai in Matzner ; and Jl^g (3) in Wedgwood. 
Allied to flake SLud flag. 

Furlong. In Murray's Diet., s.v. acre, we learn that an 
acre was, originally, a piece of land 40 poles long and four 
poles wide. Thus the rood, or the fourth part of an acre, 
was a piece of land 40 poles long and one pole wide. The 
pole, or 5^ yards, represented the breadth between two 
furrows ; and the 40 poles represented the length to be 
measured along the furrow. Thus the furlong, or length 
along the furrow, was 40 poles, i.e. 220 yards, or an eighth 
of a mile. The length of 40 poles was chosen, precisely 
because it was an exact fraction of a mile. Hence the 
relationship of acre to mile is clearly seen. This matter 
was explained to me by Dr. Murray. In Halliwell's 
Dictionary, we learn that the proper coimtry-name for the 


t)and between two furrows was a land. This explains 
9 phrase ^ nine land's length ' in the passage from Piers 
)wnian» quoted in my Dictionary, s.v. furlong. The 
erence is to the rood, which was a land in breadth and 
^rlang in length; so that 'nine lands' length' means 
dire than a mile.' 

Ulant. There is no doubt that this is the F. galant, allied 
he verb galer, to riot, rejoice, be festive. I give the usual 
ivation from M.H.G. geil, mirthful ; but the difference of 
'el-80und is, perhaps, insuperable. I note, accordingly, 

derivation given by Schwan (Grammatik des Altfranz- 
chen, p. 52), from O.H.G. wall&n, G. tcallen, to wander, 
3, go on pilgrimage. I find that Godefroy gives galand 
1 the sense of vagabond, or (as he says) 'sorte de brigands.' 
haps further search may settle this question. The deriva- 
i here proposed involves no phonetic difficulty. 
kunbeson, a quilted jacket. See Oambiaon in Godefroy, 

gambais in Diez. Diez derives it from O.H.G. wamba, 

belly. Mr. Wedgwood refers us to the Gk. fiafil3aKiov, 
ibrio stuffed with cotton ; and I think his article should 
rive due attention. The 0. Span, gambax, quoted by 
z, certainly looks like the Low Lat. bombax^ whence our 
ba^ine. The Arab, gonbdz, cited by Diez from Freytag, 
£8 like another perversion of the same word. Perhaps 

word found its way from Gk. into Arabic, thence into 
.nish, and thence into other European languages. I think 

form of the suffix is quite enough to shew that the 
LG. wambm was a borrowed word, and that we cannot 
his case rely upon the initial w as original. It is remark- 
5 that Ducange, who (8.v. gambeao) favours the G. origin, 
lally supposes, s.v. bambactum, that gambacium was an 
mative spelling of the latter word. 

hunbol. Of. F. jambe. Diez and Scheler think these 
ds are derived form a Low Lat. camba, the leg. The ace. 
cambas occurs in a Latin prayer printed in Cockayne's 
. Leechdoms, vol. i. p. Ixxi, 1. 20. It is glossed by A.S. 
mCy the hams. Ducange only gives the derivative cambia, 
armour. The E. ham is from the same root as camba. 


Oamep, a small mat (Nares). From F. gardenappe in 
Cotgrave and Godefroy. From F. garder and nappe, because 
it keeps the cloth clean. 

Gay. The F. gat is derived by Diez, who follows Muratori, 
from O.H.G. gdhi, quick, whence also G. jdh. But a far 
more satisfactory original is the O.H.G. tcdhi, M.H.G. ivce/iey 
which has the precise sense of gay, pretty, artistically arrayed. 
The Bavarian form is tcwh, gay, pretty ; Schmeller, ii. 880. 
The change of initial from w to g is regular, as in O.F. 
gaimenter, to lament, from the older form waimenfer, appear- 
ing in M.E. wawienten. The O.H.G. tc&hi is from the strong 
verb wehaiiy to shine; see Schade. The etymology ot jay is 
affected by this change. This etymology is due to Mr. 
Mayhew ; see N. and Q., 7 S. vii. 325. See Jay. 

Ohool. Not Persian, marked in my Diet., but a Persian 
word borrowed from Arabic, as Mr. Robertson Smith informs 
me. So in Palmer's Pers. Diet., col. 443 : " Ghul (Arab. 
Pers.), an ogre, a demon of the waste.'* 

Oigging. Chaucer has gigging of scheeldes (Kn. Ta. 1646), 
which Morris explains by * clattering,' as if it were jigging. 
But the g is hard. To gig a shield is to fit it with a new 
strap or handle, formerly called a gig. Cotgrave gives guiges, 
*the handles of a targuet or shield.' Godefroy explains guige 
as the strap by which a shield was hung round the neck, and 
gives numerous examples. Other spellings are guigue, gtiice, 
guiche, guinche, and even grince (probably corrupt). The 
word is evidently of Teutonic origin. Perhaps the word 
merely meant *fold' or *bend.' Cf. Swed. vika, to fold, to 
double, to plait; Icel. rikj'a, to turn; G. ici^kel, a roll, tcickeltiy 
to roll round, wrap up ; but this is uncertain. 

Gite, Gyte. This word occurs twice in Chaucer, C.T. 3952, 
6141. Simkin's wife wore *a gyte of red ' ; the Wyf of Bath 
wore *gaze scarlet gytes.^ Tyrwhitt explains it by *robe,' but 
it may have meant *cap' or *veil,' or 'head-covering,* which 
suits the context even better. Nares shews that it is used 
thrice by Qascoigne, and once by Fairfax. The sense is 
uncertain there, but seems to mean *robe'; Hazlitt's Glossary 
to Gascoigne omits the word altogether. I presume that the 


u hard ; hence the scribes prefer y to % in writing it (of. 
.£. gyde^ E. guide). It is doubtless of French origin, 
xiefiroy gives: ' guife, chapeau.' Roquefort has: *«ri^, 
lie.' The F. Gloss, appended to Ducange gives the word 
'art as applied to a man, and witarde as applied to a woman, 
nee, perhaps, the O.F. wiarty which Roquefort explains as 
j&l with which women cover their faces, evidently the 
le as O.F. guiart, explained by Godefroy as a dress or 
tment. The form of the word suggests that it is of 
itonic origin ; but the source is not apparent. It is 
ibably the same word as the M.E. and Scot, gt/de, gide, 
Iress, robe, of which Matzner give two examples, and 
nieson three. 

nory, Hand of. One of the Ingoldsby Legends is called 
e Nurse's Story; or, the Hand of Glory. It introduces 
5 line — * Lit by the light of the Glorious Hand.' This 
orious hand ' was supposed to be a dead man's hand, which 
ire a magic light. This fiction is due to a mistaken popular 
mology. We find the O.F. mnndegloire in Godefroy ; it 
8 supposed to signify ' hand of glory,' but, as a fact, it is 
'ariant spelling of mandragore (Shakespeare's mandragora), 
i means a mandrake, the plant so often associated 
th magic. We even find the very spelling maindegloire \ 
defroy cites, from the Glossaire des Salins, the entry : 
[andragora, maindeghireJ This is an excellent example 
the way in which legends arise from making up a tale 
explain a word. It is a caution to beware of such tales 
these. The identification of the hand of glortj with the 
ndrake is clenched by the statement in Cockayne's Leech- 
[ns, i. 245, that the mandrake 'shineth by night altogether 
e a lamp.' The corruption of Lat. mandragora to F. main- 
gloire is noticed by Trench (Eng. Past and Present) ; but 
does not notice the E. translation of the latter. 
Qolnptioiis. * Cooking for a genteel fam'ly, John, It's a 
uptiouB life ! ' 1862 : Verses and Translations, by C. S. 
ilverley). Perhaps it is a corruption of voluptious, i.e. 
%pfuous. The sense of the word is precisely the same as 
kt of voluptuous. 


Gourd, a species of falae dice ; Mer. 'Wivea, i. 3. 94. See 
Nares, who suggests that it is named ' in allusion to a 
gourd, which is scooped out ; * which is not a probable 
guess. Godefroy's O.F. Diet, gives the sb. gourd, in the 
sense of 'a cheat' {fourherie), which is much nearer the 
mark. I auppoee, too, that this eb. is allied to the O.F. adj. 
gourd, 'numme, astonied, asleep, . . . droweie, slow, heavy, 
sluggish ; ' Gotgrare. Minsheu's Span. Diet. (162^)) has 
goi-flo, ' grosse, fat, heavy, . . . foolish.' From Low Lat. 
gurdus, a dolt, a numskull ; Lewis and Short. Perhaps the 
dice were loaded, and so sluggish in action, not falling truly. 
Gf. F. engourdi, torpid. 

Hale. Mr. Mayhew points out to me that this is not 
necessarily a Scand. form, but simply the Northern English, 
corresponding to A.S. hdl. Cf. haly for holy, home for 
home, etc. We have the Scand. form in the word hail, as 
a salutation. 

Eavoo. This word occurs several times in Shakespeare, 
but does not seem to be much older. Richardson quotes aa 
example from Udall. I have supposed it to be of Snglisb 
origin, but Mr. Mayhew thinks it is French ; and, strange as 
this may seem, he is certainly right. The corresponding 
O.F. word is harot, which, by the common confusion between 
c and i, is occasionally written and printed havoc, of which 
Godefroy, s.v, havot, gives an example. Moreover, the sounds 
of t and c were probably confused, the word being not clearly 
understood. Even the nalivo M.E. bakke has been turned 
into hat. The equivalence of K havoc with the OF. harof, 
which had the sense of ' pillage, plunder,' is verified by it& 
peculiar use. Thus Shakespeare has the phrase ' to cry 
havoc,' which is obviously a translation of the O.F. crier 
haiot, to cry out plunder, i.e. aa I suppose, to give the signal 
for plundering. Of this phrase Godefroy gives two alette 
examples. The etymology of havot is obsoore ; bat I take it 
to be allied to F. hmet, a hook, especially a hook or croolc 
made of iron, whicii would bo ei,tn;mely useful to men ben* 
upon plunder. This F. hiiret is of Teut, origin, uud is eitliel> 
La F. ad^tatioQ of O. Uqft, a fil«ep, riTet, crotchet, or frooij 


aame root. The root is clearly the Germanic haf, 

cognate with the Aryan kap, as seen in capere, the primary 

notion being ' to seize/ Hence hatot has to do with seizing, 

or grasping, the very notion whence that of spoiling and 

plundering naturally arises. It is now easy to see that from 

the same root comes F. hater, which Gotgrave explains by 

'to hooky or grapple with a hook ; ' and the F. sb. har^e, 

which he explains by ' a gripe, or a handful ; also a booty, 

or prey ; ' and even the F. adv. havement, which he explains 

by * greedily/ covetously.' Of. also E. Friesic haffen, to 

devour greedily (Koolman) ; E. Friesic heffen, to catch up, 

orig. to seize. The latter is a strong verb, and is cognate 

with A.S. hebban, Goth, hafjan, and the Lat. capere. 

Hog. Kemble's Charters contain the place-names HocgeU 
wisile and ffocgeMn, We have Hogston in Oxfordshire, and 
Hogsthorpe in Lincolnshire ; besides other traces of it. 

m. The Icel. i//r, ill, properly has a long i. Mr. Bradley 
suggests that it is short for *f6ir, idle, cognate with A.S. id^l. 
Otherwise the A.S. idel has no Scandinavian cognate. And 
the equation of Icel. iiir with A.S. i/fel is impossible. But 
the connection in sense is not made out. 

Ive, or Herb Ive. In Chaucer's Sec. Non. Ta. 146, Partlet 
advises Chanticleer to eat some erbe yve. I find no explana- 
tion of this in Tyrwhitt or Morris. I used to think it was 
the same as ' ivy,' but it is nothing of the kind, as the word 
is French. Cotgrave has : * Ive, fem. The herb Ive ; Ive 
arthritique, Field cypress, herb Ive, Ground-Pine, Forget- 
me-not.' Now Field-cjrpress and Ground-pine are both 
names for Ajuga chanuepitys, a kind of bugle. Littr^ explains 
the mod. F. ire by Teucrium chamcepitys, a kind of germander, 
a very closely allied labiate plant. The explanation 'ground- 
pine ' will, I suppose, do very well. Britten's Plant-names 
duly gives Herb Ive, with three explanations, viz. Plantago 
Caronopus, or buck's-horn plantain ; Ajuga Chameepitya, or 
ground-pine, as above ; and Senebiera Coronopus, or lesser 
wart-cress. A Glossary called Sinonoma Bartholomei, ed. 
J. L. G. Mowat, Oxford, 1882, at p. 17, has: 'Cornu cervi, 
L herbive ; ' where comu cervi answers to * buck's horn.' 
Phil. TnnM. lSSS-90. 20 


Wright's Vocabularies give the Latin names as ostriago or 
ostragitim and eri/eon, but the senses are unknown ; also 
the A.S. name as li^tvyrt^ which Mr. Cockayne doubtfully 
interprets as the 'dwarf-elder/ which does not suit. The 
etymology of the F. ive is unknown. There is no reason for 
connecting it with E. ivy, nor with E. yew, both of which 
Littr^ mentions, but does not seem to favour. Halliwell 
explains Uerbive by forget-me-not, quoting from Gerarde; 
but the name of * forget-me-not ' is sometimes given to the 
ground-pine (see Britten), which brings us back to the same 
result as before. Thus the likeliest solution is the Ajuga 
ChamcepitySy as regards the sense, but the origin of tlie F. 
ive remains obscure. 

Jay. The etymology oi jay is from the O.F. iay, gay^ 
mod. F. geai'y and this is supposed to be from O.H.G. gdhi, 
M.H.G. gcehe (G.j'dhe), quick; hence, lively. This is already 
in my Dictionary ; but it is necessary to notice it here, 
because it must be dissociated from gay. See Gay, 

Lake. I have supposed this word to be borrowed from 
Lat. lacus, with which the A.S. lagu is cognate. Prof. Earle, 
in his A.S. Charters, p. 465, says — "It is important to 
observe that a lake is not [rather, teas not] a pool, but a 
stream of running water. Thus a boundary often follows the 
course of a lake (A.S. andlang lace), and such a stream is 
called a boundary -stream (gemdr-lacu), , . This lake for 
running water is a genuine English word, and it is still widely 
current in the W. of England, in Devon and Somerset, and 
probably Dorsetshire. If we are now familiar with the word 
as meaning a pool, it is one of the thousand proofs of the 
deep tinge our language has taken from the Romanesque.*' 
If this be so, our A.S. lacu, a lake, a running stream, has 
been more or less confused with the Lat. lacus and F. /ac, 
from which it was originally distinct. Cf. Ship-lake, Mort- 
lake, both on the Thames. The G. Lache now means a 
pool, lake, or puddle; but, according to Weigand, it was 
once applied to running water. The theories about the 
G. Lache are various. Kluge dissociates it from Lat. Iocub^ 
but makes a difficulty of connecting it with the adj. leek^ 


leaky. But the Icel. strong verb leka^ to leak, with the 
pt. t. laky seems sufficient to furnish the root-form ; see 
the Teat, root lak, to drip, in Fick, iii. 261. The stem lak 
perhaps accounts both for A.S. lac-u, as above, and the verb 
ieeean^ for ^lac-ian, to moisten. From the same stem we 
have also the LowL Sc. latck, a pool, a swamp, in Scott's 
Guy Mannering (see Jamieson) ; also Yksh. lac/ie, a muddy 
hole, a bog (see Halliwell). The orig. sense of ieka was to 
drip, or ooze drop by drop ; hence the A.S. lacu may have 
meant a stream formed by wet draining away from land, a 
^^ggi^l^ stream or gutter, from which the transition to the 
sense of pool or swampy place was easy. The Bremen 
Worterbuch assigns to Lache the double meaning of 'swamp' 
and * brine ' ; and the latter agrees with the Swed. laka^ 
pickle, juice, sap. We may also note here the prov. E. letch^ 
a wet ditch or gutter, and the river Lech in Gloucestershire, 
near which is Lechlade, See Latch, (I make the above note 
by way of suggestion only.) 

LampaSy a disease in the mouth of horses. It occurs in 
Cotgrave, and in Fitzherbert's Husbandry, ed. Skeat, sect. 
81 : * In the mouthe is the lampas, and is a thycke skyn full 
of bloude, hangyng ouer his tethe aboue, that he may not 
eate.* It is from F. lampas, * the fampasse, or swelling in a 
horse's mouth ; ' sometimes spelt laynpast. Littr^ discusses 
it, and shews that it is also spelt et/ipas, as if / stood for the 
article. He hesitates as to the original form. But this is 
settled by the occurrence of Ital. lampasco, with the same 
sense ; see Florio. Besides which, Godef roy gives lampas as 
the O.F. form; so that empas is a corruption. It is probably 
allied to F. lamper, to swallow in great gulps, a nasalised 
form of F. laper, to lap, spelt lapper in Cotgrave. The F. 
laper is of Teut. origin ; cf. M. Du. lappen, lapen, * to lap or 
licke like a dogge;' Hexham. The insertion of m may have 
been suggested by Lat. lamhere, 

Lampers, Lawmpas, a kind of thin silk. Halliwell gives 
lampors, a kind of thin silk ; and, in his edition of Nares, 
cites a quotation for it dated 1559. This form is probably 
an error for lampers, as that is precisely the M. Dutch form. 


Hexham gives : * lampera, fine silke Cloath or Linnen ; een 
latnpera, a Covering Garment, or a Veile ; ' whence mod. Du. 
lamfer, crape. I find a much older form, viz. lawmpas, in 
the following examples: 'half a pes of lawmpasy and, *a 
volet [piece] of laicmpaa neu * ; both in Testamenta Ebora- 
censia, i. 130. This is from the F. lampas, which see in 
Littr^. I suppose that the M. Du., though probably borrowed 
from French, has preserved an older form. I suggest that 
the original form was lampers, and that it is composed of the 
word which we spell lawn in English, and of the word pen^ 
used in Chaucer's Prologue. It may have been spelt lampoi 
by confusion with F. lampas, a disease of horses. See Pen. 

Latch, to moisten. In Shak. M.N.D. iii. 2. 36, we have the 
words : " Hast thou yet latched the Athenian's eyes With the 
love- juice, as I did bid thee doP" Here latch means to 
moisten, or to distil drops. Perhaps it should be letch ; from 
A.S. leccan, to moisten, irrigate ; from the same root as 
Swed. laka, Dan. lage, to distil, also to pickle. Other related 
words are E. Fries. lekkeUy to drop, drip, leak; whence 
lek'fat, a vessel to catch drops, answering to prov. E. latch- 
2)an, a dripping-pan. The Swed. laka pd, to put hot water 
into a mashing- tub (Widegren), is precisely the prov. E. 
latch on, to put water on the mash when the first wort has 
run off (Halliwell). The prov. E. latch, to catch, is from a 
different root ; but may have influenced the form of the less 
common verb. See Lak€. With the above we may also 
compare prov. E. leche, a deep rut, used in Yorkshire (Halli- 
well) ; also, in the same county, leek, to leak, leek an, to pour 
on (obviously the Northern equivalent to latch on), leek off, to 
drain off; also Uich, a wet ditch or gutter; and the East 
Anglian letch, a vessel for making lye. All these are related 
words, from the same root. The Teut. root is lak, to drop, 
drip ; Fick, iii. 261. See my letter on this word in Th^ 
Academy, May 11, 1889, p. 323. 

Lea (1), un tilled land. A.S. Uah ; which see in the A.S. 
Diet. M.E. ley, lay ; see my Diet. Also spelt ley, leigh. 
Often called lay- land, whence popular etymology connected 
it with the verbs lay and lie, and with the notion of lying 


hUow. Even Stratmann suggests a derivation from liggen, 

to lie; which appears to be wrong. Cognate with O.H.G. 

idk, and Lat. lucus ; see Schade. I believe that the account 

in my Diet, is correct ; but I wish to point out the confusion 

tbat has arisen from two false connections, viz. one with the 

Terb to Ue, and another with ka, a pasture. See below. 

lea (2), Lee, a pasture. I believe that this word is a 
totally different word from lea, untilled land, and has arisen 
from mere concision. I take the more correct spelling to be 
ke, and that it is really a mistaken form, due to cutting off 
the 8 from the word ieea, a pasture. The correct form is 
preserved in Lees, a place in the N.E. of Staffordshire, and 
in the surname Lees. We have a similar loss of final s in 
sherry, pea, Chinee, shay for chaise, etc. This I take to be the 
word used by Gray : * The lowing herd wind slowly o'er the 
ka* Le. over the pasture, not the fallow-land. I write this 
article chiefly by way of warning to Dr. Murray, believing 
that the words lea and lees have been almost inextricablv 
confused. A good example of this is given by Nares. He 
quotes a passage from W. Browne, containing the word lease, 
a pasture, and remarks that * the same author, with the care- 
lessness of his time, in p. 66, writes it leyes ; ' whereas the 
unfortunate culprit is probably right, seeing that leyes means 
leas, the plural of lea. Nares only quotes one of these 
passages, but the other is in Richardson. The former 
passage suggests that lease is singular, and speaks of a river's 
overflow, which " makes that channel which was shepherd's 
lease *^ i.e. a shepherd's pasture. In the other passage, leyes 
IB plural : * Whilst other lads are sporting on the leyes,' 
Britannia's Pastorals, bk. i. song 3. We get a further trace 
of lees, a pasture, in Cowel's Interpreter ; he gives us, s.vt 
Ley, the remark: * We also term pasture by a frequent name 
in several counties leys, and so it is used in Domesday.' 
When we get back to the M.E. period, all confusion ceases. 
Lea, fallow-land, is the M.E. ley, A.S. liah ; entered under 
le)e in Stratmann. But lees or lese, pasture, is the M.E. lese, 
or leswe, entered under lessee in Stratmann ; from an A.S. 
form Uhs or Uesu. Of the M.E. form one example may suffice. 


VIZ. from Will, of Palerne, 1. 175, where we are told thai 
William learnt ' to kepe alle her bestes, and bring hem ii 
the best le%e^ The form leasow, from the stem of the obliqa< 
cases of Icksu, is common in Shropshire, pronounced lezzer 
glossic [lez'u']. I think there must have been two distinct 
forms in A.S., both feminine, viz. kks, gen. Ickse, and l^u^ 
genitive i^swCf In Bosworth's Dictionary, the latter of these 
forms is not given ; but all the examples are entered undei 
icks only. The nom. pi. Idkswe, pascua, is given in Wright^ 
Vocab. 80. 49 (or, ed. Wulker, 325. 25), as well as liksa 
pascua, in ^Ifric's Grammar, 13. Somner, in his Dictionary 
s.y. keswe, shows that he understood the matter ; he ezplainf 
it by 'pascuum, feeding- ground or pasture, a ke»e or common. 
The derived verb is Idksician, 

Liana, Liana, a sort of cordage formed by climbing plants 
In Stedman's Expedition to Surinam, i. 232, are describee 
the nebees, or 'ligneous ropes' that abound on the trees; a 
p. 231 he speaks of * the nebees, called by the French lianne^ 
by the Spaniards bejucos, and in Surinam tay-tay* The won 
is French ; see liane in Littr^. The E. spelling liana prob 
ably arose from a notion that the word was of Spanish origin 
which is not the case. 

Limpet. It is now found that this word is of Latin origir 
The Lat. lempreda is sometimes found as lempreda or lempiHd^ 
and passed into A.S. as lempedu. Thus we find the gloss 
'lemprida, lempedu/ in Wright's A.S. Gloss., ed. Wiilke 
col. 438, L 17. The A.S. emp passes regularly into imp, i 
in E. limp, connected with A.S. lemp-healt. This, with lo 
of the suffix, gave the form limped, which naturally becazi 
limpet by association with the common F. suffix -et ; cf. al. 
A.S. abbod with the E. abbot. We still want an example < 
the M.E. form. Lamprey is a doublet, from the French. 

Marry Gip. An exclamation in Ben Jonson ; see Nares 
who speculates wrongly as to its origin. The older phrase 
is * By Mary Gipcy* in Skelton, ed. Dyce, vol. i. p. 4W, 
1. 1455. Gipcy or Gipny means 'Egyptian,' and Mary CHp 
means St. Mary of Egypt, Snncta Maria ^gyptiaca, whose 
day is April 9. Dyce remarks that this is the origin of the 


pfcnwei marry gep^ marry gfp, marry guep^ marry gup. We 
ereo find marry gap (Nares). But gitep, gup, gap^ with hard 
g^ ought to be separated from gep^ gip^jcp^jip. 

IbrtSA. The older form is mariern. I derive this from 
O.F. martre^ with excrescent n after r, as in bitter-n for 
litour. But the n may be adjectival. I find 'couertur 
martrin^' a coverlet made of marten's skins ; Rom. of Horn, 
L 726 (ed. Brede and Stengel). 

Maunder, to driveL The verb to maunder was a cant word, 
meaning to beg, and occurs in Beaumont and Fletcher ; see 
Nares. Secondly, it meant to grumble, in which sense it 
also occurs in the same ; see Nares. This sense of grumble 
easily arises from that of whining like a beggar. Thirdly, 
it came to mean to talk idly, to drivel ; not a very different 
sense. The verb seems to have arisen from the sb. maunder^ 
a beggar ; so that to maunder was to act as a beggar. Again, 
maunder f a beggar (also in Nares) was made from the verb 
maund, to beg, used by Ben Jonson (Nares). Nares suggests 
that it meant, originally, to beg with a maund, or basket, 
in one's hand for the reception of victuals. This is one of 
those desperate guesses in which I have no faith. Maunds 
were baskets for flowers, herbs, or household merchandise ; 
and the explanation is very forced. It is much more likely 
that the verb to maund is of F. origin. The F. mander, to 
command, sometimes meant to demand also (see Godefroy). 
It may easily have been confused with mendier (Lat. mendt- 
care), to beg ; for the O.F. mendier was sometimes spelt 
tnandier, and the adjectives mendi^ indigent, and mendien, 
begging, were also spelt mandi and mandien respectively 
(Godefroy). Hence I suspect that the E. maunder depends 
upon a confusion of the Lat. verbs mandare and mendicare, 
and has nothing at all to do with A.S. mand, a basket. 

Kay- weed, a plant ; Matricaria inodora, Anthemis cot u la, 
etc. I make a note that May is here short for viaythe, A.S. 
magepe. See Britten's Plant-names and the A.S. Diet. 

KajBzard, the head (Shakespeare). See Nares, whose 
Buggestion is perfectly right, viz. that it " was made from 
masber \ comparing the head to a large goblet." But, almost 


immediately afterwards, Nares quotes two passages in whicli 
he says it is " corrupted to mazer.'* Of coarse these two 
passages prove the exact contrary, viz. that mazer is the 
original form. The etymology of mazer is known ; see my 
Dictionary. Wedgwood takes the same view. 

Kean, to moan ; Mid. Nt. Dr. v. 330. Ignorantly changeA. 
to moans in some modem editions ; but it is quite right. 
Mean is the A.S. mcknan, to moan ; whereas mtxm should 
answer to a sb. *mdn, as yet undiscovered. So also we say to 
feed, not to food. It has the correct vowel- change. 

Keese, Mees, a mansion, manse, plow-land, etc. Nares 
gives a quotation for meeae, and says it means ' meads ' or 
'meadows'; but it means ' mansion.' Halliwell gives 'Meese, 
a mead, field, or pasture,' which is still worse, and quotes 'a 
certain toft or meese-placeJ In Cowel's Interpreter we get 
a glimpse of the truth ; he gives : '' Mease^ messuagiuro, 
seemeth to come from the F. maison, or rather tneix, . . in- 
terpreted . . manstts.** He adds, " in some places called 
corruptly a Mise or Miaeplace.' The hints at F. meix and 
Lat. mansus are both right. Meeae is much the same as 
manse ; see Low Lat. mamue in Ducange, who remarks that 
the word is found of all three genders, viz. manatM, mansn, 
mansum. His account is so full that little more need be said. 
The O.F. forms are various. Cotgrave gives * mas de terre, 
an oxe-gang, etc., having a house belonging to it ; ' also 
7nei\Fy mex, with the same sense. Godefroy gives maise, meise, 
meize, mef/se, meze, mase, a herb- garden, habitation, both 
masc. and fem. The form in Cotgrave is masculine. The 
masc. forms answer to Lat. fnansus, manaum, the fem. to 
mama. All from Lat. manere, verb. Thus the notion of its 
being a corruption of meads or of mead is pure fiction. See 
Chemis in N.E.D. 

Melocotone, a quince ; hence, a peach grafted on a quince. 
Nares gives the spellings male-cotoon, melicotton^ and explains 
it as ' a sort of late peach.' His examples shew that it was a 
kind of peach, and the same is true of the pi. me/ocofones in 
Bacon's Essay 46. Etymologically, the word means 'quince,' 
as will appear ; but, as the term was applied also to a peach 


^fted on a quince, the sense of * peach ' is, apparently, the 
Only one in English authors. Mr. Aldis Wright has kindly 
helped me with this word, which I at first identified with 
tbe Italian form. Mr. Wright says : ** It comes from the 
Span, meloeotofif which is a peach grafted on a quince. 
Eence it is sometimes called a yellow peach, and sometimes 
I yellow quince ; so that Nares is right in describing it, 
though his etymology is naught. [Nares thinks it has to do 
with cotton, which is not the case.] In Percy vall's (1591) 
ind Minsheu's (1599) Spanish Dictionaries Melocoton is do- 
wned as a peach. In Captain Stevens' it is called ' the 
nelocotone peach,' and he is followed by Pineda and 
Delpino.'' Minsheu's Span; Diet. (1623) has : ' Melocotdn, a 
peach.' Pineda (1740) gives two entries : * Melocoton, the 
Kfelocotone Peach ; * and * Melocoton, s.m. a yellow quince, or 
the quince-tree in which the Peach is grafted.' The cognate 
Italian word is given in Florio (1598); ' Melacotogno, the 
Fmite wee call a quince ; ' compounded of mela, * any kinde 
>f apple,' and cotogno, a quince. The Low Latin Diet, of 
Ducange has : * Cotonum (or Cotoneum) pomum, Ital. cotogno, 
P. coing,* i.e. a quince. I suppose that cotoneum is a mere 
irariant o( cydonium', see Quince in my Dictionary, and in the 
Supplement to it. 

Milk. The A.S. strong verb is not given in Bosworth's 
Dictionary. But it is duly given in Toller. The verb is 
fieican, pt. t. niealc, pp. molcen. 

Mite, a small coin. I have given the derivation from the 
tf .Du. m^le, myte. As a fact, I now suppose that we did not 
»ke it immediately from Dutch, but from the F. mite, 
irhich occurs, according to Godefroy, as early as 1332. He 
;ells us that it was an O.F. name of a Flemish coin. 

MoUand, high ground. In Halliwell and Wright's addi- 
ions to Nares. It stands for moor-land. 

Montanto, Montant, terms in fencing. Ben Jonson has 
nontanto, and Shakespeare montant ; see Nares. Schmidt 
lays the latter is the F. montant, which Cotgrave explains by 
an upright blow or thrust.' I draw attention to the form 
nontanto, to remark that it is not Italian, but Spanish, and a 


corruption of montantp, just as tomato is of the Span, tomato, 
Minsheu's Span. Diet, gives : montante, * a two-handed 
sword.' The Span, montar means * to mount a horse*; so 
montante is a ' mounting-sword/ i.e, a horseman's sword. A 
two-handed sword is just suited for a horseman, and its best 
use is to cut straight downwards. Hence Span, montante and 
F.nwntant meant *a downright blow/ which is precisely what 
Cotgrave meant by * upright blow.' 

Monnets. Halliwell and Wright's additions to Nares 
quote a passage from Saunders' Physiognomic (1653) to this 
effect. 'Little ears denote a good understanding, but they 
must not be of those ears which, being little, are withall 
deformed, which happens to men as well as cattel, which for 
this reason they call monnets ; for such ears signifie nothing 
but mischief and malice.' The explanation given is 'small 
deformed ears,' which is palpably wrong ; the context clearly 
shews that the term was applied to cattle that had small 
deformed ears. What is the precise joke I do not quite 
understand ; but I believe that the word is simply the O.F. 
monfiet, variant of moinet, a monk, dimin. of moine. We also 
find the fern, moinette, a nun. The tonsure gave a peculiar 
look to the head and ears. 

Not-pated, having the hair cut short ; 1 Hen. IV. iL 4. 78. 
Schmidt is in some doubt as to the sense ; but there need be 
none. See Nott^ Nott-pated in Nares, who says that it is 
from the verb * to notty to shear or poll, which is from the 
Saxon hnot^ meaning the same.' He has got the right idea, 
but gives it the wrong way about ; and it is extraordinary to 
find him speaking of the A.S. knot as being a verb. The 
A.S. hnot is an adjective, meaning close-cut or shaven; hence 
not-pated is formed at once, without any verb at all. Finally 
the verb to not or nott is formed from the adjective, and is a 
much later word. I find no example of it in M.E. For the 
adjective, see hnot in Stratmann. 

Omelet. Spelt aumelette in the Gazophylacium Anglicanum, 
1089. A cross-reference for this spelling is not given in the 
N.E.D. ; but is important for the etymology, as it is spelt 
aumelette also in Cotgrave. See my Dictionary. 


Oitrich. There is an early example of this word in 'plumes 
i'ouBtrich * ; Testamenta Eboracensia, i. 227 ; a.d. 1398. 

Pen, blueish gray ; also, a thin stuff of that colour. M.E. 
jfers, Chaucer, Prol. 439. From O.F. pers, blueish gray, in 
Bartsch's Chrestomathie. Low Lat. persus, perseus, blueish ; 
see Ducange. And see pers in Littr6. It seems to have 
denoted all kinds of blueish colours ; and, according to 
Ducange, alluded to the colour of the peach. It came to 
mean quite a dark blue, quite the colour of indigo. Florio, 
8.T. perso, says it meant 'a darke, broune, black mourning 
colour. Some take it to be properlie the colour of dead 
marierom [marioram] ; for Persa is marierom. Some have 
vsed it for peach-colour.* He also gives persa, ' the herbe 
Margerome.* The flowers of marjoram are purple. The 
words relating to colours are usually very vague. In 
-Sllfric's Glossary, we find : ^perseus, blaewen,' i.e. blueish ; 
see Wright's Vocab. ed. Wiilker, col. 163, 1. 29. In any 
case, it is highly probable that the word is ultimately derived 
from the name of the country which we call Persia, 

Picaninny, Pickaninny, a negro or mulatto infant. Webster 
guesses this to be from Span, picade nino, which gives no 
sense; I can only find picado, pricked, stung. Following 
this, Ogilvie makes a better guess, viz. from Span, pequeno 
ninOy i.e. young child. But I doubt this too, in some measure. 
I find that J. G. Stedman, who wrote an Expedition to Suri- 
nam in 1796, tells us, in vol. ii. p. 257, that he considered 
Limself to be a perfect master of the language spoken by the 
black people in Surinam. In fact, he married a mulatto 
woman of unusually fine character, who saved his life, by 
careful nursing, three several times. He tells us that, in 
this dialect of the slaves, the word for ' small ' was peekeeUy 
and for * very small * was peekeeneenee, vol. ii. p. 258. The 
word is obviously a diminutive of Span, pequefio, small; so 
that nirio, a child, has nothing to do with it. The Span, 
diminutive suffixes are numerous, and words involving them 
may be formed at fancy. Del Mar's Span. Grammar (Lecture 
7) gives the masc. suffixes -tw, -illo, -ito, -tea, etc. ; so that 
peguemn is a possible form ; f em. pequenina. 


Pompelmoose, Pomplemoose, a shaddock. We learn from 
Stedman's Expedition to Surinam, i. 22, that this is merely 
the Surinam name for the shaddock. Ogilvie says the name 
is * probably of Eastern origin.* As Surinam is in Dutch 
Guiana, I suspect that the Eastern language from which it is 
derived is Dutch. The shaddock is something like a huge 
orange ; cf. Du. pompom, a pumpkin, borrowed from F. 
pompon. The Du. moea means greens or potherbs ; Hexham 
explains it by * pottage or pulse.* I think these words may 
give the clue. See Shaddock, 

Pull. Somner gives the A.S. pullian, without a reference. 
There are two references for it in Bosworth and Toller's Diet. 

Puss, a cat. Mr. Wedgwood cites Du. poes, puss ; Low G. 
puH8, a call- name for a cat ; Low G. puus-katte, pum-maUf a 
pussy-cat ; Lith. puzy puiz, a call-name for a cat ; and 
suggests that it was originally a cry to call or drive away a 
cat, from an imitation of the noise made by a cat spitting. 
In any case it was probably imitative. I wish to add that 
we also find Norweg. puse, puus, a call-name for a cat ; Swed. 
dial, pus, katte-pxiSy kisse-pus, a cat. Hexham gives M.Du. 
poesen, to kisse, or to busse, which is also imitative. Cf. also 
buss. Aasen also gives Norweg. purre, a call-name for a cat; 
evidently related to E. purr. 

Quassia. We are told that quassia was named after a 
certain negro known as Graman Quacy. The standard 
passage is the following : '^ But besides these, and many 
other artful contrivances, he had the good fortune, in 1730, 
to find out the valuable root known by the name of the 
QaacicB bitter, of which he was actually the first discoverer, 
and from which it took its name. ... It has this valuable 
property, that of being a powerful febrifuge, and may be 
successfully used when the bark is nauseated, as is frequently 
the case. In 1761 it was made known to Linnaeus by Mr. 
d'Ahlbergy formerly mentioned; and the Swedish naturalist 
has since written a treatise upon it. By this drug alone 
Quacy might have amassed riches, were he not entirely 
abandoned to indolence and dissipation," etc. (1796), J. G. 
Stedman, Expedition to Surinam, ii. 347. Stedman knew 


him, and drew his portrait, which is engraved in the book 
at p. 348, with the title, ' The celebrated Graman Quacy.' 
Graman is a negro corruption of grand man or of great man. 
He must have been born about 1700, as he could remember 
having acted as drummer in 1712. He was born in Guinea, 
and carried ofif to Surinam as a slave ; but he obtained his 
freedom, and amassed a competent living by practising as a 
medicine-man and selling amulets. Stedman saw him in 
1777, when he must have been nearly 80 years old ; but 
Quacy could not tell the year of his own birth. 

Quean, a wench. Mr. Mayhew draws my attention to the 
mistake I have made in confusing this word with qiieen. 
The E. queen is the A.S. ctcin (for *cwdni), cognate with 0. 
Sax. qudn (for *qudni), from primitive Teut. *ku:cm%Zy whence 
also Goth, kwens, strong sb. fem., a woman. See Sievers, 
Gram. § 68, note 1. The E. quean is the A.S. cwene (with 
short e, but marked long by mistake in Bosworth), O.Sax. 
quenOy O.H.G. quena^ Goth, kwino, weak sb. fem. ; primitive 
Teut. *kwendn ; see Brugmann, § 437, a. The short e in the 
open syllable of the A.S. cwe-ne regularly gave rise to a long 
open «, represented by ea in Tudor English; whence our 
present spelling. 

Eefit. See Fit (above). 

Beyeille. I have already noted that this word represents 
the F. imper. pi. riveillez ; see Phil. Soc. Trans. 1885-6, p. 
321. I now add that I have received the following note 
from M. H. Gaidoz: 'C'est ^videmment le premier mot d'une 
aubade, et une abr^viation, par apocope, de r&veillez tous. 
Je me souviens d'un couplet de ce genre que j'ai entendu 
chanter dans mon enfance (il rime par assonance) : 

Hfeveillez vous, belle endormie ! 
H^veillez vous, car il fait jour ! 
Mettez la tete 
A la fenetre, 
Vous entendrez parler de vous ! ' 

N.B. — ^This verse is quoted by Dryden, The Assignation^ 
A. ii. sc. 3, with Eveillez for R^veillez ; also belles endormies ; 
il est jour ; and cC amour for de vous. 


Bigol, a circlet (Shakespeare). Nares refers us to the Ital. 
rigolo, but does not give us the etymology of that word, nor 
does he well explain it. It is certainly the same word. 
Torriano has : * Bigolo, a little wheel under a sledge, called a 
truck, also a rolling round log, as they use in gardens to 
smooth allies,^ i.e. a garden-roller. A truck is a small wheel 
formed of a solid disc. The word is allied to regola^ and 
derived from the Lat. regttla, which not only meant a rule, a 
bar, a measuring rod, but also a disc of an oil-press; see 
Lewis and Short. In Italian, the use of n- for re- is very 

Kobbins. Phillips, ed. 1706, gives 'Bobbins, Robins, in 
sea affairs, certain small ropes that are reeved, or put through 
eyelet-holes of the sail, under the head-ropes, and serve to 
make fast, or tie the sails to the yards.' It is a corruption 
of Ho'bands, where ro is the E. form answering the Lowl. Sc. 
ra or rai. In the Compl. of Scotland, ed. Murray, p. 40, we 
find : ' than the maister . . . cryit, tua men abufe to the 
mane ra, cut the rai-bandis, etc. The word is common 
Teutonic, viz. Icel. rd, Swed. rrf, Dan. raa, E. Fries, rd 
(Eoolman), G. rahe, meaning 'a yard' of a ship; and the 
compound occurs in E. Fries, rd-hand, Dan. raaband, Swed. 
rdbandf which Widegren explains by * rope-band.* The E. 
form would be ro-band, though we have no early example of 
it; probably because the old form *ro was displaced by 
* yard.' That the E. word once had a long o, is shown by 
its corruption into rope-band; and the reason why I here 
make a note of the true etymology is because both Webster 
and the Imperial Dictionary actually take the corrupted form 
rope-band as the true original ! This corrupt form occurs, as 
noted above, in Widegren (1788), who says he took it from 
Croker, i.e. the Dictionary of Arts and Sciences, by the Rev. 
H. T. Croker (1766). Bo or ra may be from a Teut. root 
RAH ; Fick, iii. 250. Cf. Skt. rack, to arrange, compose. 

Scamble, to struggle (Shakespeare). To scamble is probably 
allied to scamper and shamble. See Shamble in my Dictionary. 

Scour, to run hastily over ; in the phrase * scour the 
country.' I think this is quite distinct from the common 


Terb to seoury though the Dictionaries confuse them. The 
phrase is old. Jamieson refers us to Blind Harry's Wallace, 
vii. 795-7 : * The spy he send, the entre for to se ; Apon the 
moss a scurraur sone fand he ; To scour the land Makfadzane 
had him send.' Jamieson dismisses the right etymology 
in fayour of the common one, which connects it with the 
ordinary verb scour. But the use of the sb. scurrour, as the 
name of the person who scours, gives us the right clue at 
once ; and there is no difficulty. It is from the O.F. escorre, 
escourre, to run ; Lat. excurrere, to run out, to make excur- 
sions. For the sense, cf . Lat. excursor, a scout, spy ; the 
precise sense of scurrour. Hence, in Pope's famous line — 
* Not so, when swift Camilla scours the plain ' — my belief is 
that the lady merely made a swift excursion, and that there 
is no reference whatever to her use of a scrubbing-brush. I 
may add that there are two F. verbs spelt escourre ; Cotgrave 
gives the other one, from Lat. excutere. 

Scnr, Skirr, to run rapidly over. Shak. has ^skirr the 
country round/ i.e. run rapidly round the country ; see 
Schmidt on Macb. v. 3. 35. Beaumont and Fletcher spell it 
wwr, in the phrase * scur o'er the fields of corn ' ; Bonduca, 
Act i. sc. 1. Webster refers us to the verb to scour, to which 
I do not object ; but he mixes up the two verbs of this form, 
and then, to add to the confusion, gives two etymologies. 
For scour, in the sense to run rapidly, he refers us to the 
Low G. schuren, and there is also an E. Fries, scheren with 
much the same sense. But both these references are useless. 
The word is not Teutonic at all, but French, and I have 
explained it above. The verb to scur plainly goes with the 
sb. scurrour, a scout, in Blind Harry, spelt scurrer in Berners; 
see Scur in Kichardson^ The frequentative form is scurry, 
used in North's Plutarch, p. 862 (Richardson). I suggest 
that the ou in scour is long, as representing the O.F. verb 
escourre ; whilst the u in scur is short, as being associated 
with the M.E. scurrour above. See Scour. 

Shaddock. In Stedman's Expedition to Surinam (1796), 
i. 22, is the remark : * I was particularly struck with the 
shaddock and awara ; the former of these, which is of a very 


agreeable flavour, between a sweet and an acid, is produced 
from a tree supposed to be transplanted from the coast of 
Guinea, by a Captain Shaddock, whose name it still retains 
throughout the English West India islands, but is called 
pompelmoose in Surinam.' Guinea may be an error for China, 
as that seems to be the real home of the tree. See Pampel- 
moose. I have enquired in Notes and Queries for the date at 
which Captain Shaddock lived, but the only answer wa«, 
that he is mentioned, in connection with the fruit, in Sir 
Hans Sloane's Hist, of Jamaica, 1709-25. Perhaps he lived 
in the seventeenth century. 

Share, the fork of the legs. A provincial word ; see Nares 
and Halliwell. The A.S. form is sceare, not in Bosworth's 
Dictionary; but at p. Ixxii of Cockayne's Leechdoms, voL L, 
we find Lat. ingttinam (sic), glossed by />a sceare. At p. 
Ixxiv, 1. 30, it occurs again, spelt scare. 

Shire. The usual connection of this word with the verb 
to shear must be given up. The > was originally long; cf. 
' procuratio, sciir * ; Corpus Gloss., 1625. There are, also, 
two forms ; viz. sctr, fern., gen. scire, which is the usual form, 
and the weak fem. scire, gen. sciran. There is a good accouDt 
of these in Schmid's ed. of the A.S. Laws ; Gloss, p. 651. 
The earliest occurrence of the word is in the A.S. Chron. s.v. 
709, where the pi. biscop-acira means * bishop-provinces,* i>. 
dioceses. The word sclr also means * care * or * business' ; we 
even find dgif pine scire, give an account of thy stewardship, 
and the compound fun-scire, lit. * town-business,* i.e. business 
of the farm, both in Luke xvi. 2. The Northumbrian text has 
groefscire as a gloss to * uilicationis,* and the verb gescira 
as a gloss to 'uilicare.* The corresponding O.H.G. word is 
scira, care, employment ; see Schade. The A.S. scirian is to 
distribute, impart, appoint, allot ; it is given by Grein under 
scerian, a spelling which does not occur amongst his eight 
examples. All the evidence leads us away from the verb to 
shear, and suggests a base of the form skir, meaning perhaps 
to appoint or allot. It is remarkable that the G. Schirrmeister 
sometimes has the sense of ' steward.* This word is related 
to G. Geschirr, implements, harness, gear; an obscure word. 


Skixr. See 8cur. 

Skirrety Skenet, a plant closely allied to the water-parenep. 
Iritten (Plant-names) says it is the Slum aisarum, often called 
aier-parsn^, though the latter is the 8ium latifolium or 
%gu9t\foUum. M.E. ski/rwyt; in Wright's Yocab. 667. 31 
id 41, and 580. 38. Webster considers this word to be a 
mtraction of sugar-root^ which I believe to be a mistake ; 

also think he is mistaken in supposing that skirret is 
lort for aktr-tcort. On the contrary, skir-tport, occurring in 
erarde's Herbal, is probably due to a popular etymology of 
le cray-fiah character, which delights in putting a sense into 
%lf the word, irrespective of the other half. The M.E. 
»rm Bkyrtoyt goes to shew that this is so. We do, indeed, 
ad that the Dutch for * skirret * is suiker-tcortei, the German 
xckeT'Wurzel^ and the Swedish socker-rot, but I suppose that 
leee forms arose from a popular etymology, or else have 
^tiling to do with skirret. The change from Du. suiker- 
oriel to M.E. akyrwyt is too violent, and we should never 
ftve taken it from Swedish. Much more likely, the M.E. 
:yrwyt was a bad adaptation of the O.F. name for it ; the 
►rm eschervis is given by Godefroy. The Mod. F. form is 
wrviSf and Cotgrave has : * Chervis, the root skirret or skir- 
icke.' The F. eschervis may have been taken from the Span. 
tirrivia, and both from the Arab, karatcia, the identical 
ord which has also produced F. carvi and E. caraway. This 

the opinion of Scbeler and Devic, s.v. chervis. The fact of 
1 Arabic origin accounts for the strange forms which the 
ord assumed. Moreover, the plant is foreign, being a 
itive of China, Corea, Japan, etc. 

Sounder, a herd of wild swine ; see Nares. Neither 
Tebster nor Ogilvie give the etymology. The fact is, that 
16 word is slightly disguised by the insertion of an excres- 
int £^ (as in sound from F. son). The Old Northumbrian 
>rm is sunor\ see Luke viii. 32 in the Lindisfarne MS., 
here it translates Lat. grex\ cf. O. Mercian suner. Matt. 
ii. 32, in the Rushworth MS. The word even found its 
ay, from English, into Anglo-French. I find **\nisundre de 
>r8y'^ a sounder of pigs, in the A.F. version of Horn, 1. 4658. 

rUl. Trans. 1838-80. 21 



Sparver, the canopy or tester of a bed; Nares. Naree 
could not find it in any Dictionary ; it may now be loand in 
Godefroy^s O.F. Diet., s.v. espervier. 

Stalwart. Formerly stalworth. The solution of A.8. 
stcelwyt^ is given by Sievers, O.E. Grammar, ed. 1887, § 202 
(3), note 2, p. 106. The m has been shortened before tie 
following IWf as in Acton from A.8. dc-t^n ; and stml is a 
contraction for BtcfSel^ 8t(t6ol, a foundation. Of. gestchlan in 
Grein, short for gesta^efian, to found, establish. So also 
M.E. melen, to speak, answers to A.S. mmlan^ which may be 
short for median. Stalwart means, accordingly, 'foundation- 
worthy,' %,e. firm, steadfast. 

Stammer. The Dictionaries do not giye us the A.S. fern; 
of this verb, which is stotnrian. * Me thinceth thaet me w^ 
tunge stomrige/ it seems to me that my tongue stammers*' 
Cockayne's Shrine, p. 42, 1. 3 from bottom. 

Stop. Some Dictionaries give an A.S. faratappian or /r> 
atoppatiy but without a reference. The imp. s. fovBtoppa^ stop 
up, occurs in Cockayne's Leechdoras, ii. 42. It is^ however, 
of Lat. origin. The legal word estop is from A.F. eatoper, alio 
from Latin ; see Gloss, to Britton. 

Stour, a conflict. This is M.E. stour, occurring in 
Chaucer's Monk's Tale, C.T. Group B, 3560; and still 
earlier, ab. 1330, in Specimens of English, part 2, p. 91, L 
55. From A.F. estur, O.F. estouvy a conflict, combat, attack; 
also spelt estor^ and earlier eatorn. The form estorn is 
altered from *€%torm ; cf. Ital. atormOy ' a noise, a storme, an 
vprore, an hurlyburly, a broile, a quoil,' Florio. See also 
estotir in Cotgrave, who gives as one sense ' an assault upon a 
town,' which is a sense found also in E. atorfn. Hence the 
derivation is from a Germanic form stormy as seen in A.S. 
and O.S. stormy Icel. atormr, a storm, also, a conflict. See 
Sturm in Eluge and Schade, and atormo in Diez. The loss 
of m after r in French, at the end of a word, is regular; 
thus the Lat. nei*mem gives Ital. venue, F. vei', a worm ; see 
Schwan, Gram, des Altfr. p. 62, § 219. In the A.F. 
Romance of Horn, 1. 1624, we have lestur, the conflict ; and, 
in 1. 1572, la uile eat eaturmte, the town is stormed. 


IramonL I have suggested that E. transom is a corrup- 
tion of Lat. transtrum. This is Terified by the following 
entries in Florio (1598) : * Tramtri, crosse or over-thwart 
beamesy transtromsJ And again — * Trasti . . . Also a tran' 
same or beame going crosse a house/ Torriano^ s.v. transtri, 
gives the spelling transom. 

Twiteh. Somner gives no reference for the A.S. tunccian ; 
we find, howeYer, the pt. pi. ttciccedan, in the Shrine, ed. 
Cockayne, p. 41, 1. 2. Also the pr. s. ticicccfS, in Wright's 
Voc. ed. Wiilker, 533. 37. 

Tybalt, prince of cats (Shakespeare). The allusion is to 
Tybert or Tihert^ the name of the cat in Reynard the Fox. 
I take Tybalt to be a shorter form of Theobald, which again 
is short for Theodbald. The variant Thetbald occurs as the 
author of Pht/siologus, of which the English Bestiary is a 
translation. The A.S. form is Theodbald, which occurs in 
Beda, Hist Eccl. bk. i. c. 34. It is spelt Teodbald in the 
A.S. Chron. an. 1140. Bardsley's English Surnames gives 
the old spellings Thebold, Thebald, Tebald, Tebaud, Tibaud, 
Tibet, and the modem Tibbald, Tibbat, Tebbot, etc. 

Vagrant. I once suggested that vagrant is a corruption of 
the A.F. wakerant, wandering. I now find that this A.F. 
word is the very word used to denote vagrants, in the Liber 
Albus, ed. Riley, p. 275, in the Statute " De Wakerauntz par 
Noet,'* i.e. concerning vagrants by night. 

Words dibcubsbd:— chess, cieling, clever, coble, cosset, costrel, cot, cot^lamb, 
crack, craier (crare), cross, cudgel, ciillis, dogger, dot, draught-house, draughts, 
iald-stool, fanteague, firk, fit, fives, flabbergast, flaw, furlong, gallant, gambeson, 
gambol, garnep, ^y, ghoul, gigging, gite, glory (hand o^, ^oluntious, gourd, 
hale, havoc, ho^, ill, ive, jay, lake, lampas, lampers, latch, lea (1), lea (2), liana, 
limpet, marry rip, marten, maunder, may-weea, mazzard, mean (moan), meese, 
melocotone, muk, mite, molland, montanto, monnets, not-pated, omelet, ostrich, 
pers, picaninny, pompelmoose, pull, puss, quassia, (^uean, refit, reveille, rigol, 
robbins, scamole, scour, scur, shaddock, share, shire, skirr, skirret, sounder, 
sparver, stalwart, stammer, stop, stour, transom, twitch, Tybalt, vagrant. 



Wharton, M.A. 

{Bead at a Meeting of the PhiMogieal Society, December 20, 1889.) 

(1) CoMPA&ATiTE Etymology is so complex a science that not even 
a work of genius like Bnigmann's ' Gmndriss ' can exhaust all the 
problems that arise. We may here confine ourselves to points in 
the Latin consonant-system in which Bnigmann's remarks may be 
supplemented by fresh ideas, or in which he has too hastily adopted 
the views of other philologists, or in which — and this is the one 
defect of his system — ^he has paid too little attention to the influence 
of dialect. Latin, like every other language, at least every written 
language, is a congeries of dialects, each with phonetic laws of 
its own : no one of the classical Koroan writers except Caesar was 
by birth a Boman, and each doubtless imported traces of his own 
native idiom, Livy his * Patavinity,' Catullus his (apparently 
Gaulish) hdsium gingiva saliva, — The references are to the sections 
of vol. i. of the * Grundriss.' The references to the Bomance lan- 
guages are from Grober's articles in Wolfflin's *Archiv.' *B.B.* 
denotes Bezzenberger's 'Beitriige.' The letters are taken in the 
following order: Semivowels (j, v), Liquids (m, n, 1, r), Mutes 
(labials, dentals, palatal and velar gutturals), and the Sibilant (s). 
Letters of the * XJrsprache ' are given in capitals. 

(2) Initial J drops before i, dejici^ and other compounds of jaeio 
are properly spelt deiciOf etc. So, I would suggest, 

icio * stiike ' stands for *jicio from *iecio or (with * pretonic * a, 
* Latin Vocalism,' ^ sec. 5) jacio * throw ' (for the meaning cf. 

1 I may be permitted to append a note on some points in that essay. Sec. 2, 
for shnilis read simplex : sec. 3 fin., on caiix see * Loanwords in Latin 10. Sec. 
6, aholal etc. from aid are * survivals * of tbe older spelling, in which the un- 
accented vowel became o (oppodum Hecoba fnarmor)^ later ii. — The change from 
a to was apparently rustic, Cato has jogalia beside jugnm. Sec. 7 on., add 
severusy from SEGV-, see sec. 8 of this essay. Sec. 8, enc appears in juveneut: 
the a in uanciscor is pretonic. Congius shows that o may remain before ag. and 



fioKXtff, which means both ' throw ' and < strike ') : Lucretias' icit 
and leimur borrow their long vowel from eteit (a disyllable in 3. 
877) for ifufit : 

fgiiur * therefore ' means properly ' it is added,' and stands for 
•jigitur from ^ugitur, m 'Aoristic' form ot jungitur (as tagd of 

hgae * pair of horses ' for *bi-igae comes from a form *igam (cf . 
Old Slavonic igo) for *jigum from jugum * yoke ' ; while hi-jugm 
comes straight from jugum : 

Ivema 'Ireland ' in Mela beside Juvema in Juvenal points to an 
intermediate form *Jtvema. 

So New TJmbrian ivengar 'juvencae' is for *jivengar from 

(8) Original J* between vowels drops out (134); but in three 
cases it remains, lengthening (see Seelmann ' Aussprache ' p. 104) 
the vowel before it : 

(a) in onomatopoeic words, ^a (so it should be written, not eia : 
a diphthong ei- is unknown to classical Latin) and its derivative 

()3) in Bedoplication : I would derive 

jifentd 'I breakfast' (for *ji.jent6, the second j changing the i to 
e) from jantd (another form of the word, see Nettleship's * Contri- 
butions to Latin Lexicography ' : the third form, jen(d, is a blend- 
ing of the two preceding forms, it owes its e to the reduplicated 
form), which is, I would suggest, from jam in the sense of ' at 
once,' breakfast being a meal taken immediately on rising : 

jefunw 'fasting' (for *ji-ju-nu8) beside Sanskrit yu- 'to bind,' 
cf . our ' fast ' in the sense of abstinence beside ' fast ' in the sense 
of fixt, strict (see Skeat) : 

to meei,' and tln'tiput from simi'. The ft from 9 was really (cf. sec. 2 fin.) tl, 
representable by 1, sUpet from adspet and (I would suggest) rmldeo ' show the 
teeth ' from nudtu i.e. *nodus, *n5(g)vidus, Lithuanian nuffos. Joeundu» (Catul- 
las) comes from jwd^ the older form (preserved in Faliscan) of juvo. Sec. 14, 
plinu goes withp^ 'I fill' (Festus quotes /7^/t4r). 

I As distinguished from j before which a g has dropped, major ajo. So bdja 
(as it should be written, not boia) 'collar of wood, iron, or leather' (Facciokti) 
may B^bog-ja, though the derivation is quite unknown : the sense, as well as the 
form, is against any connexion with fi6uo9, qua^i * of cowhide.' — I may observe 
that e before j becomes g and drops : pej'nr =*'pegjoT or *pec-jor from peeedf 
pul^'mm 'fleabane's^pQlegjum (cf. the late iorm pulegium) or *pQlec-jum from 
piUex 'flea,' and, I would add, bajulua ' porter ' = *bagjulus or *bac-ju-lus 
bodde baeulum * staff ' (' supporter ') and Hesychius' fidimiis * strong.' 


(7) in terminationB, e.g. pkhefus (so it most be spelt, not pkbeius)^ 
^*U8 (whatever the origin of the termination here). 

(4) Medial DJ in Latin became di, e.g. aeupedius (135) : prima 
facie we should expect initiial DJ to be treated in the same way, 
and there is really no proof that it ever became J. Brugmann's 
only instance is Jovis beside Zem (for ^Aievv) ; bat (1) in no other 
case does the Latin name of a deity correspond with the Greek 
name, Jund cannot go with ''Hptf nor Neptunus with lloff€ihSiv, and 
(2) the spellings DiavU for JovU (Oellius 5. 12. 8 deriyes both ' a 
juvando'), Diutuma for Jutuma (Stolz, 'Lateinische Grammatik' 
66 % only prove that in some sub-dialect initial j was pronounced 
like English d in dew^ as in a late inscription (Seelmann p. 239) 
we have eodiugi for co{n)jug%. — ^How DJ could become j in Jovu 
(135) but di in di^ (188), Brugmann does not explain ; not to add 
that inscriptions and the Eomance languages prove the 1 in diU to 
have been properly long (which does away with the connexion 
with Sanskrit dydui * sky, day *), 

(6) The existence of a ' spirant ' J (our authorities do not tell us 
how they would have us pronounce it), distinct from the original 
semivowel J, is neither proved nor probable. Greek in some six 
words ' represents original initial J by (f, ^eid f em ^fffua (t/7oV ^vfitf 
iwvri go with Sanskrit yavaa yas- yam- yugam yUthas and Zend yah- 
respectively ; but in these words I would rather suggest the 
presence of some alien language, the ^ need no more be original 
than Lat. cy for j in Diovis (above). A peculiarity confined to one 
out of the eight branches of the Aryan family — and in all the other 
branches this 'spirant' J is treated in just the same way as the 
ordinary semivowel J — may fairly be assigned to foreign influence. 

(6) Latin Y, whether original or from GY, after a remains in 

^ Stolz adds Dianut (in an inBcription) for Janus ; but in Bianut the i most 
have been long, as it was in Diana. 
' To tbese I would add tbe terminational -^€ < at * (in fya(f X'M^C^ ' o^ ^he 

of (from id is worth much, 6(oi (593) may go with Lithuanian hgis (B.B. 4. 359), 
X((io for *c(» is no more strange than Imros beside equu$ (in which Brugmann, 
387, sees nothing surprising), Ai6(oTOi is only a Boeotian form for Atoo-Soros 
(Gustav Meyer *6riechische Grammatik'^ 283), and (2) 'analogy' hardly enables 
us to conceive a Plural from Ipa, a form *ljpaT-Sc becoming Ipa^c (or *x<V^*'< 
becoming xo^taCO* 


elaasicai Latin only if j precede, juvenis juvd^ or if 1 from original 
/ folkw, exuviae fluviue (cf. Vergil's fluvjorum) pluvius puvid 
('strikt/ Feetns); otherwise it drops, exud JhO pluit, duo beside 
Umbiian tuva, dinud for de novo (modem Latin, not classical), 
9idu9U from *viduvu8 for *videvos (cf. i}/(9609, i.e. *fi'Fi0efo9). 
80 »pos beside i{F)o9 became ^suvus and then euus, ^tos beside 
'n[f)69 became *tuyuB and then tutu, pover (Corssen ' Aussprache' ' 
1. p. 362) became *puyer and then puer, 

(7) The assimiktion of Y to a preceding L (170) must have 
been Oscan: sollm 'whole' (Oscan according to Festns) must= 
*Bolviu and go with ovko9 (i.e. *o\Fo9). So tnella for *melva 
from *medva seems to go with fieOv ^ wine ' and Lithuanian medui 
'honey' (Stokes, Neoceltic Verb Substantive, p. 7); moUie is for 
^molvis, see sec. 21 ; palled for *palyeo goes with Anglosaxon/^a/M 
'yellow' and English fallow. So, I would suggest, the late form 
mlUid ' a kind of hawk ' beside tnllvus ' kite ' must stand for 
*milvio : for the terminations cf . pUmilid beside pUmilus. 

(8) The fortunes of Y after D or S (170, cf. Frohde in B.6. 14. 
108-113) are very complex, and show the influence of several 
different dialects. 

(a) dy- might either remain or become dn- or d- or b-. Thus : 

dveUum (Plautus) becomes in Ennius and Horace dueUum (in 
Cicero and Livy we may of course read the word either way), in 
ordinary Latin helium : 

*dvU (corresponding to £<V) becomes in Festus duU (his words, 
'et pro Bi9 ponebatur et pro dederis,' show that he took it as a 
disyllabic), in ordinary Latin hie : the older form was die, which 
remains in compounds to denote ' division,' and with it go (I would 
suggest) di ' from ' (denoting ' separation ') and dime * evil ' 
('different' from what should be), while die (Yarro L.L. 5. 172) 
and dimue (Stolz 66) were the older forms of bie and blmue : 

dvonue (so apparently in early inscriptions ; there is no proof that 
it was ever a trisyllable) became in ordinary Latin bonue. The 
derivation of both this and dcellum is wholly unknown, no etymo- 
logy yet given is worth reviving. 

Similarly medial dv became dn (cf . duellum duie above) in arduue 
beside Sanskrit Urdhvae (Brugmann should not, dQ6, have added 
op$69f as this stands for *Fop069, Qustav Meyer 9) : evdvie (cf. 


yBvi) mast be dialectic for ^svabis, as ^svadyis would become in 
ordinary Latin. 

(/9) 8Y- might either remain or become su- or S-. It remains in 
(a) wdvis (as it must be written), which becomes sudptg (trisyllabic) 
in Sedulius (fifth century of our era) and the Bomanoe languages, 
while a form ^savis appears in sdvilhtm * cake of flour, cheese, 
and honey,' and idvium 'kiss' (also spelt wdvium\ a popular 
perrersion of *yasium (see sec. 16) or hdnum (itself apparently 
Gaulish, ' Loanwords in Latin ' 12), as though from tpdvit ; 
and (b) the Eeflexive Pronoun Adjectiye svos (answering to of 
'his/ as savo9 does to coV, i.e. *kFo9i Lucretius has ^r^MiM-from 
«ro«, while tuitntu tuivl suitus are from 9uu$) in Plautus, of. Lucr. 
1. 1022 9v6f while Festus quotes old forms sam sdt H< from it. — In 
all other words the y drops, leaving however a trace of its presence 
in the change of S to 5, 9ocer beside ixvpof (172. 3 ') : si * himself' 
is for *Bve (cf. Sanskrit wo-), «f for *svl (Oscan «ra«, 'Latin 
Yocalism ' 15), sardis for ^svordes (the or representing a * sonant' 
r : the fuller form SYARD- appears in wdium * dark colour,' sec. 
15, cf. Gothic svarts * black,' and, I would add, dpBa 'dirt'). 

(9) In (apparently) the popular dialect vi when unaccented (Le. 
when not in the initial syllable) fell out, wholly or partially ; but 
why sometimes wholly, amdatl from amdvistif trahd from irdeehd^ 
sometimes partially, claudO from ^clavido (cf. cldvu\ gauded from 
*gavide5 (cf. the Participle gdvUm), our authorities do not stoop to 
explain. I can only suggest that the older dialect changed avi to 
au, olaudd gauded {eldvis gdvistis must belong to some other dialect), 
the later to a, amdsil trahd (from *traho, an intermediate h not pre- 
venting the usual shortening of vowel before vowel). 

(10) To Brugmann's instances (208) of the change of MJ to ni I 
would add lanius ' butcher,' one who breaks up meat, from a root 
LAM- ' to break,' which appears in Old Slavonic lomiti * to break,' 
English lams ('broken') and the slang verb lamm 'to beat' (for 
which Johnson quotes Beaumont and Fletcher). 

(11) MN is a favourite combination in Latin, e.g. alumnus Idmna: 

1 Sevenu *Btem' (*fixt') muBt go with Lithuaman te^u *I fix,' not with 
ir4fiv * I worship ' (as though this were from *ffF4yFv)t or we should haTe 
*soYeru8. Sex is not for *svex (170), it has not lost a v any more than S(or 
Gothic sfiihs has, though there are perolexin^ by-forms SVEKS (Welsh eAwech)^ 
V£KS (F4^ and Armenian vetha), and KVSVEKS (Zend kk$hvash). 


its change to nn moBt be dialectic, cf. TJmbrian une (for *uiiiie) 
• bcflide umn0 'unguent.' In Yarro L.L. 5. 168 for scamnum one 
nuumacript has »eannum\ ante-mna 'yard-arm' ('opposite' the 
mast, tmU, cf. &vtI 'against') and soll-emnh 'appointed' (from 
mUu9 * whole/ see sec. 7,-f *amnus ' circuit,' Oscan amno-) are also 
written atUenna and sollennts. 

(18) NM in compounds (e.g. immltia) becomes mm, in deriva- 
tives Tm : carmen must go with candy germen with gcnuB and gignO^ 
n6rma (as I have suggested, ' Loanwords in Latin ' p. 4) with ndna^ 
the carpenter's square being shaped like the letter L, the ' ninth ' 
in the Faliscan and Etruscan alphabets. In some Sabellian dialect 
m before f seems similarly, even in compounds, to have become not 
n but r: Carflniumf the capital of the Paeligni, must, I would 
suggest, have been named from its situation on the ' confines ' of 
the Yestini and Marrucini. 

(13) In one dialect r must have been dropt after st : hence 
the spellings ^Hu^tfm mcdiastlnus praesttgiae beside ^a«/rtim mediaS' 
trinus praeitrigiae^ and the epigraphic tniniatorum (Corsscn i p. 
245) itaoit (Seelmann p. 330) for ministrdrum str&vit, Mediastrinus 
'hobbledehoy, between boyhood and manhood,' comes from *medi- 
aster (which stands to mcdius as surdaster to mrdus: both on the 
analogy of Greek Yerbs in -a^tOf e.g. /ntfrpa^to 'take after my 
mother ') as, I would suggest, clandtstinus (for ^clandestrlnus) from 
^clandester, *clandus {clam)', praestr^gtac 'glamour,' comes, I would 
suggest, from strJga ' witch.' — So (see Kluge in Paul's ' Grundriss 
der Germanischen Philologie' p. 332-3) spr- in some Teutonic 
dialects became sp-, German sprechen = Eng. speak. 

(14) In some nine words we find er from original ri (which 
sometimes stands for m with a ' modified' u, ' Latin Yocalism ' 1) 
or ri : both (1) in the accented syllable, ter teml beside tri- trim, 
tUtii (i.e. ^erstis) beside Oscan trutaamentudy and, I would add, 
eerwix 'neck' beside Old Slavonic krivH, 'bent' (so Old Slavonic 
vratHi 'neck' is from vraiiti 'to turn'), ter6 beside trltw (i.e. ^trutus) 
and rp6o) : and (2) in the unaccented syllable, acerhua beside Old 
Slavonic ostrH (with inserted t), hlhemw (for *hlm-ri-nus ^) beside 

' In Latin m before r becomes b, brevit for ^regvis goes with Gothic ga^ 
maurg'jan ' to shorten ' ; and so, I would suggest, before f (see below), titber for 
*tikmr beside tumto. 


X^ifiepipos (which differs only by haying a fuller stem), nav-er-ca 
beside vit^-ctu (on this see sec. 22), fuaUr beside fuadrU'^ tacerdds 
for ^sacridos from *sacrod6s. Two other instances commonly giTen 
must be rejected : eemO tergd cannot go with Kfivto rpifita, or the 
Perfects would be not erivl iersl but ♦crfrl *tnxi. — ^Bmgmann (33), 
following Osthoff ('Morphologische Untersuchungen' 4. 1-3), would 
confine this phenomenon to unaccented ri between consonants,^ 
supposing, e.g. tistis to follow the analogy of edntisiar. But (1) it 
cannot seriously be pretended that tSstis is a younger word than 
eontistor ; (2) unaccented ri remains between consonants in vUrieuif 
as unaccented ri does in aprlctu ; (3) in tero the er is not between 
consonants, and yet this word cannot go with r^lpto^ or we could 
not account for trlvi or trituB, I would rather suggest that the 
retention of rf, accented or unaccented, may be due to Oscan 
influence, cf. tristaamentud, and its change to er to some other 
dialect, which preferred close syllables as conversely (281) Old 
Slavonic prefers open ones. In Umbrian, as in Latin, both dialects 
appear, we have triphr beside tertiam. 

Similarly Brugmann explains the Nominatives ager deer as stand* 
ing for *agro8 *acris, the er representing a sonant r. I would rather 
suggest that in these words the e was originally long (with *acer cf. 
pat^ in Aen. 5. 521), and that the termination is due to the desire 
to distinguish ^N'ominative from oblique cases by forming it from a 
fuller stem. So in Umbrian we have Nom. Sing, paeer ' pacified ' 
from the longer stem, Nom. Plur. paer-er from the shorter : con- 
versely in a7/)09, Gothic akrs^ Sanskrit ajras^ the Nominative follows 
the analogy of the other cases. On Brugmann's principles it is 
diflScult to see why, if *agros became ager^ *agrom {agrum) did 
not become *agerm (or *agerem). 

(15) The combination rs (571) before a consonant loses the r, 

1 Stolz in * Wiener Studien ' 9. 304 sq. holds that er represents a sonant r 
developed within the I^tin language, or or or one inherited from the Urtorache : 
I would rather suggest that, as in other cases of the change from o to u (* Latin 
Vocalism ' 2 fin., cf. »%mili» heside 6ijmK6s, llieo from locu»)^ so here also the u 
was a ' modified ' n, representahle by i, which in the unaccented syllable would 
before the r become e, as in uber beside olBap^ inferut compared with mfra^ and 
(see sec. 22) iterum uterus. So 1 is represented by ol, m, or 11, e.ff. MUMii 
(beside atabulum) rutiluM (see sec. 22). — It is only in the unaccented sySable that 
the combination ir is forbidden (* Latin Vocalism ' 6 ) : hence we may seo that 
this change from ri to er is no metathesis, or we should have *tir ^tUtit *ctrrtf 
*lird instead of ter testis cervix tero. 

uaa oosaoarAXT-ukivs. — s. k. whaktoh. 823 

■d IB eooqMBHtiaa tiie preeeding Towel is lengthened : fdtiffitm 
lop '«"*iuilignim (d An^onzon hynt * bristle '), j^dtdd— ^rwo 
ram *poie-«eo (ci. pniMr) : wMKe before n the • alao goesi ciM* 
toBA horn *t£tauL (TJinbrijui ^iraiMi-). Before a Towel the rt» if 
riginnl, beoones ir, Amt*^ * bristle '»*horaeo (Sanskrit A«r<A); 
nt if the t roprc a on t either x (from original kth, 564 fin.) or ss 
bom original tt or it\ the n remains, tirra« beside mpxros and 
anakrit riiAM, i t rtw m (I wonld soggest) for ^doit-tum (of. Irish 
hum lor ^dort-men: ictp^ 'neck' can hardly be connected), 
MTNtf lor *mord-tas. But in some (perhaps rustic) dialect n from 
■ (for ztt) before a Yowel was treated just as before a consonant, 
he r dropping and the preceding yowel lengthening, prdM rdttwi 
Umm for ^prCnm rUrtum HLrnun from ^prdri-U *r^ri'4um *8ikrt-tum 
eontiactions, Le., of prd-wMrsa r^-vorsum Mur^rortum, all from 
9ri6), and see ivdntm (i.e. *svard-tum) sec. 8 : later the t was 
rritten doable and the yowel before it pronounced short, ruuum, 
'$umm, pettUM (from *per9um^ as Plautus' ' Persa me pessum dedit,' 
^ersa 737, proyes: the further deriyation is not so clear, if it— 
perd-tom from perd6 it is difficult to get for it the meaning 
down,' which seems to haye been the original one). 

(16) Apparently one dialect made B into v, another made Y into 
» ; but many of the words in which these changes occur are etymo- 
Dgically so obscure that we cannot always tell which sound was 
be original one. The commonest change was from Y to b: for 
ofi/tf (quoted from Cato) the ordinary form was htihilef and from 
boyulcus (from the same root) must have come bubulcua : the 
hange was most common after r, arvlna 'fat' (ie., I would 
aggest, 'accretion,' from *aryu8 Adjectiye of ar, ad) appears in 
'estus as arhilla, eorvus has another form eorbtu (which reappears 
1 the Romance languages), curvus must also have (according to the 
Lomance languages) been spelt cwbits, forveo seems more original 
lian ferbed (the Perfect however is always ferbul, a dialectic form 
stained to avoid the collocation vu), sorvum (' eervice-berry ' ; so 
pelt in one manuscript of Pliny) if it goes with Sanskrit sravd * a 
lant ' must be older than sorbum, urvum * ploughshare ' (Oscan 
ruv^L * bent') than urbum : mgilvtu is in late Latin spelt gilbus. On 
le other hand sibum * tallow,' if it is really a dialectic spelling for 
taebum and goes, with our wop (see Kluge under sei/e), must be 


more original than sivum ; and morhui than morvtu, the spelling 
substantiated by the Romance languages. But whether hdsium 
(apparently Gaulish), hatillum ('fire-pan'), herhix ('wether': so 
one manuscript has in Petronius 57), are more original forms than 
^vasium (whence Bdvium^ if I am right above, sec. 8), vatiUutm^ 
verviXf etymology does not tell us. 

(17) The combination bl in Latin is found at the beginning of a 
few words, blaesus bkrndus hlaterd hlatid hlatta^ and in compounds, 
S'blatidtor ab-latus etc. ; but otherwise in no pure-Latin word but 
puhltcus, in which it represents BD, as Umbrian pup^ike shows 
{poplieusy from poptdus, must be quite another word). — The com- 
bination bl is common enough in terminations, where ('Grundriss' 
2, p. 202) it represents original DHL, e.g. atabulum stahilis; ^ other- 
wise it is found only in seab^Uiim or scabillum 'bench' (presupposing 
a form *scabulum, whence would come ieaheUlum^ the second Towel 
becoming e before a double consonant), where it represents original 
BH-L, cf. Sanskrit skahh- ' to support.' But what are we to make 
of scatnillus in Yitruvius, and Terentius Scaurus' ' alii scamillum 
[scaptUum is only a conjecture, and apparently a figment] alii 
scabillum dicunt ' ? I can only suggest that before terminational 1 
one dialect retained the b at the end of the root (ieabellwn)^ another 
changed it to p {scapulae ' shoulder-blades,' i.e. as I would suggest, 
' supporting burdens '), a third made it into m {seamillwn) : thus I 
would connect (a) «^t/7u/a 'stalk' diu^ stimulus 'stake' (so Caesar uses 
the word) beside Old Slavonic stikhlo or sVlhlo 'stalk, trunk of a tree' ; 
(/8) con-ctpul6* ' finish off' and cumulus 'heap' (both from KVXJB-, 
cf. KVOUB- in Anglosaxon heap, English heap), cf. eumuld in the 
sense of ' finish.' 

(18) An epigraphic form of et is ed (Corssen 1. p. 194); it appears, 
I would suggest, in edepol as a condensed expression for ' e Castor 
ed e Pol," Castor and Pollux, and in ide6 ' therefore ' for ed e6 
'and by that.' This change of final t to d seems to be Oscan, 

1 Cf. Umbrian stajlarem. There is no particalar reason in snch cases for sop- 
posing the forms with 1 to be younger than those with 1 : rather tbej belonged to 
a different dialect. 

^ Plant. Truculentus 621 (Schoell) quern ego jam jam condpulabo (another 
reading concipilabo). Festnfl takes the word as = * seize,' earrtpioy apparently 
deriving it frum ameipto * take hold of * ; but there are no paraUela to such a 

3 With e, iff cf. the Greek interjections Ij, I, respectiTely. 


Consen 1. 196 : parallel to it is the Latin change of *ap (whence 
tjperid) *op (whence oplnor *1 put hefore myself, think/ and, I 
would snggest, cparUt 'the occasion arises, it is necessary,' from 
mrwr) *iBap (whence iuplnus) to ab oh 9ub ; volup on the other hand 
has preserTod its p. 

(19) The change of d to 1 in Latin must have come from some 
neighbonring sub*dialect, beside Umbrian fame^ias ' families ' we 
haye Oscan famel * slave,' whence Latin famulus : in Umbrian, 
trih^^u ' trebling ' and tripUr ' three ' (cf . Latin triplex) appear on 
the same tablet of the Eugubine Tables, but whether they are 
dialectic forms from the same stem it is hard to say, nor does the 
termination bdo (or plo) appear in other languages. Brugmann 
(369) giyes nine examples of the phenomenon, lacruma Uvir limpa 
(Le. lympha) oled solium solum-solea uUgd (doubtful : why not from 
^vilis rather than Hvidus?) m&lus : Stolz (51 and 9) has nine more, 
dlipU ealamitds impeUmmtum larix hurus lingua mulier praesilium 
miles (from fiieOo^^ Bartholomae in B.B. 12. 90 ; but on Brug- 
mann's principles, 594, the Latin form should be ^mistes) : other 
philologists have added (besides proper names, Aquilonia Capitdlium 
Novensills FoUUx Siliclno: in Ulixis the change was apparently 
already made in Greek, 'OXvtcv?, Gustav Meyer 171) the following 
fifteen instances, an-c'ile (caedo) haliolus (' dark,' badius) cassila 
(cassida 'helmet') eon-sul (sedeo) dilicd (dedico) largus (cf. hoXixo^) 
lautia (' banquet,' dautia : lautus * sumptuous ' must be connected) 
meliporUus (' rope,' also spelt medipontus) reluvium {* agnail,' cf . 
reduvia) simila (' wheat-flour,' ae/uBakii, itself doubtless foreign) 
almus (cf. New Umbrian arsmor 'ceremonies ' : it must go with ad^ not 
old) meUa (juOvf sec sec. 7) puhlicus (see above) sella (sedda, Teren- 
tius Scaurus in Keil 7. 13) ultra (cf. Sanskrit ud ' out '). I would 
farther add the following 18 instances, making altogether (without 
proper names) 51 or, excluding doubtful cases, 48 : 

ad'Hlor from audio ^ cf. oh-oedio : 

aUacer from o^Z+a byform (with short vowel) of dcer\ aUapa 
* slap' from apiscor 'reach ' ; al-iita^ ' Loanwords in Latin' 3 : 

lanlsta beside danista, * Loanwords ' 7 : 

mihms ' kite,' for ^smidvus, cf. English smite (?) : 

poltd, cf. oTToBeu) ' beat ' : 

sedlae, *scadae, cf . scandO : 



iiled * settle down' from s^dsO; and iili-eimium 'feast (see mc 

15 on cSna) at which they sat ' : 
ioled * go my way,' and sohd * let go,' beside oSot * way ' : 
squalor (i.e. ^squador) beside Bqud^ma * scale ' (for *Bqaad-ma): 
itrigilu * flesh-brush ' from *arp€^iha AccnsatiTe of *<npefitt 

a by-form of arpcyyU, see Liddell and Scott under 

with d from DH, 

eaelehs * bachelor ' from eaedd in the sense of ' separate,' ci 

Gothic ikaidan ' to divide ' : 
tnelior beside medius, ' moderate ' (a \trortf9f saying less than 

one means) : 
stilus ' stake,' for *studus, cf. Anglosazon studu ' pillar' : 
and, with d from sd, ZDU, 

metis or (Caper in Keil 7. 110) mdUs * marten' beside Angla- 
saxon meard, 
(SJO) The change of d to r appears in TJmbrian (Old Umbrian ha» 
both te^tu and tertu * dato ' ; New TJmbrian has arfertur * adfertor ' 
beside arsfertur and Old Umbrian d^fertur^ and trihrisins beside 
Old Umbrian trih^i^\ Marsian {apur\ and Yolscian (jar) ; it 
remains in iho modem Neapolitan dialect, Seelmann p. 311- 
Brugmann*8 instances (369) in Latin are 
apor (Festus) for apud : 

ar (for ad), used by Plautus, nnd familiar in the compounds 
arbiter arcesso: Priscian's arger for the ordinary agger 
(i.e. ♦ad-ger) reappears in the Romance languages: I 
would add arma and armentum * cattle,' both meaning 
* appendages.' 
Stolz (51) gives five more words: cur for *qu6-d Ablative oiqu\ 
or qui8\ maredus for niadidus; merldies for medidiis (which Yarro 
L.L. 6. 4 had seen at Praeneste: on this see below) ; quirquir Yarro 
L.L. 7. 8 for quidquid\ simitur in an inscription for *simitu-d (cf. 
simltu * together*). He might have added glarea * gravel' beside 
X^Y^^ * rubbish,* and medula (Isidore, Origines 12. 7. 69) for 
merula * blackbird* (which unhappily does away with the ingenious 
connexion of merula with our ousel). In these two, as in Lar'mum 
for Oscan Ladino-y the r (instead of 1) from d might bo accounted 
for by a desire to avoid two Ts close together; but our other 

ULTUf 00N80Ki^rr-LAWS. — B. R. WHARTON. 327 

tancee are againflt this explanation, and show that this r from d 
merely dialectic. Yarro L.L. 5. 110 derives pema ('ham') 'a 
de/ which must point to a dialectic form pare : Consentias (Keil 
S92) marks peris as barbarous, but it remains (see Seelmann as 
)OTe) in the Neapolitan dialect. I would add the following 12 

eared ' want ' beside Kcxa^wv ' depriving ' : 

MrUndO ' swallow ' for *hedundon beside xc^«^<^»' for *x*^*'^«^*' 
(it seems impossible to dissociate the words) : with \ from 
^ see sec. 19 on '0Xvt6v$, with t from a long ' modified ' n 
cf . I from a short modified n in Lesbian ^^9 for v^$ : 

mered 'have measured out to me, earn,' from M£D-, Gothic 
miian * to measure ' : 

pldrd * beat the breast ' beside plddO ' beat ' : 

variui ' dappled ' beside hadius * brown ' (whence also baliolttSf 
see sec. 19) and Irish huide 'yellow': the original form 
mnst have been gvodids : 

aeeSrsd * summon ' for ♦ac-ced-so from cidd * go ' : 

mergus ' diver,' Sanskrit madgus : to suppose (590) that dg 
here comes from ZGV is preposterous : 

virga * wand ' for ♦vidga, German toiseh ' whisk ' (see Kluge), 
our tchisk ('the h is intrusive,' Skeat) and totsp (596): 
ind, with d from DH, 

eaerimdnia 'veneration' from eaed^ (see above, sec. 19, on 
caeUhB), with the idea of separation, exclusiveness : 

meru8 * simple,' i.e. * central, essential,' for *medu8 ' middle,' 
whence medulla ' marrow ' (' in the middle ' of the bone), 
and, I would suggest, medeor ' heal, stand in the way of 
the disease.' Irish meddn 'yu€<Toi/,' and the town-names 
MeOtvinf and *kOrjvai (the latter from the shorter form 
MDH-, sec. 26), prove that in medius and its cognates 
(as in ali-tts beside al-ter) the 1 or j is terminational. 
From merusy not from mediusy comes mertdt'es, formed from 
the Locative nwrl-die (cf . quoti-dis) : 

ergd ' opposite,' and ergO ' on account of,' from EDH- in 
Sanskrit adhi ' up ' and (with * pretonic ' a) Latin ad- 
in adimd adsurgd dscendo 0^0116,+ & termination GVO 
(' Grundriss ' 2. 91): 


flrmuB (the i is short in the Romance langaages, but in the 
town-name jFVrmtcm, which must have meant * the stroog- 
hold,' Latin inscriptions make it long) from fld6, * tnut- 

(21) There is no proof that LD ever became U in Latin (369). 
Solid * I salt' stands for *sal-Do SB/alld (Stolz 103) for *fal-n6 (the 
Participle salsus no more proves that salld^^aaldo than fakut 
proves that /ff//d=*faldo, which nobody has yet pretended) : it is 
very unlikely that Latin had two words for salt, tal and *saldut. 
So percello * throw down'=*per-cel-n6, cf. Lithuanian kdlti *to 
strike' (Frohde in B.B. 3. 306) : ♦perceldo could not give a Perfect 
percull. Mollis for ♦molvis, see sec. 7, goes with Gothic ga-mak- 
jan * to crush ' and English mellow^ not with Sanskrit mfdus, witii 
which Brugmann connects it (though this on his principles could 
only give *mollvi8, *molvis, and he has before, 170, doubted 
whether Iv ever becomes 11). 

(22) On the Latin aversion to the combination dr I have touched 
in * Latin Yocalism' 5 note: the aversion appears even in borrowed 
words, KeBpo9 became in Old Latin citrus (Naevius has eiMsiu: 
cedrus first in Vergil), Cassantra and (with t from the oblique cases) 
Alexanter were the old forms of Cassandra Alexander (Quintilian 1. 
4. 16) : quadrU' may be Celtic, and to it quadra owes the preserva- 
tion of its d, in all other words the d before r becomes t. Thus I 
would explain 

atrOx from *at-rus (as ferox from ferns : the a is * pretonic ') 

beside odium : 
nutrtx or ndtrix (Quintilian) from *not-ru8 beside vycvfio^{0 

an Ablaut of e) * refreshing * and Sanskrit nand- * to 

enjoy ' : 
taetrum * foul ' beside taedet * it wearies ' : 
utrem (from *5trem) * skin ' beside Lithuanian uda : 
and with d from DH (as it may be in iltrem also), 

palpetra * eyelid' (Caper in Keil 7. 110, hesidiQ palpehra, which 

must belong to another dialect: the Komance languages 

substantiate both forms) with a termination DHRA, 

' Grundriss ' 2. p. 202 : 
vitricus * stepfather,' which I would explain as * belonging to 

the widow,' *vit'ra a byfonn of vidua from a root VIDH-. 


The same law obtains before a sonant r, represented (see sec. 14, 
lote) by er : uierus is for *ud-f us beside Sanskrit udaram, and, I 
roold surest, iterum ' again ' (coming haek) for *ed*f urn (with d 
rom DH) beside Anglosaxon ed- 'back' and Sanskrit adhi 'up' 
see sec. 20, fin., on ergd, and for the transition of meaning cf. &va 
np, back '). So, I would add, d (from DH) before 1 became t, 
Wi7fM is for *rudlus (cf. epvOpos). 

(23) The Oscan assimilation of x to 88 (' Loanwords in Latin ' 7) 
ppears in assis (Yitruvius, see Key) nassa (whence the Komance 
buns) toMtUae (see Nettleship: the form tonsillae is due to a popular 
lonnexion with tonsa 'oar,' the tonsils being compared to poles) 
r%$9ag6 (' germander,' Facciolati ; the form does not seem to occur 
a Pliny) beside axu naxa toxillae trixdgO, amusHS from afw^i^^ 
wuiUua (for *paussillus) beside pauxilltUy and, I would suggest, 
^emmua for *peximns from peccd (see sec. 3, note, on pifor). So, 

would suggest, the curious triple forms assula aattda acsula 
splinter,' pesstdus pestulus pexulus ^ ' bolt,' point respectively to 
riginals *ad-tla (* rising up,' from ad-^ see above) *ped-tlus (the 
olt being the ' foot ' of the door), in which either 

(a) the dt became as usual 88, assula pessulus : or 

(/9) dtl became stl as dtr became str (e.g. monstrum from 
iONDH-, cf . fLoBetv), asttda pestulus : or 

(7) ^y ^ ' contamination ' of 88 (from dt) and ol (from TL) we 
)et *ascula ^pesculus, and by metathesis (see next paragraph) 
cnUa pexulus. 

One dialect must have changed x (of whatever origin) to so : cf. 

icsbian atci<f>o9 for f/0o9, Old Prench veseut 'lived' from Latin 

viscutum for vixutum (Seelmann p. 339), as conversely Anglo- 

axon vaxan for vascan 'to wash' and our dialectic ax for ask. Thus 

aeseulus ' winter-oak ' is for *aeg-s-ulus from AIG-, Eng. oak : 

aseia 'axe'=*axia, Eng. axe (Gothic aqtzi is from the longer 

stem AGV-ES-I-) : 
lusctis * one-eyed,' I would suggest, =/ttrtM 'dislocated,' beside 
\o^69 'slanting,' and (with the same Metathesis as in 
luseus) Irish lose ' lame, blind ' : 
viseutn 'mistletoe,' cf. laxat 'fungus,' goes with *fo9 'mistletoe' : 

^ Caper in Eeil 7. Ill pessulum (another reading pexolum) non pestulum. 
Phil. Thai. 1S8S-90. 22 


vuetti ' inner parts ' with l^vt * waist,' from the idea of soft- 
nessy fleshiness. 

(24) The reason why flnal ga in trisyllables became ea I have 
explained in ' Loanwords in Latin' 7 7: Latin had in such cases an 
ending ea, fabrioa pedioa juvenea etc., bnt no ending ga, and hence 
trisyllables in which the g was part of the root were treated as if 
it were part of the ending, and changed it to C. Thus we may 
explain (I do not know whether any one has done it before : in 
such matters it is diffictdt to be as cocksure^ as our masters the 
Germans always are) not only the loanwords amurca tpilunea beside 
ifiopytf <nn^\vyyaf but also 

fulica * coot ' for *fuliga beside German helehe (on which see 

Kluge) : 
perttea * pole ' beside pertingO * reach ' : 
suhlica ' stake ' (according to Festus a Yolscian word) beside 

tuhligd * bind on ' : and, I would suggest, 
praefica * hired mourner ' beside ^n^d ' pretend.* 
The only exception I know of is caliga ' sandal,' which I would 
suggest is borrowed from *icd\v*^a a by-form (cf. oprv^a beside 
opTVKo) of KoKvxa * husk,' ' and as a Greek word retained its g. 

(25) Why does g sometimes remain before m, sometimes drop ? 
Brugmann (506) derives agmen from AG-, exdmen from AG- : but 
(I) there is no particular reason why the root- vowel should be short 
in the one case and long in the other, and (2) a vowel before gm 
was always long by position (Marx, * Hiilfsbiichlein " p. 2), the a 
in agmen was just as long as the a in exdmen. The real diflference, 
I would suggest, was that the a in agmen was accentedi the a in 
exdmen was not (according to the Latin system, in which the first 
syllable had the stress-accent, whatever the quantity of the second 

* * I wish I was as cocksure of anything as Tom Macanlay is of everything ' 
(Lord Melbourne). 

' This mar be added to my list of instances of Roman wit, such as it was, in 
* Loanwords ' p. 4 : together with 

abdomen * nolder, belly/ see sec 27 : 

hm^ununtum * grinding out, gain * : 

fafHH9 * harvest (from/a^NNoi * hay *), interest' : 

hctrtus * lizanl, muscle of the arm,' from some femcied resemblance : 

rabitla * mad dog (from rabid *rave*), advocate*: 

sartrijfii * putting things in good order ^Le., I would suggest, making them 

sarta)^ frving pan ' : 
te^ihtli'Mm * bed-stop * and w *castanet/ inserted in the performer's shoe: 
i-rnUr * wind-bag (i.e., I would suggest, from rM/ia), belly.' 


syllable). So we hare mtgrnem figmmUum fragmm mapMntum 
jngmenium m^sim iefmm iMgmenium Ugmen, but e&iUdmind ^ iub- 
Umsm (from tsg6) tujidmm ('dog/ going witb Anglosazon hah 
* beam '). On the other hand ahUgmina antepagmmUim ooagmenia 
«xagm&H (another spelling of exdmen) owe the retention of their 
g to ' Be-composition ' (see * Latin Vocalism ' 9) and so do not come 
under our role ; while 

fiumtn 'priest' is not for *flagmen (Sanskrit h'akman-\ but 

for ^ad-men, cf . Gothic hlblan * to worship ' : 
flamma not for *flagnia {JlAgr6\ but, I would suggest, for 
*flama ('blast') from^ (for the spelling cf. iamma beside 
damd) : 
juminium, originally 'a carriage,' Gellius 20. I, notfor*jug- 
mentum, but (as Columella suggests) from juvd ' help/ or 
rather from a by-form *iuvo whence the Perfect juv} : 
pluma 'feather' not for *plugma ( An glosaxon^dy an *to fly'), 
but from PLC*-, cf . Sanskrit plu- * float.' 
Exactly similar is the fate of g before n : it remains in the 
accented syllable, eygnus dtgnuSj drops in the unaccented, ardnea 
(' Loanwords ' 7 /9) indnis (£rom, I would suggest, ^agnis, going 
with ix^i^ ' poor,' and, with a nasal, angustus ' narrow ' : the in 
meaning no more than in inedniM inclutus incolumis beside cdnus 
elutu9 eolumis, or, I would add, invidus * jealous, standing aloof ' 
beside il-vidc^ invUus * forced ' beside vU). On the other hand 
apru-gnus (Plautus : Pliny's aprunui or aprlnus must be a difierent 
word, a direct derivative from aper) and heni-gnua keep their g to 
show that they are Compounds. 

Before M, which in Latin in the unaccented syllable may be 
written nm or im, a ' flxt ' velar g (represented in Sanskrit by g^ 
and not labialised in any language) remains, tegumm or tegimen ; a 
labialisable velar is represented by v, which in all extant Latin 
drops with the following i, Jlumen frUmentum Hmeo from *fluvimen 
♦fruvimentum *uvimeo, see sec. 9. 

(26) The Latins modified all the original Aspirates. In their 
method of doing so we may trace three different dialects : 

(a) The proper Boman dialect represented all but the Dental 

* Festus* taminS is a grammarians' word formed out of attamind eoniaminS : 
the proper fona would be *lagni%n6. 


Aspirate by h, itself in the popular dialect omitted : BH hariolui 
'soothsayer' (Irish bar 'sage'), GH hohu 'vegetables' (Old 
Slavonic ulije) vehd (cf. ©x©?), GHV hllum *gat' (Varro L.L. 5. 
Ill, cf. Lithuanian yy«^a ' sinew '), cf. ar tolas olus via Ilia respec- 

(/3) The Oscans represented all the Aspirates without exception 
by f : the classical Boman dialect kept this when initial — whether 
for BH faha (Old Slavonic hoha : the old Latin form was 
haha) frango (Gothic brikan), DH fild 'suck' (cf. OijXy 'breast'), 
GK fovea 'pit' {x^ia) fldvm (xXw/jov), or QKY fllum (see hilum 
above) fremd (Old Slavonic gromH ' thunder ') — ^but when medial 
reduced it to b, for BE gluhd (7\v0ii;) amhO {ufjut>iMj)y DH ruheo 
(ipevOu)) umbra (cf. Sanskrit andhas ' blind') arbor (Sanskrit ardh- 
'thrive'), QKY nebrundinSs 'kidneys' (i/€0/3O9, German ni^e), — 
The f retained for DH in ru/us and (I would suggest) in infil 
'begins' ('interposes,' MDH-, cf. MEDH- meditu), and for GH in 
infuh 'fillet' (NGH-, cf. :N^EGH-, Sanskrit fwA- 'to tie,' Lat. 
nectd), must belong to the stricter Oscan dialect. 

(7) A third dialect reduced the Aspirates — as do all Aryan lan- 
guages but Greek and Sanskrit — to Mediae : hence 

BH initial =b, barba (Eng. beard) battud 'beat' (cf. Anglo- 
saxon beadu 'combat') bulla (cf. follie) im-buQ {ifk-ffAw) 
blaterd (Old Norse bla^r * nonsense ') : 
DH medial *=d, gradm (Gothic grids) arduus (Sanskrit ardh" 
vas)f and russus (=*rud-tu8, epvOpo^); becoming r in 
ergd flrmus (see sec. 20 fin.) : 
GH=g in gilvm beside helvm and Eng. yellow ^ and so, I would 
suggest, in gemini * twins ' beside hemO ' man ' (* fellow' : 
for the terminations cf . terminus termd)^ guita * drop ' for 
*gu-ta beside x<=''*' * P^^r ' and Sanskrit hu- : gldrea 
(x^y^o^) grandd (Sanskrit hrdd- 'rattle') figmsntum 
(Sanskrit dih- * smear ') angd {a'^x'^) • 

^ Initial DH also might = d, but no instances seem to appear: credo beside 
Sanskrit qrad^dhn. (* put the heart to *) may have been regaraed as a word of the 
XJrsprache and not as a compound (of course Verbs in composition keep theifl 
initial unchanged, as a compound the word would be ♦crefo from •creff6» *cred-f6) •■ 
abdo etc. I would derive from Adjectives *ab-du8 etc., cf. eondo from eoneUu, — — 
Brugmiinn (370) makes DH after u always =b, j'ubed rubed uber\ but this mnm^ 
be merely dialectic, jnui can only come from "jud-si (*jub-8i would give •jupw, 
cf. nuj)si)f see russus above, and rutUus sec. 22 Hn., stilus sec. 19 fin. 


OHYsg gldber (Lithuanian glodiui) gradus (Old Slavonic gr^da 

* I come ') indulged (Sanskrit dlrghas * long ') tergum 

{<rr€p(/)o9 * skin *) : so KHV congiua * quart ' (Sanskrit 

gankhas * cockle '). 

The clasdcal forms show a strange mixture of these three dialects : 

BHsh hariohu h&rha horr&um, f faba fdnum forttSf b harha etc. 

(see ahoye) : 
I)H medial«byu^^ ruber fiber, d gradm etc. (above) : 
GHsh haeduB holus homoy f fovea, g gikut etc. (above) : 
GHV=h hllum hordeum, tfllum^ g glaber etc. (above). 
(27) To Brugmann's instances (510) of the loss of initial h I 
ironld add 

ahddmen or ahdnmen from *habdus (cf. albumen from albus) 

*habidus ' holding ' : 

abundd (in Plautus also habundd, see Key, who rightly remarks 

that ab'Undits from unda should mean *wUhotU water') 

from *habundus Gerundive of habeO : 

dlucinor (also spelt hdlueinor) 'prate* from *halucu8 Adjective 

of hdld ' breathe out ' : for the form cf . eadueus from cadd. 

The Bomans made several attempts to represent by their spelling 

the quantity of a vowel. One resource, apparently borrowed from 

Oscan (Corssen 1. 15-17) was to double the vowel : besides 

epigraphic forms, for which see Corssen, we have bee (Varro, to 

express the cry of the sheep, for which the Greeks used fiij : hence 

Came the form beldre 'to bleat,' which remained in the Romance 

languages instead of bdldre) peena (Festus, for *pena, i.e. penna) 

veemens (^vemens): cf. Oscan aasaa trUtaamenttid eeetint teer- beside 

Xjatin drae tistdmentd exstant (or rather *estant) terra (for *tera), 

Paliscan vootum for vOtum. — Another method, found also in Umbrian, 

was to employ h as a mark of vowel-length : 

(o) The h was written after the vowel : the Interjections d 6 pr6 
are also written ah oh proh, for ♦va we have vah. So in Old 
Umbrian we have ah- for Lat. d (Preposition), ahtu * for Lat. actui; 
in New Umbrian trah- for Lat. trd- (i.e. irans)^ aviehclu * augural ' 
beside aviielu, eh- for Lat. € (Preposition), ecrehto for *screto (Lat. 
Bcriptum) ; in Volscian covehrtu * meeting ' for *co-veri6 *co-vlrio 

1 In this, as in serehto, the h seems a mere mark of Towel-length. 


(on the dialectic change of I to S see 'Latin Yocalism' 11) from 
♦viros (Sanskrit vlroi * hero,' cf. Lat, vir * man *) : 

(fi) The two methods were comhined, the vowel written twice 
and h inserted : aha (in Plautns a monosyllable) was another way 
of writing the Interjection d, vaha mnst stand for *va or vah (see 
above),* eJiem (when a monosyllable) » &fi (Interjection), mehs 
(Qaintilian)sfn^, veh^mens (in poetry always a disyllable, Lach- 
mann on Lucr. 2. 1024)">r^-fiMn« ('senseless,' cf. vS-eart). So 
in New Umbrian we have aha for Lat. a (Preposition), trakaf beside 
^rd/i^ Lat. *tras {trans), ehe^Lat. i, comohota^Lat. eo{m)mdla, 
prephhotatu beside preplotatu ' captivity ' » Lat. *praepl6tatu 
(' treading down,' from plautus * flat-footed '). 

(28) Despite Stolz (* Lat. Gramm.' 60) intervocalic • after r+a 
vowel, instead of as usual becoming r, drops entirely, to avoid two 
r's so close together : Ceredlts must be for ♦Cereralis, cruor * blood* 
(' curdled,' thicker than water) for ♦crur-or beside orfU-ta * crust,' 
prulna 'hoar-frost' for *prurina beside Gothic /rt'tw 'frost';* and, I 
would add, prior for ♦prir-or beside prU-cus and Paelignian pris-mu 
' first," with proprius ' special ' (' set in front') for *pro-prtr-u8 
from the same root. Later, 8 in such a position became r as usual, 
prurid 'itch' ('bum') beside prulna above (' cold performs the effect 
of fire ') : orUra and rura are due to analogy. 

* A grammarian in Eeil 4. 255 says * Wah sive vaha ex breyi et longa constat,^ 
apparently taking vah (as Priscian does) as an abbreviation of vaha, and wrongly 
connecting the final a of vaha with the Interjection a, 

- Frio however is not for •friro, or the derivative would-be •friscd not /ric6 : 
forms like xp^trna (beside xp^fAo) must come not from xp'^^ ^^t from a by-form 

* Minor is another instance of a Comparative — originally doubtless a Positive, 
with the sense of comparison only implied by the order of the words — ending in» 
-(/r not -ior. 


VINCES OP ITALY. By the Prince L.-L. 
bonapabte, d.c.l. 


Amonost the languages spoken in the 69 provinces of the 
kingdom of Italy the following are generally and with- 
out discussion considered as Non-Italian : Modern Greek, 
Albanian, Romanscb, Proven9al, German, lUyrian (Servian), 
and Slovenian, but, although Frioulan is admitted by Ascoli 
(whom I follow in this respect) to be not Italian, other 
writers continue, as formerly, to consider it as such. In 
fact, Ascoli considers Frioulan as a Romansch dialect. With 
regard to Frioulan, I prefer to see in it a Neo-Latin language 
intermediate between Gallo-Italic and Romansch, in the same 
way as I consider Catalan independent of Proven 9al. Franco- 
Proven9al, according to Ascoli (whom I follow entirely in 
this particular), is an independent Neo-Latin tongue. The 
other dialects of Italy which, in my opinion, may be re- 
^rded as independent Non-Italian languages, are : Central 
and Southern Sardinian ; Genoese (forming the transition 
l)etween Gallo-Italic and Italian) ; and Gallo-Italic. Ac- 
cording to this opinion of mine, which I submit, with all 
due deference, to the consideration of modern linguists, the 
following are the Non-Italian languages spoken in Italy: 
1, Modern Greek; 2, Albanian; 3, Sardinian; 4, Genoese; 
5, Gallo-Italic ; 6, Frioulan ; 7, Romansch ; 8, Catalan ; 
9, Proven9al; 10, Franco-Pro ven9al ; 11, German; 12, 
Illyrian ; 13, Slovenian. 

The languages 4, 6, 7, 10, and 13 are never insulated ; 5, 9, 


and 11 may be insulated or not; and 1, 2, 3, 8, and 12 are 
always insulated. The present paper treats of the languages 
1, 2, 6, 9, and 12. {See the Historic Notes, pp. 363-^64, and 
Maps at the end.) 

List of places in Italy in which these languages are spoken : 

A. Albanian. 

I. Abbvzzo Ultbriorb I. (Tbramo) Map II.: 

1. Badessa, an annex of Rosciano, canton of Pianella, 
district and diocese of Penne ; 

II. M0LI6B (Campobasso) Map III. : 

2. Campofnarino, c.^ of Termoli, d.^ and d.^ of Larino ; 

3. Mantecil/one, c. of Guglionesi, d. and d. of Larino ; 

4. Portocannone, id., id., id. ; 

5. JJruriy c, d., and d. of Larino ; 

III. Capitanata (Foooia) Map IV. : 

6. Casalcecchio di Puglia, c. of Casalnuovo della Daunia, 
d. of San Severe, d. of Lucera ; 

7. Chieuti, c. of Serracapriola, d. of San Severo, d. of Larino ; 

IV. Principato Ultbriorb (Avbllino) Map V. : 

8. Oreci, 0. of Orsara Dauno Irpina, d. of Ariano d 
Puglia, d. of Benevento ; 

V. Basilicata (Potenza) Map VI. : 

9. Barile, c. of Barile, d. of Melfi, d. of Kapolla ; 

10. Ginestra, an annex of Bipacandida, c. of Barile, d. o 
Melfi, d. of RapoUa ; 

11. Maschito, c. of Forenza, d. of Melfi, d. of Venosa ; 

12. San Costantino Albanese, c. of NoepoH, d. of 
negro, d. of Anglona e Tursi ; 

13. San Paolo Albanese, id., id., id. ; 

VI. Terra d'Otranto (Lbccb) Map VII.:* 

14. Faggiwio,^ c. of San Giorgio su Taranto, d. and d. 
Taranto ; 

^ c. meam canton, the first d. in any description means district, and the Beecmd 
d. diocese. 

* For Albanian in Terra d'Otranto, see p. 341. 

3 Only a very small minority (a few old people can still speak Albanian tt 
Faggiano. Official infortnaUon by its Mayor.) 


15. San Marzano di San Oiuaeppe, c. of Sava, d. and d. of 

YII. Galabkia Gitb&iohb (Cobbkza) Map YIII. ; 

16. Acqua/armoaa, c. of LuDgro, d. of Castrovillari^ d. of 
Gaasano all' lonio ; 

17. Carpanzano,^ c. of Scigliano, d. and d. of Cosenza. 

18. CaHroregio, c. of Amendolara, d. of Castrovillari, d. of 
Anglona e Tursi ; 

19. Cavallarisao, an annex of Cerzeto, c. of Cerzeto, d. of 
Cosenza, d. of Bisignano ; 

20. CerzetOf id , u/., id. ; 

21* Cirita, c. of Cassano, d. of Castro villari, d. of Cassano 
all' lonio ; 

22. Fakonara Albaneae, c. of Fiumefreddo Bruzio, d. of 
Paola, d. of Tropea ; 

23. Fameia, an annex of Castroregio, c. of Amendolara, d. 
of Castrovillari, d. of Anglona e Tarsi ; 

24. Firmo, c. of Lungro, d. of Castrovillari, d. of Cassano 
all' lonio ; 

25. Fraadneto^ c. and d. of Castrovillari, d. of Cassano 
all' lonio ; 

26. Lungro^ c. of Lungro, d. of Castrovillari, d. of Cassano 
all' lonio ; 

27. Macchia, an annex of San Demetrio Corone, c. of San 
Demetrio Corone, d. and d. of Bossano ; 

28. Marri, an annex of San Benedetto UUano, c. of Mon- 
talto IJffugOy d. of Cosenza, d. of Bisignano ; 

29. Platiciy c. of Cerchiara, d. of Castrovillari, d. of Cosenza ; 

30. Parcile, an annex of Frascineto, c. and d. of Castro- 
villari, d. of Cassano all' lonio ; 

31. San Basile, id., id., id. ; 

32. San Benedetto Ullano, c. of Montalto Uffugo, d. of 
Cosenza, d. of Bisignano ; 

33. San Cosimo {Strigdr), c. of San Demetrio Corone, d. and 
d. of Itossano ; 

34. San DemetrioCorone, c. of San Demetrio Corone, id,, id,, id. ; 

> The only natiyefl of Carpanzano who can speak Albanian, and that but 
imp^ectly, are tume makers ot weavers' combs. 


35. 8an Oiacomo, an annex of Cerzeto, c. of Cerzeto, d. of 
CosenzBy d. of Bisignano ; 

36. San Oiorgio Albaneae (Mbuzdt), c. of CorigUano Calabro, 
d. and d. of Rossano ; 

37. San Lorenzo del Vallo, c. of Spezzano Albanese, d. of 
Castrovillari, d. of Rossano ; 

38. San Martino di Finita^ c. of Cerzeto, d. of Cosenza, d. 
of Bisignano ; 

39. Santa Caierina Albanese {Pizztglia), c. of San Sosti, d. 
of Castrovillari, d. of San Marco Argentano ; 

40. Santa Sofia d'Upiro, o. of San Demetrio Corone, d. of 
Bossano, d. of Bisignano ; 

41. Spezzano Albanese, c. of Spezzano Albanese, d. or 
Castrovillari, d. of Rossano ; 

42. Vaccarizzo Albanese, c. of San Demetrio Corona, d. and 
d. of Rossano ; 

Ylir. Calabria ULTBBioaB II. (Catanzabo) Map IX.: 

43. Andali, c. of Cropani, d. of Catanzaro, d. of San Severino 5 

44. Carajfa di Cafanzaro, c. of Tiriolo, d. and d. of Catanzaro ; 

45. Carfizzif an annex of San Nicola dell* Alto, c. of 
Strongoli, d. of Cotrone, d. of Cariati ; 

46. Marcedusa, c. of Cropani, d. of Catanzaro, d. of Santa 
Severina ; 

47. Pallagorio, c. of Savelli, d. of Cotrone, d. of Cariati ; 

48. San Nicola delV Alto, c. of Strongoli, d. of Cotrone. d. 
of Cariati ; 

49. Vena, an annex of Maida, c. of Maida, d. and d. of 
Nicastro ; 

50. Zangarona, an annex of Nicastro, c, d. and d. of 
Nicastro ; 

IX. Palermo (Map XI.) : 

51. Cofifessa Entellina, c. of Bisacquino, d. of Corleone, d. 
of Monreale ; 

52. Mfzzoiuso,^ c. of Mezzoiuso, d. and d. of Palermo ; 

53. Palazzo Adriano, c. of Prizzi, d. of Corleone, d. of 
Monreale ; 

^ Only a few old people can still speak Albanian at Meuoiiuo. 


64. Piana de* Greei, o. of Plana de' Greci, d. of Palermo, 
d. of Monreale ; 
S5. Santa Criatina Oela, id.^ d. and d. of Palermo ; 

6. Modern Greek. 

I. Tbuia d'Ot&akto (Lbccb) Map YII. : 

1. Calimera, c. of Mariano, d. of Lecce, d. of Otranto ; 

2. ^^Cannole, c. of Carpignano Salentino, d. of Lecce, d. of 

3. *Caprarica di Lecce, c. of Mariano, d. of Lecce, d. of 

4. Castrignano de* Oreci, id., id., id. ; 

5. Corigliano d^ Otranto, c. of Galatina, d. of Lecce, d. of 
Otranto ; 

6. ^Cursi, c. of Maglie, d. of Gallipoli, d. of Otranto ; 

7. *Cutrqfiano, c. of Galatina, d. of Lecce, d. of Otranto ; 

8. Martano, c. of Mariano, d. of Lecce, d. of Otranto ; 

9. Martignano, c. of Galatina, d. of Lecce, d. of Otranto ; 

10. *Melptgnano, c. of Mariano, d. of Lecce, d. of Otranto ; 

11. Soleto, c. of Galatina, d. of Lecce, d. of Otranto ; 

12. Stematia, c. of Galatina, d. and d. of Lecce ; 

13. Zollino, c. of Galatina, d. of Lecce, d. of Otranto ; 

II. Calabria Ultbriorb I. (Reooio di Calabria) Map X. : 

14. Amendolea, an annex of Condofuri, c. of Bova, d. of 
It,eggio of Calabria, d. of Bova ; 

15. Bova, 0. and d. of Beggio of Calabria, d. of Bova ; 

16. *Cardeto, c. of Sant' Agata di Bianco, d. of Reggio of 
Oalabria, d. of Bova ; 

1 7. Condofuri, o. of Bova, d. of Beggio of Calabria, d. of Bova 

18. Corio di jRocca/orte, an annex of Boccaforte del Greco, 
Q. of Bova, d. of Reggio of Calabria, d. of Bova ; 

19. Corio di JRoghudi, an annex of Boghudi, id,, id., id. ; 

20. Gallidand, an annex of Condofuri, id., id., id. ; 

21. *Mo9orrofa, an annex of Cataforio, c. of Gallina, d. and 
d. of Beggio of Calabria ; 

' The asterisk indicates the localities where Modem Greek is spoken only by a 
minority, which is sometimes Yery small. (6># Pellegrini and Morosi.) 


22. Pietrapennata, an annex of Palizzi, c. of Staiti, d. and 
d. of Gerace ; 

23. Roccaforte del OrecOy c. of Bova, d. of Beggio of Calabria, 
d. of Bova ; 

24. Roghudi, id., id., id. ; 

25. San Carlo, an annex of Condofari, id., id., id. ; 

26. San Pantaleone, an annex of San Lorenzo, c. of Melito 
di Porto Salvo, d. and d. of Reggio of Calabria; 

C. Gallo-Italic. 

I. Calabria Citebio&b (Cosenza) Map YIII. : 

1. Ouardia Piemontese, c. of Cetraro, i of Paola, d. oE 
Cosenza ; 

II. Mbssiita (Map XI.): 

2. Novara di Sicilia, c. of Novara di Sicilia, d. of Castro— 
reale, d. of Messina ; 

3. San Fratello, c. of San Fratello, d. of Mistretta, d. of Patti ; 

III. Catania (Map XI.) : 

4. Nicosia, c, d., and d. of Nicosia ; 

5. Sperlinga, id., id., id. ; 

IV. Caltanissetta (Map XI.): 

6. Aidone, c. of Aidone, d. and d. of Piazza Armerina ; 

7. Piazza Annerina, c, d., and d. of Piazza Armerina ; 

D. Provencal. 

I. Capitanata (Fogoia) Map IV. : 

1. Celle San Vito, c. of Troia, d. of Bovino, d. of Troia; 

2. Faeto, id,, id,, id. ; 

E. Illyrian. 

I. MoLisB (Campobasso) Map III. : 

1. Acquaviva Coliecroce, c, of Palata/ d. of Larino, d. of 
Termoli ; 

2. Montemitro, an annex of San Felice Slavo, c. of Monte- 
falcone del Sannio, d. of Larino, d. of Termoli ; 

3. San Felice Slavo, id., id., id. 

^ At Palata and Tavenna, in the province of Molise, Illyrian ia now extinct. 


I wisli here to record my great obligations to Monsignor 
EUphael Rossi, Grand Yicar of the Archbishopric of Taranto^ 
by whose mediation alone it has been possible for me to pro- 
cure all the local accounts supplied by the numerous rectors 
of the parishes of the southern Neapolitan provinces where 
Albanian was still more or less spoken in 1889. 

Albanian in Terra d'Otranto (Map VII.). 

(Second Edition,^ partly abridged and partly very much 
mlarged and corrected, with the assistance of Signor Cosimo 
Santoro, a native of the Albanian village of San Marzano 
li San Giuseppe, partly at San Marzano itself and partly 
%t Leucaspide, near Taranto, in the month of April, 1889, 
luring my stay at the mansion of my excellent and honoured 
friend Sir James Lacaita, K.C.M.G., and Member of the 
Italian Senate). 

Having bad occasion, six or seven years ago, to make 
inquiries as to the number of the localities in which Albanian 
is still more or less spoken in Terra d'Otranto, I received the 
following very valuable, because very reliable, information 
from Taranto, through the kindness of the Kev. P. D. L. De 
Vincentiis, O.P., the well-known author of the " Storia di 
Taranto," Taranto, 1878-9, 6 vol., 8vo., as well as of the 
" Vocabolario del dialetto tarantino," Taranto, 1872, 8vo. 

According to this distinguished writer, out of the seven 
villages of the diocese of Taranto, places in which alone the 
Albanian language has been still more or less spoken within 
the memory of man, viz. San Marzano di S. Giuseppe, Bocca« 
forzata, Monteparano (anciently Parello), San Giorgio sotto 
Taranto, San Martiuo, Faggiano, and Carosino, there is now 
only one where Albanian is at present more used than Italian, 
namely San Marzano, while at Faggiano Albanian is to be 
heard only from a few old persons. In the remaining villages 
Albanian is quite extinct. Thus, at Roccaforzata, it has ceased 
to be spoken for more than fifty years, and of the village of 
San Martino nothiug now remains but the parish church. 

The same thing happens in other provinces. Thus, Albanian 

> The first edition appeared in the <<Tran8.of thePhilol. Soc. 1882-3-4," p. 492. 


has become extinct at Santa Oroce di Magliano, in the pro- 
vince of Molise (Map iii.) ; at Casalnuovo di Monterotaro and 
S. Paolo di Civitate, in the province of Capitanata (Map iv.) ; 
at Brindisi di Montagna, at San Chirico Nuovo, and at San 
Oiorgio Lucano, in the province of Basilicata (Map vi.) ; at 
Cervicati, Mongrassano, Rota Greca, and Serra di Leo, in the 
province of Calabria Citeriore (Map viii.) ; and at Amato, 
Arietta, and Gizzeria, in the province of Calabria IJIteriore II. 
(Map ix.).^ 

In the thirteen Greek villages of the province of Terra 
d'Otranto (Map vii.) no Albanian is heard (as has been erro- 
neously stated), but only Modem Greek, in a corrupted dialect, 
i^hich, as well as the Modern Greek of Calabria IJIteriore I. 
(Map X.) has been scientifically treated by Comparetti, Pelle- 
grini, and especially by Morosi (Map viii.). 

With reference to the Albanian of Terra d'Otranto (Map 
vii.), which is still in use at San Marzano, in the diocese of 
Taranto, P. De Yincentiis has not limited his kindness to the 
preceding information, but has also succeeded in procuring 
me, from a native of that village : 1°. A list of about forty 
words; 2°. Three phrases ; 3°. A very short song, improperly 
called in Italian '* Novella degli Sposi," viz, *' Komance of 
the Betrothed.'' These three documents, as stated at p. 341, 

(Go to p. 344.) 

1 This gradual extinction of a language has a mournful interest Bad I been 
bom twenty-live years earlier, I could nave beard Albanian still spolcen at Pianiano, 
an annex of Cellere, near Canino, formerly in the Duchy of Castro, and now in 
the province of Rome. Tbis small bamlet of about twenty families was given by 
Pope Benedict XIY. to these poor Christians belonging to the diocese of Scutari in 
Albania, who were seeking refuge from Mahometan persecution under the guidance 
of Andrea and his sons Antomu and Don Stefano Kemani, a family which was 
still in the recollection of some of the Albanians of Pianiano about half a century 
ago, when I used to pay them frequent visits from Musignano, the country-seat 
of my father, the first Prince uf Canino and Musignano. The three Remani's were 
very intelligent men, and quite fit to be the guides and administrators of a much 
larger community. As they were men of some means and very charitable, their 
names were still held in great veneration by the Italianized Albanians, who called 
afterwards a detached portion of the Principality of Canino ** Plane di Don 
Simone,** from the name of one of their rectors, Don Simone Sterbini. Legendary 
stories made him sometimes appear in these plains by moonlight, sprea£ng out 
his cloak as if to protect his cherished Albanians. 

Such common words as buk ** bread," mis *'meat,*' rruli ** grapes," yo **no," 
and some others, ver}' few in number, were still in their memory. 

As these facts are almost unknown, I have thought them worthy, notwith- 
standing their comparatively small philological importance, to be preserved from 
















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fl^ ^ § » S .§ ^- '5 g) fl ^ 

" 11 II II !1 « ^c^ilr-- 

> >» ta ta < — ^-Ov — 




S I: 

^ ^ r rt .« ^ 

^ 'i: -^ 

a II H .!!, n U irii " H 

00 $* ** ^ %i ::5 

"■ •" o P 

O P 

" II 

P 2 

" ll 


II " 

HO HO •*» -^ -*» 




4d "*.S 


^ ^ 60 •^* *>: 

^i ri § 

o ^ 

*± p 

II ^ 


I p 5 .i -9 -all 

60 -S * - 

p ;s P o P 
0^3 ^ t- •'- 

415^11.1^1 if li 


•« -^ "« J " 

'^•* i § § 

4J -S ^ a 

p S p 'S ^ 

.. S 


« '^ II ^ II II II " II 11 <» fe V * ^ 

II II i II 4J Jl J^ -s J -s II II I? N II li, 



have been very much corrected and modified in this second 
edition, after reading with great care the excellent article 
•* L'Albanais en Apulie," by the lamented Dr. John Hanusz, 
printed in the "M^moires de la Soci^t^ de linguistique de 
Paris," vi. pp. 263-7. 

I. List of Words. {See p. 343.) 

N.B. — ^The Albanian substantives of this list are given as 
a rule uDder the indefinite or unarticulated form, but the 
definite or articulated one is often given as well. In other 
instances this last is only indicated by numbers, 1. following* 
the masculines ending in i; 2., the masculines ending in m^ 
and 3., the feminines endipg in a. 

aro 1. 
a§ta 1. 
balls 3. 
barka 2. 


I Bbekku&mi 


brek 3. 

brammd 3. (see brawba) 
browba 3. {see bromma) 
budz 3. (see buz) 
buk {see dakrftmo) 

buka {see dakrftma) 
bukra (see wdara) 
burbla 1. 
burr 1. 
burrik 3. 
buz 3. (see budz) 
darda 3. 
dakriima {see buk) 


bone; stone (of a fruit). 
th£ bean, 
blessed, m. 
The Blessed, God. 
blessed, f. 

The Blessed, the Virgin Mary, 
the bread, 
man (lat. vir). 

pear 'tree ; pear, 



krftma (<e«baka) 

the bread. 



the ewe. 








daBlla 3. 


wood, firewood. 

uta pi. 

wood, firewood. 

see ^kupetta) 





ja 1. 




the barley. 



Jwdra 1. 


9 3. 


fair sub. 


the fair. 




to sleep. 

sleep, imperat. 




the Italian " ricotta.'* 



k9 2. 


pra 1. 


la 3. 





the cock. 

imasa 3. 

middle, sub. 

msta 1. 



thorn; bone (of a fish). 





ija 3. 


TbU. Tram. 1888^. 





rise, imperat. 


rise vp, imperat. 




the mouth. 


to rise; to rise up. 




the fork. 




the tcoman. 




the corn. 

bore 3. 


jatti {see tatta) 

the father. 

jema {see memma) 

the mother. 




no, adv. 

kale 1. 


katunda 1. 


kerkjere 3. 

hme (lat. calx). 

kerkja 1. 

glass (\sX. poculum). 

konba 3. 





the throat. 

kjen 1. 


kjengro 1. 


kjerra 3. 




klittSa 1. 



arm (lat. hrachium) 

kria 3. 


krinba 1. 


krisi {see vera) 











the bell. 








bedOy leSta 






T 1. (see thik) 









a§§a 1. 


iitta 3. 


na {see jema) 

♦ mother. 

\J9 3. 





the table-cloth. 




flesh; meat. 


the flesh; the meat. 


apple- tree; apple. 





aronkja 3. 




{see uja) 



man (Lat. homo). 

betrothed, sub. m. 


the betrothed, m. 


betrothed, sub. f. 


the betrothed, f. 

i (see bukro) 



to raise. 

little, adv. 



the mare. 


apricot-tree; apricot. 



peSka 2. 


plakka 2. 

old man. 

plakka 3. 

old woman. 

plaka 3. 




puUa 3. 


rezza 3. 


ruespa 1. 


ru§9 3. 


sa^idoQ 1. 





the eye. 






the house. 




the bed. 


much^ adv. 

S&rpaka 2. 








Skupetta 3. (see duf) 


gokkja 1. 


§okkjd 3. 

female companion. 

§u/}ba 1. 

button (of flowers) ; hud (of 


talura 1. 


tatta {see jatti) 





the earth. 




the tooth. 

targudz 3. 


tarloddzd 1. 

icatch (French montre). 

thenna 3. 


thik (see mafi^r) 



the knife. 




fuit/ (Tiat. unguis). 




big, m. 


big, f • 




the oats. 

18 1. 

young man. 


3 3. 


3. (see nero) 


ja 1. ; 3. 

olive-tree; olive. 




young woman. 




the chin. 


baby; child; boy; lad. 


the baby; the child ; the boy ; 

the lad. 




low m. 


low, f. 

> («6^ krisi) 


19 1. 






II. Phrases (Transl. by Santoro). 

jenjd, zoderotta, dittona e Lascio, signoria, giomo-il il 

mira. buono. 

?awdz6 pa gj^/idana imma Pensa per la-gente mia che 6 

t§a jeta ma ti. con te. 

5da, ka ta japa funja Va, che ti do mazzate. 

III. RoMAKCE (Transl. by Santoro). 

rbinja ka u nga denja, ma Dissi che io non voleva, ma 

isi panzdn, era falso, 

^a ti e dinja pendzierin' Ma tu Io sapevi pensiere-il 

imma. mio. 



3. Pdrpara to Skoda me buz. 

4. Elewi pa da kr9§t^rate t§9 

nge t9 hava mir dit. 

5. Kama Ian ku§a denja mira, 

6. Da dua mira, zanbra imma. 

7. Nani, pi^rrimi ta du&kimi 


8. Sa ti §okkja imma ka-ta- 

jessesa, t§a do I Bek- 

Davanti te passai con labbro 

Fu per gli cristiani (uamini) 

che non ti dissi buon di. 
Ho lasciato cbi Yoleva bene ; 
Ti voglio bene, cuore-il mio. 
Ora, ritomiamo a volerci 

bene ; 
Che tu compagna (moglie) 

mia sarai, se yuole 

Benedetto {II Dio.). 

IV. The Lord's Prayer (Transl. by Santoro). 

1 . Tatta ina, t§a jeta nda kjela : 

2. Ta jessi kljotta ^nbrana ita. 

3. Ta yi p&rraddzi ita. 

4. Ta jessi banna si do ti, si 

nda kjela, ka§tu par de. 

5. Inna soda bukana jonna pa 


6. Lera ta tirata ta tonnata, si 

na ja lemmi ta ti^ravo ta 

7. E mosa na §pira nduda e 


8. E dika nev^ ka takekia. 

9. E ka §tu kjo§ta. 
E'wbrani T&ttasa, ^wbrani ta i 

Birriti, e Spirti S^wdidi. 
E ka §tu kjo§ta. 

Pater noster, qui es in caalii 
Sanctificetur nomen tuum. 
Adveniat regnum tuum. 
Fiat voluntas tua, sicut ^^n 

csqIo, et in terra. 
Panem nostrum quotidianv^Bkjn 

da nobis hodie. 
Et dimitte nobis debitanost:^Hia, 

sicut et nos dimittinz^us 

debitoribus nostris. 
Et ne nos inducas in ter 

Sed libera nos a malo. 
In nomine Patris, et Filii, et 

Spiritus SanctL Amen. 


V. Romance. 
(A different reading according to Ilanusz.) 

1. Thinja, se wga te denja, e Je simulais que jenet'aimav 

isi pa/}zdn, pas, et c'etait un mensong 

2. EuMdzadrd ti zanbra ima. Tu as p^n^tr^ mon cceur. 



3. Porpara ta Skoda njaj me 


4. Kljeve po greStera, tee ngo 

te Treta. 

5. IT kam e Ijen, ku i§e mir 


6. To t'mar ti, z^bra ima. 

7. Nan( priremi ne dia, se ne 
^ dugemi, 

8. Sokje ma ka ta jesaS, t§a 

do Kriiti. 

Devant toi je maroliais un peu 

C'^tait pour les liommes que 

je ne t'ai pas regard^e. 
Je Tai laiss^ oil il ^tait, ramour. 

Pour te prendre, 6 mon coeur. 
Alors tour noQ8-nou8 tons deux, 

si nous nous aimons, 
Afin que tu sois ma femme, 

ce que Dieu veut. 

VI. Sdn6t " SoNETTo." (According to Hanusz.) 

1. Die mbranb ikoda e tiga Hier soir j'ai pass^ et je ne 

ta p6u, t'ai pas vue, 

2. Etibukaraima, nd'argali, Et toi, ma beauts, au metier 

k tisser, 

3. NgSL kopan^, td' ipnje nd' Chaque coup que tu donnais 

aj6 kad, dans cette caisse 

4. Me ikandogSa zanbra pa ti. M'a brise le c(Bur pour toi. 

VII. Improvisation. (According to Hanusz.) 

1. Denja ta dinja, tsa ka te Je voudrais savoir ce que tu 

bade, dois faire 

2. Me kat ta Skruor, t§a je ta Avec cette Venture que tu 

ban. es en train de faire. 


As I have received from different localities of the Nea- 
politan provinces the Lord's Prayer, etc., translated into nine 
varieties of the Albanian dialect of Italy, and wish to 
prevent the loss of these comparative, local, and original 
specimens, I add them here in the form in which I received 
them, without any appreciation or observation of my own, 
using the orthography followed by each of the native trans- 



I. Ururi, in the province o/Molise, by a native of (hat place. 
1. Tata ione, c'i ie ca chieisa: 6. Ri'mitirma neye d'itirt e 

2. Clioft sce'it emeri iote. 

3. Art regni iote. 

4. Ubift vuuntata iote, si ca 

chieisa, chisciu pir det. 

5. Buchin ione ga dita mna 


tona, si na ia rimitirini 
dibi'turret e toDa. 

7. E mos na ducir ca tenta- 


8. Ma librooa ca e checbia. 

9. Chisciu d'iofit. 

II. Casakecchio di Puglia, in Capitanata, by a native. 

1. Tataiona,cd^iendrdchi^i: 

2. Boefsc ^ scfet nomi iot. 

3. Et Yigni regni iot. 

4. Te boehat vuluntata iota, 

si ndre chi^l, ksu prd d^. 

5. Jena sod bucnd iona de 

nga ddita. 

III. Barile, in Basilicata, 

1. Tatta jonn, ci jei ta ch jeli : 

2. Chgljoft baccuar emmira 


3. N' chiassat regni jott. 

4. Chagjoft vuluntatta jott, 

ta chjeli, ta scecculi. 

5. Buce' jonn nga ddit ipp 


6. Oli^na n^vra dtirta iona.^.^ 

si na gliemi ddbiturt^s. 

7. E nzir ca n^ t^ntaziunt. 

8. Buidna ca td chechidtd. 

9. E ksciu et i^t. 

by Angelo Bozza, a native. 

6. Bunnimi mir ddtiri jo 

ghjar nej j bugn 
mir attiriva ci cat' 

7. Nga nej schiass' ddy a 

8. Ma gh j tt sciurbissita glj ^S R 

9. Acsctujet. 

FagUmi sciocch 

U nengh mend' erda te 
gbieja, sa cammn sciumn cet 
begn, e ti a dij. Ti rija 
mtjre; uazora! Ma nesser 
te vign' a ghi^gne. 

Vi miire — Scihmi. 

Jotte sciocch 


A short letter. 

Salute amico 

lo non ho potuto venix*© a 

trovarti, perche ho assai da 

fare, e tu lo sai. Tu stai bene; 

io I'ho appreso ! Ma domani 

ti vengo a trovare. 

Sta bene — Vediamoci. 
Tuo amico 

1 e is pronounced as 9 ; and ' oe as French eu in leur. (The transl.) 



Sceitroi emri it, 

A'rt pentfa jotte. 

Kioft e beer f aglima jOtte, 

^ San Costantino Albanese, in Basilicata, by Papds N. 


Tata in, ce jee nder kiel : 6. Se na ndegliemi, ghid at& 

ce na kan f tesur nCve. 
7. E mos na chieel ngve nde 

ascttindeklelysimbiidee. 8. Ollerena neve ca gbid 
Bdken ten, ci chee mbe flSsurat. 

crfe, emna neve sod. 9. Asctii chiof tit. 

V. San Marzano di San Giuseppe, in Terra d*Olranto. 

{See p. 341.) 

[. San Giorgio Albanese, in Calabria Citeriore, by Prof, 
Giov. Battista Canada, a United Greek Priest. 

Tat' iin, cie jee ndee kiel: 6. Ndegli^na neve mbecath' 

Chiftft beccuar emri it. 
Aflferuar regghieria jotte. 

tonna, si na ndegliemi 
mbecath tetierve. 

Chi6ft beer vugli^mma 7. Mos na veer nde tenta- 
jotte, asctd ndeer kiel, ziona. 

si mbi dee. 
Buccben teen, cie nataccon 
nga ditta, emna sot. 

8. P6r largonna caa ghidt' 


9. Chesctu chioft. 

Ave Maria, 

Eghezuase Scien Merii, 
Grazie pi6t ti jee. 
Jinzot ee me tij. 
E becuar ti jee ndee ghiO* 

E i becuar carpoi b&rcut' 

tend Jesus. 
SiOgnaScieen Meerii,Emme 

Innit Zot, 
Per ne cie cbemmi mbec&t 

Nani e ndee gberen vdec- 

cbies teen. 
Asctu chioft. 

Ave Maria, 
Oratia plena. 
Dominus tecum. 
Benedicta tu in mulieribus, 

£t benedictus fructus ventris 

tui Jesus. 
Sancta Maria, Mater Dei, 

Ora pro nobis peccatoribus. 

Nunc et in bora mortis 




VII. Zdngarona, in Calabria Ulteriore IL^ hy CHu. Canton 
Lanzo,from Nicaatro, in Calabria Ulteriore IL 

1. J&ttj6n,ce^rriinderki^l;^ 6. fTd^i detirat t' on, si na 

2. Emeri j 6t kiof t persceitnue. 

3. Ardht^ mbretria j6tta. 

4. U beft e vulhnessa jotta, si 

ndeimi detirsit t' on. 
7. E dh^ mos benia ngash- 
shpirti khii. 

ndeki^l,a8htd^ndedhee. 8. Po ni & ghitt ca i ligbu. 
5. Buken jon ngaditsh^n ip 9. Ashtti kioft. 

neva sot. 

VIII. General Italo-Alianian, 
Santa Sofia d^Hpiro, 

1. Ati Ine, nedSr cbiel ce je : 

2. I becuare chiofte fimri ite. 

3. Arte reghieria jotte. 

4. IT bSfti e duamia jotte, si 

ned^r chiel, asctu nedSr 

5. Bucben tene te sosemen 

6nna neve sote. 

6y Prof. Modesto Miracco^ from 
in Calabria Citeriore. 

6. Nedegliena neve detiret 

tona, si edh^ na i nede- 
gliemi armikvet tene. 

7. Emos na cbiel nMe tan- 


8. Po glief ddronna neve na 

e ecbecbia. 

9. Asctu cbiote. 

IX. Unspecified Italo- Albanian, by Antonio Dorsa^from Civita, 

in Calab)ia Citeriore, 

1. Tata joon, ci jee dy kial : 

2. Kyft i becuar ymri tynt. 

3. Ar^t regghyria jote. 

6. Dygliena neve mycat tona, 
si na dygljemi a ta cy 
caan na japin. 

4. Kyftit mogliema jote, ak 7. E mos na kiel dy testimi- 

dy kial, sa dy 8eet. 


5. Buckyn tyyn gga dit jipna 8. EglibrarnanevecaigHggu. 

neve sot. 

9. Cbysctu kyoft. 

To tbese nine, more or less correct, Italo- Albanian trans 
lations of the Lord's Prayer, the following five may be add« 
They are reduced from their translator's orthography to ihsit 
of which the key is given on p. 343 : 

1°. Into the Italo-Albanian of Frascineto, in Calabria 

1 e=p. » k=^-. « dh=rfA. * 8h=l. (Thetranil.) 


Citeriore. {See *' H Yangelo di S. Matteo, tradotto dal testo 
greco nel dialetto calabro-albanese di Frascineto dal Sig. 
Yincenzo Dorsa. Riveduto e corretto da Don Demetrio 
Camarda, autore della Orammatologia Albanese. Impensis 
Ludotici Ludani Bonaparte. Londra. 1868.") 

2°. Into the Italo- Albanian of Piana de' Oreci, in the pro- 
Tince of Palermo. (See "II Vangelo di S. Matteo, tradotto dal 
testo greco nel dialetto albanese di Piana de'Oreci in Sicilia 
da an native di questo luogo. Riveduto e corretto da Don 
Demetrio Camarda, autore della Orammatologia Albanese. 
Impensis Ludovici Ludani Bonaparte." Londra. 1868.") 

3^ Into tbe Tosk or Southern Albanian of Albania. (See 
at p. 22 of the " 'AX4>dl3frrov 'Ak^avticov:' (S. H. Weiss, 
anc. mais, Kohler et Weiss, grand' rue de Pera 323. Con- 
stantinople. Without any date.) 

4^. Into the Oheg or Central Albanian of Albania. (See 
" Dhiata e Re e Zotit edhe Seljbuesit t'yne Jesu-KriStit, 
kathyem prei OrekjiStesa victor ^kjip nda gjuha OegoniSte 
prei Konstantinit Kristoforidit, Elbasanasit. Konstantino- 
poL 1869.") 

6^ Into the Oheg or Northern Albanian of Scutari in 
Albania. (See ** II Vangelo di S. Matteo, tradotto dalla 
Yolgata nel dialetto albanese ghego scutarino, dal P.Francesco 
Rossi da Montalto. Riveduto e corretto da Mons. Oaspare 
Grasnich, Abate Mitrato di Mirditta. Impensis Ludovici 
Ludani Bonaparte. Londra. 1870.") 

Thb Lord's Prayer in these Five Dialects, 

I. Frasdneto. 

1. Tataln, tSo j6 tekjielot: 6. E wdoljena neve datirat 

2. Kjof to Saitardar 6mari it. tona, si edhe na ja iido- 

3. Arthoto rregjoria jote. Ijemi atire tsa k&n ta 

4. Kjofta boAn valjema jote, na japan. 

si ndo kjial, edh^ wbi 7. E mos na sielSa wdar taw- 
dhe. tatsiuna. 

6. Bukan tdn te pardisaman 8. Po IjaSona ka i Ijigu. 

OAmna sot. 9. A§tu kjofta. 




II. Plana de* Greci. 
1, Tata jin9, tSa j6 te kjie- 6. Edh^ ndajena detireto to- 

na, si edhd na ndaj^jam' 
at& t$8 na kane ddtuara 

ghhiata : 

2. Klofta Saituar emri jita. 

3. Jarthat9 nbretria jote. neve. 

4. TT-befta vulema jote, aStu 7. E mos na bie§ nda ta kseva- 

si nda kjieghha, edh^ lur. 

nhi dh6. 8. Po Spatona ka i ligu. 

5. Bukan tana taparditSamen 9. A§tu klofta. 

dna neve sot. 


1. Ati yna kja j6 wda kjiej : 

2. USanjtarofta 6mari yt. 

3. Arthta nbaretat ia jote. 

4. Ub^fta da§urimi yt, si nda 

kjiel, edh^ nba dh^t. 

5. Bukana t'ana ta parditas- 

mena ep-na neve sot. 


1. Ati yna, kji je wda kji^l : 

2. Uienjtanoft' ^mani yt. 

3. Arthta wbaretania jote. 

4. UbaAfta da§unimi yt, si 

wda kji^l, edhe nba dhet. 

6. Biikona t'ona ta pardi- 

tSamen' ep-na neve sot. 


6. Edh^ falj-na f&jeta fane, 

sikundra edh^ na ua 
faljma fajtorevet t'ano. 

7. Edhd mos na §ti^ra ni9 


8. Po §pat6-na pr^'i sa kekjit. 

9. Amin. 


6. Edhe falj-na f&jeta t'ona, 

sikurse edhe na ua faljim 
fajtoravet t'ana. 

7. Edhe mos na §ti^ra fide 


8. Por §peto-na prei sa kekjit 

9. Amen. 

V. Oheg of Scutari. 

1. Atyn, tsi je n' tsi^lh : 

2. SeAitniiem kjoft emni yt. 

3. Ardht redznia jote. 

4. TJ ba^vft vulnessa jote, 

sikur n' t§i^lh, astu n' 

5. Buken taA t' perditSmen 

epna neve sot. 

6. E nnina neve f ajet e mka- 

tet tona, sikurs^ nnim 
na faitdrt taA. 

7. E mos na leA me ra n'tun- 


8. E na largo prei gith 


9. A^tu kjoft. 



Novel IX op the First Day op Boccaccio's Decameron. 
{See *' Papanti— I Parlari itaUani in Certaldo. Livomo. 1873.") » 


Dico adunquoi che ne'tempi del prlmo Be di Cipri, dopo il 
conquisto fatto della Terra Santa da Gottifrd di Buglione, 
BTvenne che una gentil donna di Ouascogna in pellegrinaggio 
andd al Sepolcro, donde tomando, in Gipri arrivata, da alcuni 
seelerati uomini villanamente fii oltraggiata : di che elle senza 
alcuna consolazion dolendosi, pensd d'andarsene a richiamare 
al Be ; ma detto le fu per alcuno, che la fatica si perderebbe, 
perci6 che egli era di si rimessa vita e da si poco bene, che, 
non che egli Taltrui onte con giustizia vendicasse, anzi infinite, 
con yituperevole \iliA, a lui fattene sosteneya; in tan to che 
chiunque avea cruccio alcuno, quelle col fargli alcuna onta o 
vergogna sfogava. La qual cosa udendo la donna, disperata 
della vendetta, ad alcuna consolazion della sua noja propose 
di volere mordere la miseria del detto Be ; et andatasene 
piagnendo davanti a lui, disse: Signor mio, io non vengo 
nella tua presenza per vendetta che io attenda della ingiuria 
che m'i stata fatta, ma, in sodisfacimento di quella, ti priego 
che tu m'insegni come tu sofferi quelle le quali io in ten do 
che ti son fatte, acci6 che, da te apparando, io possa paziente- 
mente la mia comportare ; la quale, sallo Iddio, se io far Io 
potessi, volentieri ti donerei, poi cosi buon portatore ne se'. 
II Be, infino allora state tardo e pigro, quasi dal sonno si 
risvegliasse, cominciando dalla ingiuria fatta a questa donna, 
la quale agramente yendic5, rigidissimo persecutore divenne 
di ciascuno, che, centre alPonore della sua corona, alcuna 
cosa commettesse da indi innanzi. 

> The orthography of Papanti*8 Collection has been preserved in the following 


Albanian {Provincia di Calabria Citeriore). 

FRAsaNBTO. — Thorn poca s^ nde motit te parit lUgje i 
T9iprit po tqe kje marre dh^u i shSit ka Ghifr^ i Buljonit 
^rth 8^ nje zonje e Guasconjes yattd per yutte t& varri 
Crishtit, e kur u-pruare, po sa errd Tgiper, kj^ maltrattaar 
slium k^kje ka tsa nj^rez te Ijikje : per ket^ ajo e chol- 
kjassur p& puscim yau nde kri^t te y^je te therrit t& R^gjl 
Po i kj^ th&ne s^ biir mottin, pe^ r^gji ish nje njdrii akje 
i bi^rri, e i yar^ssur, s^ jo y^t te Ijigat t9e i benshin te 
ti^ry^t, po iAh6 te shumat t9e i bojen atije si ma i nemuri 
i suffriren^j ; akje 8& 'nka nje t9e kish 'ndo nje 'ndsdrre 
m^ te' e 'ndzlre m6 te Ijiga e m^ te shaitur. Oj^gjur zonja 
ket sburb^s, p& sperendse to gjendj d9astitzid, s^ te kisk 
piad9ir t^ cheljmi saje, yuu 'nder trCl ti 'nkit R^gjit te 
bi^rrit e tije; e yatur tue kj&r t^k ai, tha: ''Zotti im, u 
se yinje perpara tije 8^ te keem mindite per Ijikte t9e 
m'u-boe, po si nje piad9lr per te', te parcalj^senje te me 
mesosbe si ti i munden te Ijigat t9e u gjegdm s^ te bonjen 
tije, ps^ u, mesuar ka ti, te mundenje edh^ u m^ pat9^nt8e 
tim^Q ; e kte' u Inzot e dii, 'nde mund' e boija, m^ gjitb 
zemer t' e regaloja, po t9e ti dii e i 'mb&n pa fard lasti- 

K^gji 190 njera achidrna kisb kj^ne molje e i yar^ssur, si 
kftr i sgjuat ka gjumi, tue z^n ka sburb^ssi zonjes 190 yin- 
dicarti sa jo mae, u-boe mae i tharti njerii kunter 'nga njeje 
t9e ka ajo dit i 'nkit 'nderen e r^gjeries tije. 


Modem Greek {Provincia di Terra di Otranto). 

Calihbra. — CusetOy sto cerd tu pronii Yasili tu Cipm, 
motta o Gt)ffirido tu Buglione iche pianta us topu vloimenuy 
yreri mia jinega oali jennimeni pu sti Ouascogna pu pirte e 
8to nima tu led, e sto jurisi ftazzonta sto Cipro, jeno cameno 
i craifie, oe i sti n'ecame ; manichedda, utto prama toglase i 
cardia, ipe pao ce deo u Yasili ; tupane ti en iche ti cami, 
t'ione oer6 cameno, ti oino ione tosso strad, ce af ze zoi tosso 
ascimarda, pu oi pu u cannane en ecchite, alio ce maci canoni 
ci pu cannane stos a<fd6, ce stu ftecii pu isane pesammeni 
evadde pu panu lisaria. Mazzdnta utta pramata e jinega, e 
sozzonta cami addo na mi ti pari o pono, ipe, eY6 e na daccaso 
utto Yasili, ce panta cleonta bro cino : '' Meamu, ipe, evd 
en'ercome bro stin aftentiasu ja citto stra6 pu mu camane, 
eroome na maso, se pracald, pos canni na su diavi ticand pu 
bro af ze tossa pramata pu socune janomena, ce tuo to telo 
na soso masi, na mu diavi in dichimmu; possa pramata sodione 
an isoza cami eT6 pos cauni aftentiasu/' 

O Yasili pu iche stasonta af ze cinu pu en itele na cami 
tipoti, sia ti fzunnise a pu ston ipuno, nzignase pu toa na 
jetti antrepo, eftiase calfl calii cini pu camane ta strai is 
jinega, ju s'addu, macari t'ione tipoti ci pu u cannane, mara 
ces aftu. 



GalUhltalic {Provincia di Messina). 

San Fratello. — Dich danqua ch' ai taimp du prim Be 
di Cipr, dipuoi la cunquista fatta di la Terra Santa da 
Oufreu di Bugghian, avvoQ chi 'na gintiu fomna di Qua- 
Bcogna 'n piligrinegg ann&a a u Samuorcb, d' anna tumain, 
'n Cipr arrivara, da arcui scialarei hami yidaanama'int fa 
attraggiera : di co rodda sanza arcuna cunsulazian dulainns, 
pins&a d' ann^r a ricuorriri au Be ; ma ditt ghi fu p' arena 
chi la fata'igha si pirdirross, pirco rau era di cusci dibu vita 
e di cusci pacch bai, chi chid tasst chi li anti di hieutr caa 
giustizia vindichiess, hienz 'nfiniri cu 'nfam viltiLa, a raa 
fatti, suppurtava ; tant chi qualunch avaja ira arcana, 
quodda cun ferghi arcuna anta o virgagna sfughieva. La 
chi'u causa sintarn la fomna, dispirara di la vinnitta, p' 
arcuna cunsulazian di la saua nuoja, pripan6 di Tulair mardr 
la misieria du ditt Be ; e annaa ciangiain dayant a raa, e 
diss : " Signaur miea, jiea ni viegn 'nta la taua prisa'inza pi 
yinnitta, chi jiea aspittass di la 'ngiuria chi m' e stata fatta; 
ma 'n sadisfazian di quodda ti priegh chi tu m' insigni cam 
tu suoffri quoddi chi jiea 'ntain chi ti san fatti, pirc6 da tu 
'mpara'in, jiea pazza cun paciainza la maja cumpurt^r; chi 
('u saa Diea) si jiea fer ft puloss, di bauna vuogghia ti cum- 
primintass, pirco cusci ban purtaraur ni sai." 

TJ Be fina addaura stat tard e dagnauss, quasi da saga si 
risvigghiesSy cumunzam da la 'ngiuria fatta a quosta fomna, 
chi fart vindichiea, durissim pirsicutaur divint&a d' agnua 
chi cauntra d' anaur di la saua curauna arcuna causa caiDit- 
toss da puoi in avant. 



Pronm^ (Prormeia di Capitamaia). 

Ckixb 8as Tipol — Cre diaoe done, che a la tenc de lu 
primmie Baie de (Spre, dapp6ie che i f 1 priiie la Tera Sant da 
Ghitt^^ de Bnglioiie, ayyenit che na gintile fenne de Qua- 
Mx^liie iailatte pOlirine a lu Sabbulche, disci tumaD, arreTa 
she i fitte a (^pre, da pande mk mmuen i fit nammuor txi bri 
Bgiria : penik iglie ne pr^;nitte tan e tan delaue, ca i pinsat 
lU^ a rdccaorre a la Baie ; me cacun le discitte c' ai^ve ten 
perdi, peoche te glieve de ciiorr tri pittitte e trl pabbonc, tka 
she nun solammen i pregnlve p& d6 iostise la vinnitte de lo 
nginrie de lo site, me s' elld trinnammuor che i fascivant a ie, 
88 le piigniye eu tin vie yetuperie ; tanluvaie che tut 8elI6e 
che i tenerant da dir cache ciuoBe de ie, i sfug&yant pe le 
deni despiascie e pe lu sbmgnie. Sentan sta ciuose sela fenne, 
persiiadi che i potive pi av&itre la vinnitte, p' avaie un pii de 
cansnlazion a la despiaacie sine, se mettitte nt^te de mmuor- 
dere on pii la mesterie de sette Raie ; e piaran se n'allatte 
devanc a ie, e li discitte : " Segnaue min, gi ge vien pi devan 
a ti pe la vinnitte che gi m'attant de la ngiurie che m'esti 
fiie, me p'avaie un pii de piascie dd selle, ge te pr&ie do 
m'empanL cumm ti tin tin de pasienz de suffrie sdlle ngiurie, 
che gi gi sinte che i fasciunt a ti, pecche gi avoie mparan do 
ti, ge putisse pikre d6 pasienz suppurti la mii; oa i si 
Diabbenaie, se ge j6 putisse fi, bunammuor ge te la dunire, 
pecchi ti te si tinbun purti u e6e." 

Lu Baie, nsi addunc ci se muive pi e pi ren i fascive, 
[^omni se fiss ruveglii de lu suonne, abbiitte primmammen de 
la ngiuiia feie a sitta fenne, che i vinnici d6 rigge, poie se 
fascitte tri dije persecuttiue de tutt 6elI6e ci i fascivant m^io 
a preie cache ciuose cuntre Tunnaue de la curona sii. 

PhiL Trans. 1888^. 24 


Illyrian {Provincia di Molise). 

AcQUAviVA CoLLECROCE — GoYorem dakle, da na yrimu per- 
Toga Kraija Ciprina, potli vasetija zemlja sveta po Guffired 
Buljunow, je bio da nika dragostiva zona Gaascognova, je 
po§la suputnica u grobu, odkuda yratajud, u Cipru doila, po 
nike zale Ijude hiapno je bila izapsovana. Za to ona bez 
ikoja utiha jadajuc, je mislila poci prayiti Kralju, ali su 
reklo njoja, da bi tegh zgubila; pokl^ on bi§e torko ponizan 
do zivota, i torko mali milosardnik, da pace tuje uvride 
pravdom odkupiti, nezbrojne odurnom prikomostom njemu 
cinjene tarpeja§e ; za§to koj imase ikoja rasarda, ova, cinjuc 
njemu uvrida, al sramota, zapaciajase. Koja stvar cinjuc 
zena bez uhvanja fantenja, za ikoja utiha svoja prigmsenja, 
je nakanila ujesti lenost Kraija ; i poSla placiajuc napri 
njemu, je rekla: " Gospodar moj, ja negrem napri tebi za 
imati fantenja do uvrida, koja su meni oinile ; ali na zada- 
volinosti onoj, tebe molim da meni kaza§ ako tarpid one, 
koje ciujem da jesu tebi cinjene ; pokle do tebe nauciujuc, ja 
bi mogia moja sterpljvostno tarpiti ; koja, znade Bog, ako ja 
bi mogla ciniti, dobrovoljeno bi tebi darovila, zasto jes torko 
debar nositelj." 

Kralj jo§e tada (or, dotle) bil spor, i len, ako do san b^^ 
sa probudio, pociujuc do uvrida cinjena ovoju zeni, koj^ 
krutno je odkupio, nenaprosljv nastornik (or, naslidnii^ 
je postio do svako, koj proti postenje svoja kruna §togod 
cinio po napredka. 


Historical and Bibliographical Notes. 

°. Albanian, as is generally known, was first introduced 
Southern Italy, about 1440, by Demetrius Beres 
briota ; by his son, the celebrated Albanian Captain 
nderbeg ; and by their followers. 

^. Modern Greek did not take its origin in Southern 
y, as has been erroneously stated, from the Ancient 
ek of Magna OrsBcia, but simply from the Modem Greek 
jhreece, of which it is a corrupted and very much Italian- 
. dialect, as Italic Albanian is a very much corrupted 
Italianized dialect of Tosk Albanian. {See " Comparetti 
aggio dei dialetti greci della Terra d'Otranto. Lecce, 
9 ; Morosi — Dialetti romaici del mandamento di Bova in 
ibria, in Archivio Olottologico italiano, vol. iv. p. 1. Roma, 
ino, Firenze, 1874 ; Pellegrini — II dialetto greco-calabro 
lova. Torino e Roma, 1880.") 

°. The Gallo-Italic of Guardia Piemontese, in Calabria 
triore, owes its origin to the Waldensian Piedmontese 
iialect of the valleys of Pinerolo, Province of Turin, 
Tict, Canton and Diocese of Pinerolo. The Protestant 
Idensians emigrated from Piedmont to Calabria about the 
• 1315. (See '* Yegezzi-Ruscalla — Colonia piemontese 
/alabria, in Rimta Contemporanea. Novembre, 1862.") 
h regard to the Gallo Italic of Sicily, it seems, accord- 
to De Gregorio, that, generally, it represents Northern 
Lmontese, while the Gallo-Italic dialect of San Fratello 
Nicosia shows rather, according to the same author, an 
lian origin. {See "De Gregorio — Fonetica dei dialetti 
>-italici di Sicilia, in Archivio Olottologico italiano^ vol. 
p. 305," and ''Affinitel del dialetto sanfratellano con 
li dell' Emilia. Torino, 1886," by the same author.) 

\ For Proven9al and its probable origin, see " Galiani — 
ibolario Napoletano. Napoli, 1789, vol. i. p. 141.") 


5°. The Illyrian dialect owes its origin to the lUyrians of 
Dahnatia who emigrated from there to the province of Capi- 
tanata (Foggia), Map IV., under the reign of Charles V. 
(Communicated by the Bey. Titus de Leonardis, Archpriest 
of Montecilfone, an Albanian village of the province of 
Molise (Campobasso), Map III., in his letter of the 26th 
June, 1889, dated from the said village.) 

At Map YIIL, instead of Carpenzano, read Carpanzano. 



IN 1888. 


London, 1890. 

Red> Trveaihs AVbaivicMZV 
Gncetv , ModenvOreek' 
Bbijt GaUo-ItaUc 

JBrowrv „ Plwen/DaiL 

Yellow „ lU^prxajv 


w«^ Capital c^ cbjfpovinee where no inmdnitd' dialect is spoken hy ruxtiyes 

# ^A BnujJLLocaJUtf where no inmdakd dialect is spolceiv hy TiaixMes 

# maArvAlhcmiaiv locaUty 

O mm idy hut €fnJy Alhaiuarv irv mitujrvty (large, smjcdLf or everv very smalL) 
A ms i/L, ajv anrvBOB tfrcL ptxriSrL 

# =1.4 KodevTv GreeJc loctiUfy 

O SB id, hut onfyModerrv OreeJc iiv miiurrity 
A s id, arv aiuwot cfcu pariafv 
A= id,, idfiivnvuijorify 

# ssA GaJlo —ItaJbic locuJU^ 

# ^A pfovenjgaL locality 

# m^ArvUfyrioav locaUJby 

A a uiy ojn, annstc ofcL parish/ 
^^^unitea upart cffwptxrisJv with "Bte parish, itself 












— , — i 






^ O 


— ^i 







W P »P?P 3p4O506P70ay 

Sumfb^s C w y B^i KtoJ L Ij^aaiA 

g. Province of TeoA..^ 

























/' \ 












, r- 













JV. Province of foggia. 




%CaMahreeehio diRtffbLBu 




T^C^Oe s. nto 



•^«*^ V 






,.^y -\ 





SO 10 



StonlbrCi ett09«<«|^HlJCoL SjtaiaOi: 


^•^.^•^•^' I 

. — -^y 

























UoMUbrA's OmgrefMcaLEttttUOmmt. 

VI. Province OF potewta 
















^ i 







-> SJku^loAihanete 
/ S*CotiantmoAtt»ansae^ 








**~-^HV '^^r^'^t^itn^m^MA 










.^ — •.-* 


L ^rar?Mtn/ 

y ^^\ 




^ %S. Glory UfAOHUtMse 

f^S J>«Bii»tFio Gorane 




i" -^^ s 










^— «. 










Oorio diSoghjudi 



8 p 10 





IRISH ANNALS. By Whitley Stokes, D.C.L. 

[Read June 6ih, 1890.] 

Xx was Reinhold Pauli, I think, who suggested that the 

^K^edisBval institution of annal-writing originated in North- 

'Umbria, and was carried thence by the Saxon missionaries 

x^ito Frankland and Germany. Considering the close spiritual 

^^onnexion between Ireland and Lindisfarne, long the 

^xionastic and episcopal capital of the North of England, it 

ig^ht be worth inquiring whether the Northumbrians learned 

unal-writing from their Scotic teachers, or whether the 

c^on verse was the case. However this may be, there is no 

^.oubt of the existence in the Irish language of a great mass 

of ancient annals which (like the laws and the Cuchulainn 

^romances) show little or no trace of foreign influence, and 

"^^hich often profess to be, and sometimes certainly are, 

:f ounded on lost books of the Old-Irish period, say of the 

eighth, ninth, and tenth centuries. 

The Irish annals may be briefly described in the alpha- 
^fcetical order of the compendia by which they are respectively 
denoted in the present paper : — 

A.B. The Annals of Boyle, a vellum in the British Museum, 

Cotton MS. Titus A. xxv. ff. 13•-36^ Written in the thir- 

^(eenth century. Extend from a.d. 420 to a.d. 1245. Printed 

inaccurately by Dr. O'Conor in Rerum Hibemicarum SanptoreSf 

^Buckingham, 1825, vol. ii. pp. 5-48 (separate pagination). 

The part relating to the Battle of Clontarf (a.d. 1014) is 

printed in O'Donovan's Orammar, pp. 444-447. I have 

collated O'Conor's edition with the MS. 

A.I. The Annals of Inisfallen, a vellum in the Bodleian, 

Rawl. B. 503. Extend from the Creation to the year 1319. 

Written in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. The part 

extending from a.d. 428 to a.d. 1195 (ff. 9-40) is printed 

PhiL Znuu. lSSS-90. 25 


inaccurately in the JRerum Hib, ScriptL iL pp. 1-122 
(separate pagination). An entry for the year 1201 is in 
0' Donovan's edition of the Annals of the Four Masters, a.d. 
1418, note y. I have collated O'Conor's edition with the MS. 

A.L.O. Annals of Loch C^, in the library of Trinity 
College, Dublin, H. 1. 19. Written about 1680. Extend, 
from A.D. 1014 to 1590. Edited by the late Mr. W. M^ 
Hennessy, Dublin, 1871, in two volumes. 

A.U. The Annals of Ulster, a vellum in the Bodleian.. 
Bawl. B. 489. Extend from a.d. 431 to a.d. 1541. Th^ 
greater part compiled in the fifteenth century, from the los^ 
Books of Guana, Mochtae, Dub-d&-lethe, etc., by Cathal 0^ 
Mac Maghnusa. Printed inaccurately, down to the year 1 13^ 
in O'Conor's Berum Bibemicarum Scriptores, vol. iv. Anoth^ 
copy in the library of Trinity College, Dublin (H. ^ 
8), has been published, much more correctly, but only do^i^-] 
to the year 1056, by the late Mr. Hennessy, Dublin, 18^7 
I have collated O'Conor's edition with the Bodleian MS. 

C.S. Chronicon Scotorum, in the library of Trinify 
College, Dublin, H. 1. 18, a manuscript written by Dudley 
mac Firbis. Extends from a.m. 1599 to a.d. 1131. Edited 
by the late Mr. Hennessy, Dublin, 1866. 

F.M. The Annals of the Kingdom of Ireland, by the Four 
Masters.^ Extend from the Deluge down to a.d. 1616. Com- 
piled in the years 1632-1636, from the Book of Clonmacnois, 
now lost,^ the Book of Oil^n na Naomh (Island of the Saints), 
of which there is said to be a fragment in the Bodleian :^ the 
Annals of Ulster above mentioned : the lost Books of the Clan 
O'Mulconry, the lost Book of the O'Duigenans of Kilronan, 
and the lost Historical Book of Lecan Mic Firbisigh. Edited, 
very erroneously, down to a.d. 1171, by Dr. O'Conor in the 
Rerum Hibernicarum Scriptores, vol. iii. The whole edited 
by Dr. O'Donovan, in five quartos, Dublin, 1848, 1851, the 

* Three O'Clerys and Fer-feasa O'Mulconry. 

' There are, however, several copies of an English translation made in 1627 by 
Connell Mageoghegan. 

» Rawl. li. 488, ff. 29-34, comprising the years 1392-1407. But in tiie 
Approbation pretixed to the Annals of the Four Masters, p. Ixv, it is said that the 
Book of the Island was not carried beyond a.d. 1227. 


annals relating to the years 1172-1616 from the autograph 
MS. in the library of the Royal Irish Academy and Trinity 
College, Dublin : the rest from O'Conor's edition, controlled 
by two copies made in the eighteenth century. The earlier 
part of O'Donovan's great book is often obviously faulty. 

L.L. Annals in the Lobar Laignech (Book of Leinster), 
a MS. of the middle of the twelfth century, preserved in the 
library of Trinity College, Dublin. Extend from the intro- 
duction of Christianity to a.d. 1189. Printed in the Rolls 

edition of the Tripartite Life, London, 1887, pp. 512-528,1 

from pp. 24-26 of the lithographic facsimile. 

T.F. Three Fragments of Irish Annals, in the Bibliothdque 

Hoyale, Brussels, marked vol. xviii. No. 5301. Extend from 

A.D. 573 to 735, from 662 to 704, and from 851 to 913. 

Transcribed from Mac Firbis' copy of a lost vellum of 

unknown date. Edited by O'Donovan, Dublin, 1860. 

Correspond in part with Egerton 1782 (a MS. in the 

Sritish Museum), fo. 61* et seq. 

Tig. The Annals of Tighemach. Of these, the oldest 
and honestest of all the extant Irish Annals, we have only 
fragments. The first, in Latin, with a few Irish passages, 
names and glosses interspersed, extends from the foundation 
of Rome to the time of Antoninus, and is preserved in Rawl. 
B. 502, a twelfth-century vellum in the Bodleian, ff. 1-12. 
The second fragment extends from B.C. 305 to a.d. 360 : the 
third from a.d. 489 to 766 ; the fourth from a.d. 975 to 1088. 
The second, third and fourth fragments are for the most part 
in Irish, and are preserved in RawL B. 488 (ff. 1-19), a 
vellum of the thirteenth or beginniug of the fourteenth 
century, also in the Bodleian. The fourth fragment is 
followed by an anonymous continuation (ff. 20-26), in Irish, 
from A.D. 1088, when Tighemach died, to 1178. The first 
fragment has never been published. The second, third and 
fourth have been printed by O'Conor, with his usual inaccu- 
racy, in the Rerum Hibernicarum Scriptores, vol. ii. pp. 1-314. 

* The following corrections are required: p. 612, 1. 16, for sancti read 
Mcnndi; p. 613, 1. 16, /or holy read second ; p. 615, at the year 673, /or A fight 
in lardoman (?) read An expedition into the Western world, that is, into i;5oil 


A fifth fragment, which the late Dr. Todd supposed to be 
part of Tighemach/ is at the beginning of the MS. of the 
Annals of Ulster in the library of Trinity College, Dublin. 
It consists of four leaves of yellum and covers the time from 
A.D. 34 (about) to a.d. 378 (about). It has never been 
printed, but I have had it photographed, as well as the four 
Bodleian fragments of Tighemach. I have transcribed all 
the Irish in these fragments and in the continuation. 

Besides the Annals above described, there are the follow- 
ing, which I have not read for this paper : — 

1. The Annals of Connaught. The original is said to be 
one of the Stowe vellums now in the library of the Royal 
Irish Academy. Paper copies are in the library of Trinity 
College, Dublin (class H. 1. I and 2), and in that of the Royal 
Irish Academy (class 23. F. 8-9). The part extending from 
A.i>. 1316 to 1412 has been printed from H. 1. 1 and 2, in 
Mr. Hennessy's edition of the Annals of Loch C^, vol. L 
pp. 584-652, vol. ii. pp. 2-144. 

2. A fragment of a chronicle in the British Museum, 
Clarendon xlv. Add. 4792, ff. 27-40. Four of the leaves 
(29, 30, 31, 32) are vellum ; the others are paper. The part 
relating to the years 1578-1590 is printed in Mr. Hennessy's 
edition of the Annals of Loch C^, vol. ii. pp. 420-514. 

3. Two vellum fragments of a chronicle in the Bodleian, 
Rawl. B. 488, S. 27, 28. Extend from a.d. 1238 to 1248 and 
from A.D. 1306 to 1314. According to Mr. Macray's catalogue 
of the Bodleian MSS., Part V., fasc. i., col. 708, "probably 
written in the beginning of the fifteenth century." 

4. A vellum fragment of what Mr. Macray states (ubi 
supra) to be the Annals of the Abbey of the Island of All 
Saints, in Lough Rie, County of Longford, by Augustine 
Magraidin, Rawl. B. 488, ff*. 29-34. Extends from a.d. 1392 
to 1407. 

5. A vellum fragment of Annals at Cheltenham, in the 
Phillipps library. No. 9194, fo. 9* et seq. A small quarto, 

* See his letter in 0' Curry's Lecfures on the MS. Materials of Irish Eittory^ 
pp. 517-8. The late Mr. W. M. Hennessy told me that he did not agree wi^ 
I»r. Todd. 


written in the fourteenth century. Extends from a.d. 
1160 to A.D. 1315 or thereabouts. Owing to a bookbinder's 
blunder the leaves containing the annals for 1160-1183 
come after those containing the annals for 1192-1315. 

6. Another vellum fragment of Annals in the same library, 
No. 9196, ff. 1-12. A small quarto, written about 1400. 
Extends from a.d. 1120 or thereabouts to 1156. 

The large mass of literature above described has hitherto 
never been used for philological purposes, first, because 
O'Conor's editions of the Annals of Tighernach, Innisfallen, 
Boyle, and the Four Masters are so untrustworthy as to dis- 
credit the better editions of the other Annals, which we owe 
to O'Donovan and Hennessy; secondly, because the use of 
the so-called Irish character has led to many misprints,^ and 
lias also rendered it impossible, without collating the printed 
texts with the MSS., to know when we have to deal with an 
actual form, when with an ignorant extension of a contrac- 
tion ; thirdly, because the Irish Annals are, as a rule, of 
repulsive aridity ; and, lastly, because the translations given 
by the editors are notoriously full of reckless and unlucky 

Some idea of the richness of the Annals as a mine for Irish 
lexicography may be gathered from the fact that in a few 
weeks I have collected from them about 3500 words, most of 
which are not found in any dictionary, while those which are 
so found are either wrongly explained, or not accompanied by 
any quotation or reference. To print these words with their 
respective belegstelkn would require a volume of about 200 
pages, which would benefit only a limited number of students 
of Irish. I therefore propose, on the present occasion, to 
give little more than a selection of such of these words 
as are likely to interest the wider circle of comparative 

1 Two out of some hondredB may be quoted : dainnaibh, FM. 1595, p. 1986, 
1. 16. Read d*armaibh. diairin, FM. 1597, p. 2010. L 9. Read diairm. For 
misprintB in the Annals of Ulster see Th§ Academy, Sep. 28, 1889, p. 207. 

3 See as to the Annals of Ulster The Academy^ Oct. 5, 1889, pp. 224, 


The contents of the present paper are arranged as follows : 

I. Irish words etymologically interesting, 
II. I. Low-Latin words. 

2. Irish loans from Latin. 

3. Irish loans from Old-Frqnch. 
III. I. Welsh names. 

2. Irish loans from Welsh. 
IV. Pictish names and other words. 

V. I. Old-Norse names and other words. 

2. Irish loans from Old-Norse. 

YL I. Anglo-Saxon names. 

2. Irish loans from Anglo-Saxon. 

3. Irish loans from Middle-English. 

I. Irish Words Ettmolooicallt Interesting. 

accidecht patrimonial rights gen. aicidheachta, ALC. 1225. 
Cognate with Ir. aicme race, tribe, W. ach, 'stemma, prosapia, 
parentela, genealogia ' : achydd genealogist^ achyddiaeth genealogy t 
achyddol genealogical. 

altru fosterer y C8. 108, gen. altrann, Tig. AU. 1129, altronn, 
ALC. 1129. Com. altrou (gl. victricus), Br. autrou * seigneur,' pi. 
autronez, W. alltraw * sponsor,' pi. alltrawon. 

Anmargach a Dane, for Danmarcach, AB. 1014, as nimir for 
nuimir = Lat. numerus. The d in the one case, like the n in the 
other, is lost after the n of the article. Zimmer*8 explanation 
of na hAnmaroaig, LL. 262^, as ** phonetische schreibung " for 
noDhanmarcaig is impossible. 

ar-chu watchdog, metaph. vigilant hero, ace. sg. archoin, Tig. 1171. 
Cogn. with Ir. aire, and the Areanos of Ammianus Marcellinas. 

brech tool/, in Brech-mag, FM. 753, Skr. vrka, 

eel death, AU. 1056=O.-!N'or8e Hel the death-goddess. 

cessach basket, pi. dat. cessachaib, Ann. Conn, cited FM. 1225, 
note 5. Formed from tJM«=Lat. cist a, Gr. kIotti, 

cimbid captive, AU. 745, cim(b)idecht captivity, ALC. 1315, 
y/cing-, Lat. cingo. See coimm. 

cin revenge, pi. hi ccintaib, CS. 1034 = a ndioghail, FM. 1036. 
Cognate with ttoivt), and Zend kaina * strafe, rache.' 

coimm 1. garment, 2. covering, shelter, protection, FM. 1073, 


ALC. 1186. From ^Jcomhi (from ^kongvi), oogn. with Kofifio^, and 
the Hesyohian KOfiPw<ra<r0ai' aroXtaaaOai, 

condem, FM. 1162, condme, ALC. 1202, condmed, Tig. 1163, 
hiUeting. condmedim, ALC. 1310, condmim. Tig. 1159, I billet, 
Skr. khdd, khaddnaf Gh:. kvwBwv. 

cole storehouse, Tig. 612. Gr. icaKid. 

colebad, AU. 1128, gl. flabellum, Aug. The eul is cognate with 
Lat. etUex, The rest of the word is obscure. 

dadaig o^ iif>A^, FM. 1161,^ 1592 (arabharach dadhaig). From de 
and adat^. Not to be confounded with dddaig, ' after ' or ^ follow- 
ing.' Thus in the Tdin B6 Frafch (LL. 250«») King Ailill says of 
his guilty daughter : athilat a hhioU side imharach dadaig ' her lips 
[i.e, she) shall perish on the following morning,' and in the same 
story, 251% when Ailill enters the fortress ; gaihthir fledugud leu 
dadaig * feasting is begun by them afterwards.' So in the Calendar 
of Oengus, Feb. 15, iarnaharaeh ndddaig, amabarach dddaig. So 
cuit na aidchi dddaig the ration for the following night, LL. 72^ 38 : 
am-bui Maelruain and dadaig when M. was there afterwards, LL. 
286^. A cognate adverb is daidche or daidehi: see Lives of Saints 
from the Book of Lismore, 1. 3565, and Irische Texte, 2^ serie, 
p. 190. 

daig^r^, ace. fri daigid. Tig. 977=la daigid, AU. 977 : daigthech 
fiery, AU. 814: ^dhagh, whence Skr. dahati, Gr. r€<l>pa,\aX, faviUa, 
/Onus (*fohmet, Frohde) and the Teut. daga% day. 

dimicin dishonour, contempt, gen. dimicne, FM. 1155. Cf. W. myg, 
honoratus, 0.- Welsh eein-mieun, 

diu, Tig. Il24,=:didu, didiu, 'inde,' * ergo,' as to which see G.C 
and Kuno Meyer, The Academy, No. 940, p. 321, col. 3. 

dr^mire ladder, ALC. 1501, iromdr^im, ^dreg, whence also NHG. 

duirthech prayer-house, CS. 1039, compounded of d, the weak 
form of the prep, ad, or cognate with Lat. oro, and teg=T€yo9, 
So W. addoldy is compounded of ad a prepositional prefix, ol 
cognate with Jr. dilim * I pray,' and tys=rdffo9. 

ech-laso horsewhip, whence echlascach/t<// of horsewhips, Tig. 671, 
and the verbal noun echlascad (spelt eaehlosccadh, FM., 1595, p. 
1978, 1. 10). From ech =L&i. equus and Utse cogn. with NHG. 
lasehe 'a stripe sown on cloth,' £ng. lash. 

^ Here 0* Donovan, p. 1144, 1. 8, bisects dadhaigh, printing da daigh, and 
translating ' by fire.' 


eiss cataract, gen. esso, ATI. 752, is, according to Prof. Bezzen- 
berger, from *{p )ed-tif cogn. with Skr. d-patti, Lat. pe$ti9. Hence 
Flainn-ess : mors Ailella Flainn-esso ' of the red cataract ' or ' of 
the blood-cataract/ ATI. 665. 

68si r^ins (habenae), pi. dat. ^sibh, FM. 1600, p. 2168, aoc. ^ssi, 
LIT. 79^ Lat. an^a, Lith. asa, Lett, om} 

fichim I fight^ t-pret. pi. 3 fechtatar, ATI. 1024, cogn. with Lat. 

f {n-80othaoh hrightflowered, YM.. 3847, 3867 : fin-snechta bright' 
snow, ATI. 894 : Fin-ghin a man's name, FM. 1600, p. 2168. 
Hereyin seems cognate with Gr. ^voylr from *iv&wps. 

fochann hattUeryy ALC. 1256. This, like the Old-Irish tarm^- 
foich * quaerit/ is cognate with Lat. vox, Gr. o^r, Skr. vaeana, 

foel (fael ?) u7o(/; pi. nom. foeil, ALC. 1024, a primeval Celtic 
roilo'9 or vailo-s = Arm. gail, where g is from i;, as in gore = 
piprfov and gitem =r yeda. 

foirsed act of harrowing, AU. 1012, from *vort-ti-to, Lat. rorw, 
verBO : cf. ligonibus versare glaebas, Kor. C. 3. 6. 39. 

fo-morach, pi. dat. fomorchaib, which in GS. p. 6, is explained 
by * devils in human shapes, i.e. men with single hands and single 
feet.' The morach seems cognate with the mor of O.Lr. tnor'(r)igM 
(gl. lamia), and this with OHG. and A.S. tnara, Engl, mare in 
night-mare, Germ, lamia mar cited in Grimm's "Worterbuch, 8.v. 
Mahr, Iq the vowel it agrees with Pol. mora. Cognate are the 
subst. Fomoir, ace. sg. Fomoir, LL. 86^ 37, gen. pi. Fomoire, FM. 
3790=:Fom6re, LU. 89^ or Fomra {fine Fomhra, ALC. 1318). 
aoc. tr^nfini an tsidho .i. na Fomore, Harl. 5280, fo. 64^ 

geltai (gl. uolatUes) Tig. 722 : geltacht/ywy, TF. p. 40, FM. 718, 
in both cases referring to warriors who went mad with terror and flew 
in the air. Hence O.-N. ver^a at gjalti. The root may heghel *to 
fly,' whence also Gr. x^X-e-^wi/, the flyer par excellence, and perh. 
Ir. gaile, Trip. Life 46, corresponding with in find * white bird,' 
ibid. 448. 

^Qme\ fetter, sg. dat. gemul, AI. 1076, geimhil, ALC. 1536, W. 
gefyn, whence £ng. gyve. The Lat. gemini and Gr. r^afio9 may be 

gen eword, AU. 687, FM. 686, y/ghen = Skr. han. Lit, geniti 
(aste) abhauen. 

immoneitir invicem, inter se, AU. 964, 1004=immanetar, im- 

^ O'Reilly (more suo) explains eiii (as he misspells iui) by 'the loins.' The 
aradhna, which he gives as a gloss, is a deriv. of or a, gen. arad ' charioteer.' 



menetor, immenetar, G.C.' 614, 1097. Dr. Eeeves {Columba 394, 
395 n.), misled by Dr. O'Conor, makes a place-name, Moneitir, oat 
of this adverb. 

ini daughter, ALG. 151 7 = Manx in, an abbreviation of ingen 
(now inghean) as nii (leg. n{), ALC. 1588, of my^ [noy^ nighean). 
Both are descendants of the ogmic inigena of Eglwys Cymmun 

machtaim / slaughter, pass. pret. pi. 3 ro machtait, Flif . 733, 
1013. Cognate with Gr. fiaxaipa and Goth, meki. As to Lat. 
maeto, tnacellum, see Ascoli in Kuhn's Zeitschrift xvii. 333. 

matta staff, crazier, mada Ciarain, CS. 1083. From *mazdio- 
cognate with Eng. mast and perhaps Lat. mdlus from *mas-l0'8 : cf . 
Ir. nett, Eng. nest, Lat. nidus from *nizdo'S. 

ro-m(dratar, ALC. 1088, AU. 1088, perf. act. pi. 3 of midiur *I 
think.' For the first r of mid-r-atar cf. Old-Ir. ro gin-ar-tar, 
"Wb. 4* 12, and Mid.-Ir. ro lam-r-atar. Circuit of Ireland, 5^ and 
ro fet'or-tar, LTJ. 90** 10. As to these forms see Windisch, Ueher die 
Verbal/ormen u.s.w. 61. 

mucc pig is used in ALC. 1527 to denote the warlike machine 
called in the Middle Ages sus, seropha, sow, and truie. See Ducange, 
8.V. sus, and O'Donovan, FM. 1595, p. 1981, note ®. 

muir-iucht a fleet, ATI. 920, 927. FM. 919. An Old-Celtic 
*mori-juctO', literally * a sea-junction : ' iwht from ^jug-to-^ cogn. 
with fcvjTTo*, Lat. jutgum, O.-Welsh iou, 

nemed, neimheadh .i. talamh ecclusda ' ecclesiastical land,' 
FM. 1148. Li Old-Irish nemed (Gaul, nemeton) glosses sacellum, 
and is rightly regarded by Zimmer as a ' heathen conception which 
found entrance into Christendom.' Cf. Ir. fid-nemed * a sacred 
grove,' ATI. 995, with Gaul, ^pwefierou. As tifievo^, tem-p-lum 
are cognate with re^ifw, so nemed is cognate with vd^w. 

nomad, gen. n6maide, an ennead of eight hours, i.e. three days 
and three nights, AU. 1093, 1125. ALC. 1093, 1125. FM. 1021. 
CS. p. 10. 

oco prep, at occurs in composition with the article : oco-n 
Deilgne, AU. 1021, oco-naibh insibh, AU. 851. This is the Old- 
Irish ocu (ocu an-denum. Ml. 18^ 4). In Middle-Irish it is usually 
found in the apocopated form cu, co, e.g. co dii * ubi,' lit. ' apud 
locum.' See Bezzenberger's Beiirdge, zvi. 61 note, 

othar a sick person, but in ALC. 1204, 1296, sickness. From 
{p)utrO', cogn. with Lat. puter, 

rathannaib dat. pi. rafts, FM. 1138. Cognate with Lat. ra^i>. 

374 LiNGxnsnc value of the ikish annals. — mr. stokes. 

An Irish rethe, gen. rethed, meaning 'raft,' and not» as usual, 'ram,' 
aeems to occur in ALG. 1235. 

rogach select, ATI. 902, roigne ehoiee^ pi. dat. roighnibh, FM. 
1163, roignib, ALC. 1636, raighnib, Tig. 1166, a deiiv. of the Old- 
Irish n-stem rogu * choice,' gen. ro^an, which in the O.C 270, 864, is 
wrongly treated as a stem in t {ro-gu). All cognate with Lat. 

Sabrann ' the ancient name of the river Lee,' dat. Sabhraind, 
FM. 1163. Cogn. with W. Hafren, Ptolemy's ^afipiya. Is the 
doable n of the Irish form due to the accent ? 

scdl^ in UUscdldn 'hut,' FM. 1244, ALC. 1244, ftom^seafdo- 
or *8€dnldf cogn. with amjinf, Dor. trxavaf and perhaps (as Frohde 
thinks) Lat. edsa from *8kdnsd. 

scothaim, scathaim I maim, pret. pass. sg. 3 roeeeathadh, FM. 
1504. Cognate with Goth, sha^jan, OHG. teaddn^ and perhaps 

Gr. a'ffKij0y9, 

sengdn an ant, gen. pi. in Cnoo na sengdn, FM. 1148, 1181. 
From ^stingagno-, cogn. with £ng. sting ? 

sonn elub, staff, but in FM. 1397, p. 750, it means a body of 
cavalry, shaped doubtless like a club, as cippe, a body of infantry 
shaped like a cepp (:=Lat. cippus), or a <f>a\arf(, i.e. a round piece 
of wood (0aXa77a9 ifidvov, Herod. iii. 97). pi. suinn catha, 
captains, TF. p. 76. W. ffon from *«pw-n-ia. 

smith an old person, gen. pL sruithe in the phrase tech smith 
rfcpomoKo^eiov. Condal . . . abatissa tighe sruithe Cille daro, 
ATI. 796. So Tuathal abbas sruithe Cluana, ATI. 810. Huae 
Miannaigh abbas sruithi Cluana, All. 767.^ O.W. strutiu (gl. 
antiquam gentem). 

tlusach wealthy, in beo-thlusach ALC. 1536, cogn. with W. Uws 
* jewel.' 

toeb side (W. tu), a neut. stem in s: gen. sg. toibe: tigheama 
an taoibhe tboir do Cloinn Cuilein, FM. 1570; tanaiste an taoibhe 
thoir do Cloinn Cuilein, EM. 1579; tigheama an taoibhe thiar do 
Cloinn Cuilein, FM. 1585. 

tunna lun, ace. pi. tunnadha, ALC. 1235, 1310. Kluge thinks 
this the source of the German tonne, Ohg. tunna, Ags. tunne, 
O.Swed. ]?yn, as well as of Fr. tonne (tonneau). Span, tonel. But 
is it not rather a loan from Icel. tunna ? 

^ Here and at 810 Mr. Hennessy mbtakea the gen. pi. of a subet. for the 
superlative of an adj. 



II. I. Low-Latin Words. 

he Latin written in Ireland and by Irishmen abroad from 
middle of the fifth to the end of the twelfth century is of 
rest as probably preserying much of the lingua rustica 
. in Gaul and Britain. The Celts of Ireland, Wales, and 
anny also appear to have developed in the eighth century 
itastic speech made up of Latin, Greek and Hebrew. Of 

examples may be found in the Lorica of Gildas,^ the 
Terica Famina,'^ the Luxemburg fragment, ed. Rhys (Rev, 
ique, i. 346, 503), and the alphabetical poem published 
1 a St. Omer MS. by Stowasser in his Stolones Latini, 
ma, 1889, and by Thurneysen, Rev. Celt. xi. 86-89.» The 
Henry Bradshaw made a special study of Celtic latinity, 
contributions to its lexicography will be found in Bishop 
ves' edition of Adamn&n's Life of Columba^ pp. 439-455, 

in the Rolls Tripartite Life of Patrick, pp. 660-666. 
re are also a few extracts from Irish Lives of Saints in 
ange. The following words occur in the Annals : 

taruersio (abreuersio ?), Tig. 578=rever8io, ATI. 577. 
uisito, see infra s.v. paruohia. 

:on the Msemhly at Teltoton, gen. comixtio agonis, ATI. 773, 

ite by (Ir. rid), bellum ante Cathal ... 7 re muinntir Tighi 
du for Muinntir Femand, AU. 816. 

»ud by (Ir. la). Distructio Duin Ollaigh apud Sealbach, AU. 
apud Cruithne, AU. 709, apud Saxones AU. 710. apud Sol- 
um, AU. 711. Tolargg . . . ligatur apud fratrem suum Nectan 
m, AU. 712. apud Mumnenses, AU. 713. N. mac D. con- 
gitur apud Druist, AU. 725. apud Dimghal, AU. 730. Strages 
ilium apud Ultu, AU. 810. hares Goluim cille . . . apud 
»ne8 martinzatur, AU. 853. 

'ruh Oloswi, Dublin, 1860, pp. 136-143. 

d. Mai, and lately by Stowasser, Ineerti auetorU Mitperica Faminaf Vienna, 

I fifth specimen of this queer Latinity is the charm printed by Mone, 
«• Latini Medii Aevi, iii. 13 1» 182, beginning *0 rex, rector regminis,' 
reprinted, with some conjectures, in Lives of Sainti from the Book of 
i>r#, Oxford, 1890, p. 324. 


ballenium bathroom? combastio lethairle Claana Irairdd in 
ballenio, AU. 750. 

belliolmn akirmuh, AU. 802, 816, 818, dimin. of bellum hatiU, 

binales for bini : bellum ... in quo binales reges . . . congresai 
sunt, AU. 737. Cf. binales sudes, Vita Columbae, ed. Reeves, p. 114. 

cecidit it happened, hefellf AU. 887. 

cena Tembra=:/tfw Temra, AU. 454, 467. 

circius = circhius * circulus,' Ducange : in circio ferie filii 
Cuilinn Luscan, about (circiter) the festival of Mae Cuilinn of 
Zusk, AU. 799. 

ciuitas monastery, Constructio nouae ciuitatis Columbae cille i 
Ceninnus, AU. 806. Abbas Airdd Breccain et aliarum ciuitatum, 
AU. 781. Abbas Slane et aliarum ciuitatum, AU. 824. 

comixtio a tumultuous conflict, or attack, miUe, AU. 729, 773, 
780=Ir. cumasc, AU. 642. cumuscc, TF. p. 20. 

commixta regna : per c. r. in joint soeranty, AU. 642. 

commotatio martirum, c. reliquiarum, shifting or translation of 
relics, AU. 733, 742, 784, 792, 793. 

cum by, cum illis in aqua demersus est he was drowned by thm, 
AU. 733. 

dehonoro, dehonorauit, AU. 732=:Ir. ro sdraig * profaned.' 

dexteriores southerners. Tig. 712, AU. 711. Dexter in Inst 
latinity means * southern ' : so dextrales Britones, Ann. Camb. 722 : 
cf. Skr. dakshina, the right side, southern. 

dominatrix abbess, Tig. 732, 758. AU. 731, 770. 

dominatus, abbacy : abbas Achaid bo . . . dominatus xP. in anno. 

effugatio, AU. 635, where it is rendered by 'flight'; but it 
rather means 'escape' (see Ducange, s.v. efPugacio), or possibly 
* going into exile.' 

equonimus=oeconomu8, AU. 780, 782, 786, 795, 809, 813,828. 

erga : plurimi nobiles interfecti sunt erga duces, AU. 821. 
strages uirorum Breibne erga regem suum, AU. 821. 

exactor taxgatherer, Ir. toibgedir, AU. 728. 

exulo I go into exile, Mael-tuile abbas Benncair exulat, AU. 816. 
Robartach . . . abbas Slane exulauit, AU. 848. Darlugdach . . . de 
Hibemia exulat pro Christo ad Britaniam, Pictish Chron. ed. Skene, 
p. 6. 

familia a monastic community, AU. 805, 806. 

feria a day of the week, prima feria Sunday, AU. 942, die 
quintae feriae Thursday, die sextae feriae Friday, Tig. 719. 


eta feiia ante pascha Friday before Easter Sunday, ATI. 673. 
) in Portagnese sesta feira * Friday/ and in Spamsh feria segunda 

fossa earthen fort, Ir. rdith. ATI. 717, TF. p. 20. 
galamimm, Tig. 733, Wox barbara quae non caseum significat, 
d primitias lactis post partum coagulatas,' says 0* Conor. But it 
ems = galmaria caluuer, ealwere, Wright- Wiilker, 24, 3; 413, 2. 
so, it means ' pressed curds.' 

gronna hog, Bellum Gronnae Magnae, ATI. 755 = Gath Mona 
oire, see Tig. 756. grunna moin, Ir. Gl. No. 118. The con- 
lental form seems gromna : see G.C 773 note. 
hinulus=hinnuleus : capris et hinulis simulata est, ATI. p. 294. 
hostiums ostium: in ho8tio = Ir. in-dorus, a nominal prep, 
eaning *m front of,' 'before' : in hostio oratorii lapidei, AV. 
)8=»Ir. indorus daim liacc. 

immolo ' offero in perpetuum ' ; immolauit Nectonius Abumethige 
eo et S. Brigidae, Pictish Chronicle, Sk. 6. 
iugulatio ' a death inflicted hy violence* ATI. 776. 
latinus a Latinist, Dubthach . . . doctissimus latinorum totius 
iropae, AU. 868. 

Nordmannus a Scandinavian, a Nordmannis, ATI. 858. Kordmani 
an. Camb. 895. 

Octimber October, Tig. 677. gen. Octimbri, Tig. 683. The m is 
le to the analogy of Septimber, Novimber^ Decimber, to follow 
e Irish spelling. 

oferauit, Tig. 574, for obtulit, as it is in AU. 573. 
oratorium, AU. 788, 804, 808, 815, oiko9 wpoacvx^^f ^® ^* 

orbis rank f infimi orbis mulieres, AU. 737. 
pamchia the * jurisdiction of a Superior over the detached monas- 
ries of the order ' : Dubh-da-bairenn abbas Cluana Irairdd aduisi- 
oit paruchiam crichae Muman, AU. 786, where it means the 
unster monasteries subject to the abbot of Clonard. 
pausatio resting (in the grave), dying, AU. 746. 
pause I rest (in the grave), die. Cumsuth . . . pausauit, AU. 857. 
periculum attempt ? AU. 576. 

pontifex bishop, pontifex Maige Eo, AU. 731. Imitated in Ir. 
oichtech, lit. *bridgebuilder,' AU. 751. 
principatus abbacy, AU. 706, 800, 822. 

satrapa viceroy, satrapa Lagenarum, AU. 813. satrapas Atho- 
lach, Pictish Chron., Skene, 10 {errig, gl. satrapae, Ml. 67** 17). 


scedesrscaedeSy ATI. 806, with prothetio s. 

scintilla leprae, an outbreak of leprosy f Tig. 576, ATI. 575. 

secratarium sacristy? ATI. 592. 

senodus, senadus [=syiiodiis] a tribal assembly : congressio seno- 
dorum nepotum Neill Laginentiomqae in opido Temio, AU. 779. 
Congressio senadomm nepotum Neill, cni dux erat Condmach abbas 
Airdd Machae, AU. 803, where Mr. Hennessy changes senadonm 
into senatorum. Cf. Com. sened (gl. sinodos). 

simulo / likeri, compare to : eommque faga capris et hinnlis 
simulata est, AU. 807. 

termini = fines, accendenint igni omnes terminos Laginentiam, 
AU. 769. oombuBsit terminos Midi, AU. 807. 

traiectas thrown of. Ailill . . . traiectus est de equo guo, 
AU. 799. 

uellenio, in. Tig. 751 = ballenio q.y. 

II. 2. Irish Loans from Latin. 

Collections of Irish words borrowed from Latin will be 
found in Three Irish Oloasaries, London, 1860, pp. xx-xxvii; 
in Kuhn's Beitrdge, ii. pp. 139-155; iii pp. 277-278; 
in d'Arbois de Jubainville's Etudes sur le Droit eeltique. U 
Senchm Mor; in Giiterbock's Bemef^kungen uber die Latein* 
ischen Lehnworter im Irischen, Leipzig, 1882 ; and in Lives of 
Saints from the Book of Lismorey Oxford, 1890, pp. Ixxxii-xc. 
The following are only a selection of the Latin loan-words 
in the Irish Annals. 

aibit, gen. aibide, ALC. 1224, 1238, 1313, 1331, 1636. TI. 
From Lat. habitus (monasticus). 

drc shrincy dat. sg. dire, FM. 796, arg, Ir. Gl. No. 198. From 

aracul, aireccal, FM. 1592, p. 1922, gen. aracuil .i. cill, CS. 
827, airicuil AU. 837, airecuil AU. 809. From oraetdum aedes 
sacra, in qua oratur, Ducange. A dimin. ariucldn occurs in the 
St. Paul Codex, Windisch's Ir, Texte, p. 318. For the change of 
to a, cf. accai8=:occa8w, aistire^iostiarius^ and manach=imonachui. 

Alastrann Alexander ^ FM. 1591, p. 1908, gen. Aluatrainn, ALC. 
1473, Alustruinn, ALC. 1487. 


^nchara, AT. 955, angcoire, FM. 737, ancoire, FM. 740. Com. 
anear : from anaehoreta. 

annalaoh M. the anniversarj, a year of an era : in t-annalach, 
ALC. 1407. From annaU, 

an-ordaigthe, not in order, in disorder ^ ALC. 1392, 1524, 1539. 
A hybrid from the neg. prefix an- = iva and ordaigthe pret. part, 
pass, of ardaigiiUf a denom. from ord = Lat. ordo, 

an-s^n had luck, FM. 1225, p. 234, 1600, p. 2170. Another 
hybrid, from the prefix an- and sht borrowed from signum (cruds). 

an-umaldoit inhumtlity, disobedience, ATI. 835. 

archideochain=0r<?Af(^}^(mfM, ALC. 1288, 1361, AB. 1231, FM. 

ard-chroinicid ^Aii^/'cAront^;^, FM. 1023, p. 806. 

aistire, doorkeeper, Mlringer, FM. llOlaostiarius. 

bairell barrel, pi. n. bairill, ALC. 1589, p. 494. bairille barrel, 
FM. 1591, 1598, Low-Lat. barillus. 

Baslec, gen. Baslice, ATI. 763, 804, from basilica. 

'biciiiTe=ivicarius, ALC. 1357, 1587, p. 478. Cnoo an biocara, 
7M. 1595, p. 1962. Hence bicairecht (gl. uicaria), Ir. GL No. 171. 

brostaim I incite, provoke, FM. 1596, p. 2004, acoa mbrostadh 
tairis, FM. 1597, p. 2026. Founded on Low-Lat. brosdus, brusdus. 

bnale=:^9t^, pi. boailte, FM. 1044. 

buirg^is, buirgheis, ALC. 1247, I266^urgencia, praedia quae a 
bui^nsibuB possideri poterant. Anglicised JBurris, Hence buir- 
gigisech a burgess, pi. n. buirgeisigh, FM. 1579. 

caipitil, caibitil, CBipidiL=:eapitulum * conventus, synodus,' ALC. 
1217, 1242, 1530 : FM. 1242. 

cairt 1. manuscript, 2. charter. CS. p. 10. ALC. 1210, 1257. 
gen. sen-cairte, FM. 1597, p. 2040. A pi. nom. and aco. eartacha, 
gen. cartach, occur in FM. 1514, 1524, 1537, 1605. From carta. 

calad gen. calaid, harbour, landing-place, ALC. 1535. From 
a Low-Latin *calatum\ Ital. ealata, cala, Fr. cole, Lat. chalare 
from 'xakav, Diez. 

calc, chaik, especially the chalk with which shields were whitened, 
eath in ro-dailed cru dar cailc, FM. 978, p. 710. From an oblique 
case of calx. Hence calcech chalkwhite, FM. 939, p. 642. 

candel candle, candel-badud excommunication, lit. candle^owning, 
ALC. 1236, 1538. From candela, 

c&psL cope, M. Lat. cappa, pi. n. cabaidhe, ALC. 1170. 

capall = caballus, pi. n. capoill, TF. p. 206, dat. caiplibh, FM. 
1599, p. 2140. 


cast^l, caistiall == (;(M/^/7iif7t, FM. 1133, AT. 1102, gen. caisteoil 
FM. 1166, 1595. 

CAthsiiT = cathedra, Metaph. a hUhopriOj FM. 1166. cathafr 
proicepta j9t<i^f ^, Tig. 1020. 

(ieYLou^eelldrius, ALG. 1213, FM. 1213. 

(cenn-)litir, lit. head-Utter^ applied tx> persons, chiefs leader^ ALC. 
1451, 1463, 1467, 1524. 

cesc, ceisc = quaestio, TF. p. 46, with change of st to se. 

cicul, cicil = <jy<?/i«, Tig. 1045, 1063, ALC. 1231, 1407. 

cippe, cipe, phalanx, FM. 1601, TF. p. 182. Derived from 
cepp = eippus. 

ciste casket f treasury ^ a formation from eista, ALG. 1173, 1504. 

clabhstra, gen. sg. cloister , ALG. 1202aiclaaBtra, Ir. Gl. No. 818, 
From olaustrum, O'fi. has nom. sg. clabhstur. 

cndib = cannabis f gen. cndibe, FM. 1584, p. 1818. 

coach = caucus f AU. 552, usually cuach, W. cawg. 

coinntinn=(;on^^»o, ALG. 1244, gen. coinntinne, ALG. 1543. 

coite boat, AB. 724, ALG. 1390, 1475, FM. 1155, p. 116. From 
Low-Lat. cotia navis Indica, Ducange. 

compoitecht computation, sg. gen. comp6ideohta, ALG. 1301. 
Founded on computus or oompotus. 

confirmaitige, ALG. 1284 (leg. confirmaitigthe), confirmed. 

coubaI = consul, ALG. 1520, 

contrarda contrary, a formation from contrarius. As applied to a 
year, non-bissextile, ALG. 1215. 

coppan, dimin. of copp, gen. cuippe, LB. 241*=^ cuppa = cup<i' 
gen. copain, ALC. 1306. The Ir. copp/oam has a different source, 
perhaps AS. copp 'vertex, summitas,' Thumeysen ^eltoromanisches. 

cordia : fa chordia cordially, ALC. 1589. 

CTe])\iscu[ = crepusculum, i ccrepuscal na maidne, FM. 1583, 
creapuscal, ALC. 1536. 

cripta = crypta, AB. 1236. Also with prothetic s, scripta FM. 
1235, scriophta ALC. 1235. With the latter form cf. sephliein = 
septuaginta, Ml. 103 d 26, "VV. -4ipA^=: Aegyptus, and Mod. Gr. 
rv0To?. Note also the Icelandic pronunciation of pt as ft, Mag- 
nussen's Thomas Becket, ii. clxxii. 

Crisd6ir=Christophorus, ALC. 1517, 1578, 1582. Gristoir, 
FM. 1595, gen. Criostora, FM. 1600. 

croma^iQ = chronica, ALC. 1405. Cronicid, see Ard-chronicid. 

crossad, the act of being crossed, assuming the badge of a 
crusader, ALC. 1204, 1216, 1231. 


eubachal, eeU oi a monastery, FM. 1595, or prison, FM. 1590, 
pp. 1896, 1898 : cabin of a ship, ace. sg. cubachail, FM. 1587, 
p. 1862: ace. pi. oubachla, ib. 1600, p. 2192. From cuhieulum, 

cubidil, gubidir =eonfiUor used as a noun, Tig. 1130, GS. 1126. 

cuidin =s tfa^fntM, OS. 1125. But euidin seems to point to an 
Old-Celtic *kotino- agreeing in the first vowel with cotvXi;. 
Perhaps therefore we have here a native Irish word. 

cuis, cauis, TF. p. 32 z=cafMa 'dispute,' gen. cuisi, FM. 1233 ; 
dat. pi. cuisib, ALC. 1170, eauisibh, TF. p. 1208. 

dec&naeh dsan,^ a formation from decanus, ALC. 1243, 1258, 
1367, 1527, 1589. 

doctdir = doctor, ALC. 1513, 1527, 1636, doctor (gL Ovidius) 
Ir. GL No. 536. From Octdius with the meaning 'doctor' the 
Welsh ofydd seems to come. 

dux, ALC. 1226, 1234, 1260, 1268, 1282, 1286, 1290. 

faillium. Tig. 1152, paillium, ALC. 1237 == pallium, 

fairche = paroehia, diocese, tnonastic jurisdiction, Tig. 1174 : CS. 

fallaing, mantle, gen. fallainge, FM. 1598, p. 2054, the falanga 
or phalinga of Giraldus, phala genus vestis, Ducange. Lat. paUa. 

fabnaire = j9a//nar»t4« ' a palmer ' : ALC. 1249. 

farcideochain = arehideochain (q.v.) with pro the tic /. ALC. 
1366, 1402. 

fiabhrus=y^*r»«, ALC. 1551, gen. fiabhrasa, FM. 1597, p. 2024. 

foirm =^ forma, an arrangement, persons intervening to make an 
arrangement, ALC. 1538. 

generailte ^^n^a/»«, FM. 1215, p. 184. 

geocach (gl. mimus, L:. Gl. No. 513), formed oniocQsM, CS. 1106. 
FM. 1110. 

geometer, Ferghil .i. an geometer, FM. 784. 

graiffhed to write, formed on Med. -Lat. graphiare, and this from 
graphia ^patprj, 

imaig=imdgo, iomaig, ALC. 1538, p. 316. pi. ace. iomaighe, FM. 
1537, p. 1446. Corn. auain = imdginem. 

imt= initium (ieiunii), Shrovetide, gen. inite, ATI. 1127, dat. 
init, AU. 1014. 

lattronn, robber, gen. pi. latronum, FM. 1599, p. 2106. 

lebrad = [lebar-rad?] books, sg. dat. leabhraidh, FM. 990. Cog- 
nate is lebr6ir= librdrius, ALC. 1249. 

1 O'Reilly has "d^aganacb s. a deacon," where this ludicrous lexicographer 
contriTes to commit two blunders. 0'Brien*B ' Dane* is a misprint. 

Pha Tram. 1888-90. 26 


legdit=fc^a^i«,AI. 1166, 1181. FM. 650. ALC. 1245. Hence 
legaitecht, AI. 1192, gen. sg. leocaidechta, FM. 1148, p. 1084. 

lubra work, esp. ecclesiaatical, gen. sg. lubra, FM. 1148, 1173. 
Formed on labor, lahoris, with change of a before ^ to «. 

maighistir = magister^ FM. 1599, p. 2140. 

manddil. Formed on mandatumy Fr. matM, dardaoin mandail 
Maundy Thursday, ALC. 1542, = dardain mbandal, LB. 238<' 
lower margin, translated at p. 40 of the preface to the facsimile, 
** Thursday of th0 . . . woman meetiny [y].^* 

maner = Med. -Latin manirium, Fr. manoir, ALC. 1264, 1535. 

mf-chostad commotion, wrangling ^YM., 1160, 1213 : from mi- and 
eostad founded on eonstare, or is it eonsuetudo ? 

modh=: modus, ionmolta hi modhaibh mn4, FM. 1599, p. 2094. 

monad money =zmoneta, ALC. 1252, FM. 1252, 1546, p. 1498. 

TnxxT=smilrus, gen. muir, FM. 987. 

mut = mutus, duine mut no got, FM. 936, p. 636. 

octaid dat. Bg, s=oetas, i n-octaidh na hepifania 'in the octave 
of the Epiphany,' ALC. 1252. 

oif[Lco =i offieium, FM. 1597, p. 2020, gen. oiffici, ibid. p. 2038. 
Hence oifficeach effieor, FM. 1600, p. 2144. 

ofB^cel s=officialis 'procurator, administrator,' Ducange, or Fr. 
offlciel, FM. 1232, 1268, ALC. 1328, offistel ALC. 1232, 1268, 1390. 

ofirdil offering, founded on offerre, ALC. 1244, 1527, pi. ace. 
offrala, FM. 1600, p. 2148. 

pagdn, pdganach, pdganda, pagan, TF. pp. 226, 232, 244. 

pagin abridgment? et in pagin et in figell, CS. 686 : 'paginare' 
breuiter scribcre, summatim de aliqua disserere, Ducange. 

pairtr=par«, partis, pairt do tosach sluaig mic Diarmada a part 
of the van of Mac i>.'» army, ALC. 1562. pi. n. parti qto particles 
of gore, AU. 877. 

pairili8=jpara/ym, FM. 865. paileiris, O'B. W, parly s, 

^B,rth\is=i par ad istu ' atrium porticibus circumdatum ante aedes 
sacros' (Ducange), AL 1180. Forthe^Acf. Orrthannain 'Jordan.' 

^Q\\=-pellis, CGG. p. 196. pi. n. pill, LL. 297» 43. 

pendaind=j90tf^»i'^^^w, FM. 1022. pennaintt, FM. 1608, p. 2360. 

'^eiietm(AQT= poenitentiarius, ALC. 1248. 

pcrsiin =^<fr«5»a, ALC. 1224, 1278. 

Plorint=i^/or(JW^<W, Tig. 1174. 

praed =praeda, AU. 820. spre cattle, O'B., with prothetic s. 

])Teisiidens =prae8tdens, ALC. 1570, 1571. presidens, ced-phresi- 
dent, FM. 1569, p. 1632. 


prCm^t, prfniliaitt=jwt»kw, ALC. 1201. For this (by popular 
ymology) prfmfdith chief prophet is sometimes written: see ALC. 
172, 1242, 1360. Hence pHmditecht ^iTkMy, ALC. 1220. 

pTi6ir=^ww, prioriB, ALC. 1230, 1234, 1250, 1265, gen. priora, 
LC. 1519, prieora, 1527. Hence the name Mac-briar. 

probind8i= jvro&m^, Tig. 583. prouinsei Ir. Gl. No. 175, pi. 
it. proninnsibh, PM. 1598, p. 2088. 

procecht= *jwo<?tfp<tim ioi praeceptunif CS. 811. 

proiceptaid teacher ^ formed on *proeeptum, FM. 742. 

"purgadoir^ pur^atoriumf gen. purgadora, ALC. 1516. 

reberens=rtfr^«i^»a, ALC. 1541 (where the Irish word is mis- 
rinted roberens), reuerens, FM. 1541, p. 1462. 

riast arrestf ri-stare, fo rest, FM. 1578, p. 1700, 1. 2, fa rfasd 
I righ Saxan, ALC. 1530. 

sacrista eacrUtan, FM. 1390 : sacrita, FM. 1430, is probably a 

saigdeoir, saighdiair=«a^/^^rtfM, ALC. 1581, 1582. FM. 1170. 
1 FM. 1589 it means musketeer, 

scarlait, sgarMid=«(;ar/a^tfm, FM, 1463, p. 1026. sgarl6id, 0*B. 

BCTin^=serintum, ATI. 799. 

sciiap broom, gen. pi. FM. 1595, p. 1912:=i8cdpae. 

Becreii=geereta, aerarium principis, Ducange; rocrechsat ar' ben 
) secreid Mic Diarmada don tfr. 

senesc^l, senscal, sinascal, FM. 1247, p. 324. ALC. 1247, 1587, 
.482. From Med.-Lat. seneseallus or perh. from Fr. seneschal. 

senmoir, sermoin : both from sermo^ the former being used for 
sermon' Tig. 583, FM. 431, ALC. 1535, p. 286, the latter for a 
mgregation or other collection of people, ALC. 1249, FM. 1249. 
ermontaidh preacher occurs in ALC. 1586, p. 476, where it is 
isspelt sermontaigh. 

8crrcend==«^j0^«, serpentis, Tig. 1137, AI. 1018, a kind of war- 
tip : cf. ON. snekkja^ AS. snace (Eng. «mac^), and ON. dreki, 

sfmontacht simony, formed oq simonia 'a Simone mago dicta 
Gusrorum venditio' (Ducange), ALC. 1271. 

mX,=^strataj via publica lapidibus seu silice munita, Ducange. 
* sraitt Sligig, ALC. 1294. Compounds : srdt-baile, ALC. 1218, 
257 ; srat-slige, FM. 1258, p. 366. 

Sulchoit, FM. 1602 =Sailchoit Corm. From salicitum as pro- 
>unced by a Briton, i.e. salikoitum, 

taibhli battlements, dat. taibhlibh, FM. 1454, p. 561, 1595, p. 
)82 : from tabulae. 


tempestech unfortunate, calamitous, in the adverb co-tempestecli, 
ALC. 1499, 1580, 1581, 1584. 'DenYediiiQm ^tempest = temptitM, 
* calamity, misfortune.' 

\jQ9Xi^= discus 'paten:' cailech . . cona these, a ehaliee with iU 
paten, FM. 1129, p. 1032, where O'Donovan translates 'with an 

tumba, tomba = ^wmia, FM. 525, 1064, 1240, 1254, p. 352, 1403. 

uigil, uiccil = rf*$ri7, FM. 1497. 

mmir =numerus, Tig. 1111. But nuimhir, FM. 1578. p. 1700. 

uricli draeula 'oracles,' CGG. 12, where it is mistranslated 
' audience ' : of. oirclech (gl. flamen, i.e. oracularius) Sg. 96^. 

II. 3. Irish Loans from Old-French, 

These must have entered the language between the years 
1169 and 1350. Of some few of the following it may be 
doubted whether they came directly from Old-French, Middle* 
English, or mediaeval Latin. 

amhantur, good luck, ALC. 1589, p. 498. From avanture. 

apel, co-hapel, ALC. 1331. From habile or perhaps Eng. able, 

armail, gen. armala, army, armament, ALC. 1570, 1571, 1579^ 
1581, 1586; but arms, FM. 1595, p. 1982. From armaire wit: 
change of r to / as mpirreh 

airscoir archer, dat. pi. airscoraib, Tig. 1174. From *archeoir^ 
{archer ere is the form in Godefroy, archier in Burguy). 

banda, banna a hand of warriors, ALC. 1581, 1582, 1686, 1589 

FM. 1580. pi. n. bandai, FM. 1595, p. 1986, ace. bandadha, FM 

1592, p. 1912. From hande, 

barun, gen. baruin, ALC. 1589, pi. n. baruin, ALC. 1237, 1261^ — 
From baron, barun, barnm. Hence baruntacht barony, FM. 1582. 

basdard bastard, gen. basdaiixi, ALC. 1581. W. basdardd, 

bitaiU, gen. bitaille, Tig., biotaille, FM. 1522, 1570. O.-Fr^ 
vitaiUe (now victuaille), Med.-Lat. victualia, 

bodach clotcn, ALC. 1388, FM. 1388. Formed on botte *clod.*=^ 

brisca biscuit, pi. gen. briosccadh, dat. briosccaibh, FM. 1594 
p. 1952, with a curious insertion of r. 

caban a hollow, FM. 1188, p. 82. O.-Fr. cavan, eavain. 

cailis, pi. Qcc. cailisi, FM. 1595. From calice. 

caiptin, caipdaen, captain, ALC. 1544, 1577, 1582. FronB- 
eapitaine, Med.-Lat. capita neus. 


cardindil, cairdinel, ALC. 1202, Tig. 1162, FM. 1151. From 
irdinalf or Lat. eardinalis, 

eoiler quarry ^ gen. coileir, FM. 1501, now eoiretd. Fromr Fr. 
irri^rSf with differentiation of the liquids. 

coip copy, ALC. 1527. From cqpief or perhaps Med.-Lat. copi'a 
the reproduction of a MS.' 

coir? gen. corad, 1. choir, 2. a party, gen. corad, ALC. 1343, dat. 
>raid, ALC. 1244, 1307, 1588. Formed on chcmr or perh. Lat. 

compdnach eompanion, ALC. 1524, gen. companaigh, ALC 1581. 
ormed on O.-Fr. eompaign, Med.-Lat. eum-panio, 
const^bla, consapla, consabal, consopul, eonstahle, ALC. 1217, 
227, 1868, 1405, 1514, 1524, 1557, FM. 1485, etc. FromO.-Fr, 
mestahle = Lat. eomes stahuli, 

contae, condae county, ALC. 1405, 1510, FM. 1383, 1405. From 
mM. So conndaois, cundaois, cundais, countess, ALC. 1589, 1568, 
392, is from comtesse, 

costus, cosdus, cost, ALC. 1582, 1530. From O.-Fr. couster or 
.at. constare. Hence costasach sumptuous, costly, 0*B. 

cresca, the manger in which Christ was put after he was bom, 
/orm. Tr. 46, O.-Fr. cresche (K. Meyer). 

cr^t ridye (of a house), pi. n. creta na tighe(dh), ALC. 1202. 
fr. eritc du toit, from Lat. crista, 

cuirt court, mansion, palace, gen. cuirtte, ALC. 1227, but ace. pi. 
tuirtenda, ALC. 1274. From O.-Fr. court, or Low-Lat. curtem. 
Perhaps the ace. pi. may be due to Med.-Lat. cortina, the wall- 
>etween two bastions. 

cuncur conqueror, ALC. 1270, 1530. From Old-French cunquerur 

dig a trench, pi. gen. dfocc, FM. 1595, p. 1968: lethain-dfog a 
Woad trench, FM. 1266, p. 400. From Fr. digue. 

du due, ALC. 1217, 1527, p. 262. From Fr. d^=dehutus. Hence 
iital, meet, ALC. 1405, 1537? O.-Fr. dHal? 

fahhcun =fau€on, a kind of small cannon, pi. n. fabhcuin, FM. 

fonsura chisel, FM. 1545, Fr. fonqoir^fonsoir *outil de forge en 
forme de marteau dont la panne est tranchante,' Littre. 

funduir/o«n(^, FM. 1495=0.-Fr./(W(foor obi. case oifondiere. 

gaUer a mangonel, pi. dat. gallerib, gailleribh, AB. 1236, ALC. 
1235. From an Old-French *gallier =jacularis, and cognate with 
^alir in the following passage cited by Godefroy, s.v. jaillir : 


An matinet, quant Taube paruBt oler, 
li rois a f et molt grant assaut livrer 
et ces perrieres et yo/iV et geter. 

giuraess an acre? pi. n. giumeisi, ALG. 1215. Based on Yrencb 
journie de terre 'autant comme one charrette pent labourer le ]ouif 
Ducange s.v. 2. jomata. 

giuBdis, iustis juitioiary, ALG. 1203, AB. 1230, 1234. From 

halabard halberd^ lucht balabard halberdier 9^ FM. 1570. albard, 
O'Br. Fr. hallebard. 

marascdl marshaly mdrasgul, ALG. 1234, marasocal, FM. 1593, 
gen. maruBcail, ALG. 1587, p. 478. From 0.<Fr. maresehalj Low- 
Latin mariscalcus. 

nouice, nobitsi, ALG. 1196, 1197, 1202, 1230, nouist, FM. 1230. 
From Fr. novice or Lat. nouieius. 

osda : ar osda billeted^ FM. 1595, p. 1990, formed on O.-Fr. m^, 
hoste, Tech osda, tnn, lodging-house^ FM. 1599, p. 2138. 

paiHs palisade, ALG. 1306, FM. 1306, gen. caid^n na pailise, 
ALG. 1510. From paliz, palii * pieu, palissade.' 

pailliun pavilion, tent, pi. n. pailliuin FM. 1574. Fr. paviUw^ 
as the synonymous puball, gen. puible, TF. pp. 36, 148, is from 
Med.-Lat. papilio. 

pardiin, ALG. 1535, 1585, 1586, FM. 1599, p. 2110. From 

peler bullet, ball, FM. 1487, 1499, 1532. From some French 
dcsoendant of Lat. ptla : cf. pelotte, W. pel, pelen, 

petta/?^^. Tig. 1103. ALG. 1086. From some Fr. cognate of 

p(pa a pipe (of wine), Domhnall na bhfopaidhe, FM. 1598, 
p. 1945, n. Yt, pipe, 

pirrel catapult, AB. 1236, ALG. 1235. Fr. pierriere, perriere 
machine de guerre qui jetait des pierres pour briser les mors. 
** Si drecierent lors perrieres et lors mangonials." 

poinn =Fr. point : ni raibhe poinn annseic 'this was of little 
consequence,' ALG. 1236, cf. fnettre d point, accommoder, apaiser. 
estre point ^tre temps, d propos. 

^reciuT =Yi. prechor, pr^cheur, ALG. 1253. 

prinnsa, ^TiadssL=: prince, ALG. 1547, 1553, 1586, 1587 (where 
Elizabeth is meant), 1588. 

prisun = j»mon, prisun, prisoun, Tig. 583, ALG. 1265, 1332. 

priuiled, ALG. 1241, where it is rendered by "privileges." 


r^siin, ressun, resunn, TF. p. 26 = reson, rai%on^ ALC. 1537, 1568. 

riita troop = 0, -Ft, rote (Lat. rupta ' a division of a host'), ALC. 
1225, 1200, 1235, AB. 1236. 

Beomi9k= chamhre^ AXC. 1350, 1490. se6mra, O'B. 

sep6l =chapeUe, FM. 1498. B6ip6al, O'B. 

serbfs = service, ALC. 1581, p. 436, 1587, p. 480. gen. seirbhfsi, 
PM. 1599. Hence serbfsecli servant, agent, pi. dat. seirbhis- 
eachaibh, FM. 1598, p. 2082. 

sers^nach /0O^o/<;t>r, ALC. 1195, 1196, 1199, 1202, 1235, 1236. 
Formed on Fr. setjant, sergent, servientes milites pedites, Dacange. 
O'Brien's siirsednach * an auxiliary, or helper.' 

Siacus = Jacques, FM. 1463, gen. Siacusa, FM. 1476, 1482. 
The form Setnus, FM. 1600, p. 2148, comes from £ng. James, 

Boil6r a sollar, ALC. 1582. O.-Fr. solier. Com. soler, 

sonsiler, wm^Qi =olumoeler, ohancelier, FM. 1545, 1597. 

III. I. Cymric Names. 

The following is a list of the Cymric names of persons 
and places which occur in the Irish Annals : 

Ajrtgha rex Btitanorum Sratha Cluade, AU. 871. Doubtless a 
scribe's mistake for Artgal. 

Artuir mac Bicoir, Tig. 625 «== Arthur filio Bicuir, CS. 625. 

Auin, Domnall mac Auin, rex Alo Cluathe, Tig. 694, AU. 693. 
O.-W. Eugein, Ann. Camb. 811 [MS. Eugem]. The Irish annalists 
spell this name also Ohan, Hoan, Haan. 

Bennchar : combustio Bennchair Brittonum, ATI. 671, TF. 672. 
Kow Bangor. 

Bili mac Elphine rex Alo Chluaithe, Tig. 722=Bile mac Eilphin, 
AU. 721=Beli filius Elfin, Ann. Cambr. 722. 

Caer Ebroic, York, TF. pp. 158, 170, Caur Ebroc, AU. 866, 
[C]air Ebrauc, HarL 3859, fo. 195% 3, the Urbs Ebrauc of Ann. 
Cambr. 866. 

Cair Legion, Chester, Cath Caire Legion, Tig. 613 = Gueith Cair 
Legion, Ann. Camb. 613. [Cjair legeion guar usic [leg. uiscj, 
HarL 3859, fo. 195. 

Caitill mac Eutrach ri Bretan, TF. 909 = Catell filius Eodri, 
Ann. Camb. 909. 

Cation rex Britonum, Tig. 631. Cathloen, AU. 631. Contra 


Catlonem Britonam regem, Vita Columbae, ed. Beeves, 14 == 
Gatguollaun, Ann. Cambr. 630. Beda's Gsddwalla. 

Con. Chon regi Britonum, Tig. 631, a scribal error for Conaxz:^ 

Gonan. Solon mac Gonain, Tig. 613 = Selim filios Cinain, Ao^^ 
Gambr. 613. Gonan mac Euadbrach rex Britonum, AU. 814. Gin^^i 
Ann. Gambr. 814, 816. Kinan ibid. 813. 

Domnall mac Auin rex Alo Gluaithe, Tig. 694, ATI. 6^; 
Domnall mac Eogain ri Bretan, ATI. 974. O.-W. Dumngual. 

Eidgin Brit, TF. 864, cf. Etguin, Ann. Gambr. 617, 626, 6SO. 

Gaimud : im Breathnaibh Gaimud, TF. 864 : for Guined. 

Guret. Mors Gureit regis Alo Glaathe, ATI. 657 = Guriat, Ajm. 
Gamb. 877. 

laco ri Bretan, Tig. 1039 = lacob rex Yenedotiae, Ann. Gamb. 

ludruis rig Bretan, Tig. 633. bellum ladris regis Britonnm, 
AU. 632. ladris, Ann. Gamb. 632. 

Leobelem, AU. 1023. Lewelin filias Seisil, Ann. Gamb. 1023. 

Maen Gonain Conan^s stone, some place in Mona, AU. 864. 

Medgoeth, Insula, AU. 631 = Inis Medcoit, FM. 627, Lindufam. 

Merminn, AU. 855. Muirminn gen. sg. AU. 876, 877. Munnin, 
AU. 621. Muirmin, AU. 681. Mermin, Ann. Gambr. 844. 
Merwyn, Ann. Gamb. 903. 

Oel ri Bretan, AU. 949. O.-W. Higuel, Ann. Gamb. 950= 
Pictish Simal (i.e. Sivel) infra. 

Ohan, Tig. 642 = Haan, Tig. 686. Hoan rex Britonum, AU. 
641 = Auin, q.v. 

Radgann, gen. Eadgainn, AU. 702 = Radgnnd, TF. p. 108, 
seems meant for a British name, but is probably a Teut. Jlrodgund. 

Res mac Seothair [leg. Teothair] rf Bretan ... do marbad 
do[F]rancaib, AI. 1076=Re8us filius Teudur rector dextralis 
partis a Francis Brecheniauc occisus est, Ann. Gamb. 1091. 

Roderc (*De Roderco filio TothaU,' Vita Golumbae, p. 43, ed. 
Reeves), later Rhydderch. 

Ruaidhri mac Muirminn, AU. 876, la Ruadhraigh mac Meinninn, 
AU. 855=Rotri map Mermin, Ann. Gamb. 754, 877, and Harl. 3859, 
fo. 183^ Rodri, Ann. Gamb. 909, gen. Rutracb, TF. 909. This 
seems identical with the c-stem Ruaidhri^ gen. Rtiadraehy AU. 
779, 814, ace. Ruadraich, AU. 781, or Ruadraig, and cognate witt 
the Old-Irish «o-stem Rudraige (gen, sg.). Zimmer considers these 
names to be borrowed from 0. -Norse HrHrehry AS. JBridrie, But 
Rudraige, FM. 1483, occurs as the name of a king of Ireland 


said to have lived a.m. 3845, and Ruaidhri occurs as the name of 
the son of a king of Leinster, in 785, ten years hefor$ the first 
Vikings came to Ireland. There can be little doubt that Ruaidri, 
Xtotri, Budraige, are genuine Celtic names and that Noreen has 
liere been misled by Zimmer. 

Solon mac Conaen rex Britanorum, AU. 612, Solon mac Conain, 
Tig. 613 = Selim filius Cinan, Ann. Camb. 613. 

Spris, FM. 1579=W. Prys, with prothetic ». 

Taudar [leg. Teudar] mac Bile rex Alochlandaib [leg. Alo 
Cluade], Tig. 752, Teothar=Teudur, see Ris supra. 

XJiter Pendragen, gen. sg. ATI. 467 = Vthurpendreic^ Jesus Coll. 
lis. 20, fo. 41». 

III. 2. Irish Loans from Welsh. 

The connexion between the Cymric tribes and the Gaels, 
daring which names and other words were borrowed by 
one race from the other, began at least as early as the 
fifth century,' when a Gaelic ogham- writing population was 
established in South Wales, Cornwall, and Devon, and when 
S. Patrick, a Briton of Strath Clyde, led his mission to 
Ireland. It was continued and extended by the second order 
of saints, who renewed Christianity after the apostacy which 
took place on Patrick's death; for these were connected 
with Menevia (St. David's) and the Church of Wales. In 
the year 707 or 708 "Cellach's Britons" (probably 
mercenary troops) were slain in a battle in Wicklow (ATI. 
708; FM. 707). In 870 the vikings Anlaib and Inv&rr came 
to Dublin with a fleet of two hundred ships, ' et preda maxima 
hominum Anglo rum etBritonum etPictorum deductaest secum 
in captiuitate.' In 1170 and 1171 Fitzstephen and Strongbo w 
were doubtless followed to Wexford and Waterford by many 
Welshmen ; and about a century after the Anglo-Norman 
invasion there was a considerable settlement of Welsh in 
Tyrawley. At present they are represented by the Barretts, 

^ I baye not OTerlooked the tradition mentioned in the Irish Nennius, pp. 1 22, 
136, and also by 0*Curry {Manmertpt MaUiialt, etc., p. 450), that at a much 
earlier time there was a tribe of Britons, called the Tuath Fidba, using poisoned 
weapons and living in certain forests in Wexford. 


Lawlesses, Joyoes, Tomlyns, Mac Andrews, Hostys, and 
Walshes (Ir. Breathnaigh). See O'Donovan's Hy Fiachrach, 
pp. 324 et seq. 

broc6it hra^ffet, FM. 1107, AH. 1107, ALC. 1108. From O.-W. 
brocaut (gl. mulsum, gl. mellicatum) GG. 94. Com. hregaud. 

oloooD akullf pi. nom. cloicne. Rev. Gelt. iii. 177, dat. doignibh, 
FM. 1670. W. clopen. See clocc-at, infra p. 424. 

gardha garden, FM. 988, formed on W. gardd, and this from 
A.S. g$ard, 

maol chiif, gen. maoil, FM. 1070, p. 898. From W. mael = 
mnglo'8^^ of which the regular Irish equivalent is mal, 

nos CHttom^ ard-nds, ALC. 1362, 1402. From W. naw8 ' nature,' 
' disposition.* 

pit portion^ return. From W. pM from ^p^Ui, *quettu 

soboc h4nrk. From W. Kihoc = AS. kafoe. 

Other Old- Welsh words, which we know from Cormac's Gloum^^ 
are hrmui ' judgment,' aU ' battle,' c^it ' wood,' eu»il ' counsel,* 
dm ' fort,' d^Ur (leg. duhr) * water,' iMmts (leg. dubrti) 'otter,* 
duiu * god,' fmr (leg. yiMr) * dawn,' gruec (leg. frmck) ' woman,' 
Mir/i ' eon,' mid * mead,' Mum * my,' jrmii * worm,' pr$mUr (leg. 
prMmr) • priest.' 

spochad «r^ 0/ tmtmii^if. ALC. 11^, 1344, 1320, p. 598, 1478, 
SKNMiis from Bret tpi^cheimy 9pm€*k and this from ijnb, borrowed, 
bke W. dy-tp^Mm^ fn>m Lat. #fM^«. So dWW *an exQe ' C^Immidbe, 
0'B.\ whence df^rmd^rAi 'exile, piUrimage/ CF, 978, lOfi, seems 
fn>m Br, Wmw^ * depay^^* Cora, d^mrm (^ exul). 

IT« Picnss^H Nami^ axd oroEm TTouk.. 

Th^ Gaelic rac^ cune in contaici with tl^ Pids bolli in 
IrytLaDd and in S^^^uand. In iKiaad tiwi^ w^ere Pkts in 
IXal-Anud^ vDowm aad part ci Antral «^ is MeAih,' aad 
ui RfMicvMttaKMft^^ aAd in AdamQjan*$ liie of C«is»faa» iL 9» 

i r, v>«iiteir rjM. Tic rw^ 



read of a Pictish priest living in Leinster. In Scotland 
in the eighth century all north of the Forth was Pictish 
t^erritory* except Argyle {=zAirer Ooedel) and perhaps 
a Gaelic settlement on the Tay {Tava). The Irish Picts 
^were called 

Cruithni, Tig. 629, 645, 646, 666, 682, 708, pi. gen. Cruithne, 
m. 679, 680, ace. Cruithniu, FM. 687, 604, 706, 725. The 
Cruidnenorum of Lib. Arm. 3* 1, is perhaps an error for Cruith- 
ji«ortfin=AdamndD'8 Cruithniorumj Vita Golumbae, p. 33. 

Cruthnig, Tig. 658, 681, the nom. pi. of Cruthnech^ which is 
etymologically identical with the Cruthinicm of Adamnan, p. 66, 
the CortonieO' of the Old-High-German gloss * Gallia uualcholant. 
Chortonicum auch Walcholant.' The dat. pi. Graithneachoibh, 
PM. 562. Hence the diminutive Craithnechan(u8), Adamnan, 
p. 191. [These words are probably derived from oruth * forma * 
=s W. prpd. Hence we have Cruithne as the name of the artificer, 
c&rdf of the Picts, Ir. Nennius, 124.] 

The Scottish Picts were sometimes called by the Irish 
annalists Cruithnig, Tig. 560, 583, gen. pi. Cruithnech, 
FM. 430, 863; 2 and their country Cruithen-tuath, FM. 
3790; Laud, 610, fo. 92*; but the people and their country 
are generally denoted by names beginning with p, thus : 

Piccardai (dat. pi. Piccardaib), Tig. 729. 

Picardaig (gen. pi. Picardach), Tig. 728, 760. Piccardaig (gen. 
pi. Piccardach), Tig. 729. 

Picti (gen. pL Pictorum, ace. Pictos), Tig. 580, 631, 653 : AU. 
630, 662, 656, 697, 728, 733, 736, 788, 857, 861, 864, 870, 
874, 877. 

Pictones, Tig. 750. 752, ATI. 749. 

Pictores, Tig. 669 ; AU. 668, 675, 727. The gen. pi. Pictorum^ 
cited snpra under Picti, may of course belong to Pictores. 

Pictavia, Sk. 8, 9, 135. 


These j9-names, like the Gaulish nitcTOP€<;, later Pictavi 

1 Old-Norse Pettland, Pettlandz Jjor^r, whence Fe-n-t-land, Fentland Jirth, 
with a curious insertion of n. 

* A bardic name for their territory is Cruithen-ehldr, Ir. Nenn. p. 174, where, 
as in Cruithen-tuath f we have the stem Qruteno-f whence W. Frydyn *a Fict.' 
Hence also Queretinus, the surname of Bonifadus, a missionary to the Picts. 


(now Pof'tou), have been connected by Windisch with the 
Ir. cicht .i. gebiach Corm., .i. geibire 'carver' .i. rindaire, 
'engraver' H. 3. 18, p. 66, col. 2. Cognate, seemingly, is 
Ptolemy's Urj/cropiov axpoPy which may be explained by the 
W.pwylh * point,' ' stitch,' from *pikto-} The root is qvik^ and 
the resemblance of the p-names just quoted to the Latin |nc^tf«, 
cognate with Qr. ttoikIXo^, Goth. {Jilu)faihs, is deceptive. 

As to the linguistic and ethnological affinities of the Ficts, 
four irreconcileable hypotheses have been formed, three of 
which are still upheld. The first, due to Pinkerton, and 
supported, I am sorry to say, by the late Mr. Oldbuck of 
Monkbams,^ is that the Picts were Teutons and spoke a 
Gothic dialect : the second, started by Prof. Rhys, is that 
the Picts were Non- Aryans, whose language was overlaid 
by loans from Welsh and Irish : the third, the property of 
Mr. Skene, is that they were Celts, but Gaelic Celts rather than 
Cymric : the fourth, and, in my judgment, the true hypothesiB, 
favoured by Prof. Windisch and Mr. A. Macbain, is that they 
were Celts, but more nearly allied to the Cymry than to the 

For the sake of completeness and comparison, I have 
inserted in the following list the Fictish names found in the 
inscription of S. Vigeans,^ the Pictish Chronicle and other 
tracts printed by Skene in his Chronicles of the Picts and 
Scots, the fragment of that chronicle in Laud 610, fo. 92', 
the Irish Nennius,* Adaran&n's Vita Columbae, the Book 
of Deir,* and some of the names in the records printed by 
Dr. Reeves, Culdees, Dublin, 1864, pp. 105-143. I have also 
inserted from C. Miiller's edition of Ptolemy's Geography 
the names of such tribes and places as there is reason to 
think were Pictish. 

Accidan, gen. Accidain, ATI. 648, Acitbaen, AU. 685, corruptly 
Athicain, Tig. 686. 

* Rhys, however, regards />tryM as a loan from, puetum or Low-Latm *puctui 
(Ducange has piicta), 

* See The Antiquary^ chap. vi. 

' Inner iptiones Britanniae Christianae, ed. Hiibner, Berlin, 1876, p. 77. 

* ed. Todd, Dublin, 1848. 

* Ooidelxca, London, 1872, pp. 106—121. 


Acbfuir gen. sg. Taloro mac Achfuir, L. 92» = Talore filius 
ichiyir, Sk. 6=Tolorc mac Aithiuir, Ir. Nenn. 160. Seems 
^en. 8g. of a compound of aoo {ach) = W. ach ' stenmia/ Com. ach 
[gl. suboles), and ior=rW. idr * dominus, princeps.' 
Aed mac Boanta, ATI. 838. 

Ailill Oll-findachta, name of a Fictish king of Ireland, Ir. 
N'enn. Ixxii. From *Alpilli-8, cogn. with A.-S. alft O.-Norse dlfr 
(but see Klnge, s.v. Alp). 

Air-cbartdan, nom. loci, Vita Columbae, p. 114^ now 'Glen 
Urqubart on the W. side of Loch Ness ' (Reeves). 
Alauna (^kXauva)^ Ptol. a town of the Dumnonii. 
aleph, see Cmn-aleph^ and cf. Alef the name of a king of Corn- 
wall, in Ward's Catalogue, i. 449. 

Alpfn, Ailpfn, Tig. 693, ATI. 856, 861, Alphin, AU. 692 : with 
umlaut : Elpin, L. 92*. Sk. 7 : EUpin, AU. 729 : Elphin, Tig. 726 : 
Elfin, Ann. Cambr. 722. Borrowed from Lat. Alhinw ? 

Alpine, Tig. 728, with umlaut, Eilpine, AU. 727. Borrowed 
from Albinius? 

Anfritb, Anfrait, Ainfrith, see Enfret. 

Aniel gen. sg. Ir. Kenn. 160, Sk. 6; Ainel, L. 92\ Perhaps 
W. anial ' wild.' 

apor, apur, abur, abhor, abber, estuary y rivermouth, gen. apuir, Tig. 
737, dat. apur. Tig. 722. Apor-crosan (now Applecross, Eoss-shire) 
AU. 672, 801, FM. 671, 721, 792, Sk. 6. Apurfeirt, Apur-nethige 
Sk. 6 : Abur-nethige, Sk. 6 : Apuir-nige Ir. Nenn. 162=Apur- 
nige, L. 92*. Abbor-doboir (now Aberdour), Abber-deon (now 
Aberdeen), Bk. of Deir, fo. 39* = the Apardjon of the Orkneyinga 
Saga, ^bber-cumig (now Abercom, at the eastern end of the 
Picts' wall), Baada, H.E. i. 12, iv. 26. Old Aber-brothoc, now 
Arbroath. This is the Old- Welsh aper, now aher^ cogn. with oper 
(Oper-gclei, Ann. Cambr. 856, Oper Linn Liuan, Nennius, § 69), 
Com. aher (gl. gurges), and Ir. in-ber. 

ar-diuois, see Deo-ardiuois : ar- may be = Gaulish arS-, Gr. 


arg, see Tal-org = Gr. ap^d^ 'shining, bright.' Cognate with 
Gaulish argio-a in Argto-talus, Lat. argutus^ argilla^ argentum, Skr. 

Art-ablar, gen. Artablair, AU. 708. Here and in the next 
three entries art may he=^W, arth 'bear,' ttpicro^, in the names 
Arth-mael, Arth-hiu, etc. 

Art-branan, *de quodam Artbranano,' Vita Col. p. 34** : cf. 



the Ir. Artbran, gen. Artbrain, Tig. 716 {Ardhrand, Tig. 758, seema 
a blunder). 

Art-cois, L. 92^ (misprinted Ardcoist in Ir. Nennius, Ixxv) = 
Arcois, Sk. 6 : cf . Argento-^oj^tM. 

•Art-gust, Tuatbal mac Artgusso primepscop Fortrenn, AU. 864. 
Artgossa, TF. 869 : Ardghusa, FM. 863. 

Asreith gen. sg. nom. loci, Tig. 752. 

Ate-cotti, Notit. Imp. a division of the ancient Picts, meaning, 
probably, ' very ancient ones * : pi. of a compound of ate-, later at^ 
and eotto8=yf. eoth *old.' 

Athan, nom. loci, 8k. 6. If this be for atan = W. adan 'wing' 
(cogn. with Trerofiat and fsaiher), we may perhaps identify it with 
Ptolemy's TlreptaTop trrparoire^ov, the Pinnatts of Geogr. Rav. 
Compare for the meaning Pinna, a town of the Yestini, on the E. 
slope of the Apennines. 

Athfotla gen. sg. Tig. 739, corruptly Athfoithle, AU. 788, 
Athochlach, Sk. 10, Adtheodle, 8k. 136, Ath6tla, Bk. of Deir, fo. 
9% now Athol, a compound of at and /6tla q.v. In the Norse 
AtjbhlaVf the tl has become kl, 

Athran, 8k. 136. ' Athrie near Stirling,' Skene, C$ltic Scotland^ 
i. 341. 

Bagag Ollfiacha, one of the Pictish kings of Ireland, Ir. Nenn. 
Ixiii. Ir. hdgaoh, Urkelt. hd^dko-a, a deriv. of hdgo- * battle,' Ir. hdg. 

Baine, daughter of the ri Alhan^ FM. 1 : cogn. with W. hmyw 
or banyw? Or if the a bo long, cogn. with Ir. hdn * white.' 

Banb ace. sg. Bk. of Deir, fo. 39*, now BanfP, cogn. with Banba^ 
a name for Ireland, Trip. Life, 426, glan-Bhanhha, FM. 1602, 
p. 2294. The Ir. hanh * pig ' = W. hanw^ may also be cognate. 

Bannatia {Bawa-ria^ a town of the Vacomagi, Ptol. 

Bargoit gen. sg. L. 92*. Ir. Nenn. 166, Sk. 8, nom. *Barcot 
po8sibly= W. hareut^ hareud * a kite.' 

Bode cruthnec[h], Bk. of Deir, i. = a Gaulish Bsdaioa? G.-Br. 
BedoSf Bidoe. 

Bergib, Sk. 187, gen. sg. of the name of the father of 
*'Duptalaich": cf. Soer-hergg, AU. 790. 

Bern-gal, Beamgal, one of the Pictish Kings of Ireland, Ir. 
Nenn. Ixxiii. Cf. perhaps the Teut. hern * bear ' in Bern-rich, etc. 

best, bust, see Onbest, Usconbust. So we have Drest and Drust. 

Biceot mac Moneit, AU. 728. 

Bill gen. Tig. 686, 693 : AU. 629, 692. Bile, TF. p. 40. Bredei 
filius Bill, Sk. 7 = W. Com. Belt, G.-Br. Bili, from Heleaio-? 



Blatbuug, AU. 728, a corruption of Blathulg =^ Blatum Bulgium 

the Antonine Itinerary, p. 223, Bladeholg in a charter of 1144, 

inted in Beeves' Culd^es, p. 110, where Dr. Reeves says that 

Bladbolg was a denomination of land belonging to the bishop " 

St. Andrews. 

BUebtfrUth, L. 92*, BHeblith, Ir. Nenn. 168. Blies-blituth, Sk. 6 

ire perhaps hlituth is = O.-W. Bledud : bat the rest is obscure. 

Boanta gen. sg. AU. 838. 

boch = W. hdeh^ Lat. huceaj see gurth-in-moch. 

bodb in lam-bodb, q.v. cf. Gaul. Ate-haduus^ Boduo-gmus, Boduo- 

atus : W. Arth-bodUf EUhodu^ Gur-hodu : Br. Tri-hodUy Cat-hodu, 

\i-hoduu, Ir. Bodb, gen. Boidb, AU. 675, Bodbchaidh, TF. p. 62, 

)db-cath, AU.703, and the place-name Bodb-gna, AU. 679. 

bole, Gartnait bole, L. 92% misspelt Gkrtnaith loo, Sk. 6. 

smardbolg, Sk. 149. Bolge, Sk. 187. SeeCrutbolo, Dun-bulco, 

fra. I know not whether to compare Ir. bolg, bole from bulga, or 

-W. M^rccmt bule^ the Mod.-W. btolch 'broken, cut,' or, lastly, 

. bale * strong ' = W. baleh. 

Boresti, the right reading of Rbresti, Tac. Agr. 38, may be cogn. 

ith Bop€a9 and *Y9r€/>-/3o/>€(«t. 

Bran mac Oengusa, AU. 838. Ir. bran^ Bran, O.-Br. Bran: cf. 

ranodunum, Rialo-brani, Hiibner 84. 

branan in Art-branan, dimin. of bran * raven.' 

brecc. Nectan mor brec mac Erip, L. 92* = Nectan mor breao 

ac Eirip, Ir. Nenn. 160. Brecc Fortrend, AU. 724. Ir. breee 

pockled,' W. brt/eh. 

Brecini gen. sg. Bk. of Deir iii., dat. Brecin, ib. fo. 39*. The 

m. sg. is Brechne in Sk. 10. The similarity of W. bryeint, bryein 

i brake, forest,' derived from brwg = Br. bruk, is deceptive. 

Bred, L. 92*, Sk. 8. Brod, Ir. Nenn. 166. 

Bredei Alius Wirguist, Sk. 7. Brete filius Ururgu[s]t, L. 92* = 

reite f. Uugut, Ir. Nenn. 164. Breidei filius Uuid, Sk. 7. Bredei 

ius Bili, Sk. 7. 

Brei f. Derelei, L. 92% Ir. Nenn. 164. 

Breth, L. 92% Sk. 6, Ir. Nenn. 160. Perhaps for Bre^ = Bred, q.v. 

Bridiu : cum Bridiuo, L. 92*. Briduo, Sk. 7. Brideno, Ir. Nenn. 


brocc badger, in Caer na mbroce, q.v. Ir. broee, W. Com. brooh^ 

)gn. with <f>opic6v' XevKoVf troXiov, pvtrov, Hesych. 

Broichan(u8), Yita Columbae, 146, 148, from *Vroichan = Ir. 

roechan ? 



Bmde, Braidhe, Bruidhi, Tig. 560, 583, 682, 686, 693, 706, 
752. AU. 583, 692, 762. Bruide, L. 92*, AU. 705. Bruite, TF. 
687. Bruide mac Derilei ri Gruithintuaithi, Eawl. B. 505, p. 309. 
Latinised BruidetUf ATI. 730, 735, bat Brudeiu, by Adamnan. 
Possibly cogn. with A.S. prdt, PrUda^ Eng. proud^ O.-N. pMr, 
The long ii becomes 1 in Bridei filius Mailcon, Sk. 7, Brideo filio 
Meilochon, Beda H.E. iii. 4. In Brude Pant, Brude TJrpant, 
Brude Leo, Brude TJrleo, and so on, Sk. 5, Brude seems not 
a name but a regal title. 

Brun (Bruin) Alban, Sk. 136, 137. Brun-here, Sk. 137. 
s/ Cam-bruD, Reeves, Culdeea, p. 112. If this word be genuine, it is 
the "Welsh hr^nn * collis.' 

Buchan gen. sg. Bk. of Deir, i. vi. Buchan ib. vi. Buchen, 
Sk. 136, abl. Buchain, Sk. 10, now Buchan, part of Aberdeen. 

Budros, gen. sg. L. 92*, Ir. Nenn. 162 is=TJudro8t, q.v., h 
being written for tc^ as in halla * wall * infra. 

Buthud gen. sg. L. 92*. Buthut, Sk. 6. 

Caer na mbrocc, Reeves' Columha, p. 191 note = ceir infra. W. 
and Br. caer, Ir. cathair. The same word is in Car-buddo in Angus. 

Cailt arni, L. 92* = Cailtaine, Ir. Kenn. 162, Cailtram, SL 7, 
Chelturan, Sk. 187. Hopelessly corrupt. 

Caireni (Kaiprfuoi), Ptol. 

Cal, one of the thirty Brudes, Sk. 5 : also in Wr-cal. Cognate 
with Com. cal (gl. astutus), W. call, Lat. callidus. 

Calat-ros nom. loci, TF. 578, Calitros, Tig. 678, Calathros, AU. 
677, Calathros in Etarlindu, AU. 735: cf. Ir. calath *hard,' Br. 
calety W. caled, Com. cales, 

calden, callen, callenn in Dun-calden, Sk. 8, Dun caillen, AIT. 964, 
Dun caillenn, AU. 1027, Duncallden, Bk. of Deir, fo. 39^, gen.Luni 
callenn, Bk. of Deir, iii. Now Dunkeld. The calden{n) is probably 
«/ cogn. with the Ir. caill *wood* (from *kaldet-), caillteamhail (gl. 
Sylvester), Gr. K\iho^, Lat. callis ' forest ' (K.Z. 30, 434), A.S. hoU, 
Germ. hoh. But a connexion with Goth, hallos, verpa, is possible. 

Caledon in Dve-caledones, q.v. Caledonios in Ka\ij86ifio9 Bpv^oi, 
Vto\.= Coit Celidon. ^Notwithstanding Ptolemy*s 7, Zeuss, G.CV 
790, thinks that the second vowel was short. The Gaulish names 
Semhedon (P. Secunda Sembedonis filio), Orelli, 204, and Tenedon 
would then be similar formations. But the umlaut of a in Nennius' 
(in silva) Celidonis proves the length of the following vowel. 

Calgacos sworded, the * Galgacus ' of Tacitus. Ir. cal^ * sword/ 
W. caly ' veretrum,' Br. calch. 


Canaul filius Tafig., L. 92«: Ganul, Ir.Nenn. 164: Canaul filius 
Tarl'a, 8k. 7. 

Cana, TP. 687, gen. ag. Canonn, ATI. 620, 687, Tig. 688, Canond, 
Tig. 690. Is the * Gland Ganan ' of Bk. of Deir, v. miswritten for 
Cland Canonn? Gognate are Canaone (abl. sg.) Greg Tur. iv. 4, 
yi. eenaw *cub, whelp,' pi. eenawon^ O.Br. Ri-eentu^ O.W. Ri-cenou, 

Canatolachama, Sk. 6. GanutulahiDa, L. 92^ Ganatulacma, Ir. 
!Neim. 160. This corrupt name seems to be Canu (the nom. sg. of 
Camonn supra) followed by the epithet tulahama, of which Tulaaman 
may be a derivative. For the insertion of h or oh between vowels at 
Caiohie, fahel, Taraehin infra ; W. tra-noheth, Laws, i. 27 : Gom. 
^uiUihim (gl. forceps) : Br. Ourmahilon, G.G.' 102. 

Garno, see Monit camo, cognate with Ptolemy's Kapvov€t or 

KappovaKaiy Kopvaoviot. 

Gamonacae {Kapvovaxat) Ptol. cf. the Galatian Kapvop' r^v 

cartit .i. delg a brooch, Gorm. Borrowed from AS. ^eard or Welsh 
garthon ' goad,' Gom. garthou (gl. stimulus). 

cat hatile, occurs in the next five names. W. eat, Ir. eath^ 
Gbul. eatu, 

Gatluan mac Gatmiud, L. 92*==Gathluan mac Gaitmind, Ir. 
Kenn. 140. Gatluan mac Ging, LL. 15^ Ir. Nenn. Ixxiv. Gathluan, 
Ir. Nenn. 124. Gathluain, Ir. Neno. 138."==O.Br. Cat-louuen, 
* delighting in battle.' 

Gatinolachan, Ir. Nenn. 124. Gathmachan, Ir. Kenn. 140. Per- 
haps for *Gut-molachan, a compound of cat * battle ' and molaehan 
caW. molochain 'full of uproar.' Perhaps for ♦Gat-uuolocan, of. 
Voloeus, Forbes's KalmdarB, pp. 459-461. 

Gat-mind gen. sg. L. 92^. Gaitmind, Ir. Nenn. 140. From eat 
'battle' and mind * diadem '=Ir. mind, O.W. minn (gl. sertum), 
pi. minnou (gl. serta, gl. stemmata). 

Cat-molodor, Ir. Nenn. 140, for Cat-uuolatr =0.W, Catgiialart, 
O.Br. Cat'Uualart. Here, as in Simal and Almuinc infra, the 
Irish scribe has written (infected) m for w, 

Catoc, gen. Gatohic,^ AU. 749, (for the insertion of h cf. fahel 
infra) O.W. O.Br. Catoc : Catdcus, Hiibner 35. 

Gatt, Gat son of Gruithne, Ir. Nenn. 50, Aenbeagan mac Gaitt, 
ibid, (corruptly Gaitt, Gatt, Ir. Neon. 154, Got, Sk. 4)= 
Gaul. Catios : an eponymous king. Cat-ness, Bk. of Deir, fo. 39*. 

^ Mr. Hennessy bisects this word, and translates the '* helium Cato hio *' thus 
produced bj ** The battle of Cato, in this year.'' 

PU. Trans. 1888-90. 27 


i Cataib, F^l. crich Cat, Ir. Kenn. 148. insi Cadd, LL. 171*. 
Cathanesia, Sk. 136. O.Norse jETata-nM. 

Ce son of Cruithne, Ir. Nenn. 50, 1 54, Sk. 4, an eponymoos king. 
In topography (according to Mr. A. Msusbain) JTeith. 

Ceir-fuill id est Lethfoss, Sk. 6. Is this^Kerpul, EeeTea* 
CuldeeSy p. 133 ? where ptd i8=W. ptoll, Com. pol (gl. pnteus)? 

cenn-aleph, L. 92^, Sk. 7. Cormptly cenamlapeh, Ir. Nenn. 162, 
cennalath, ATI. 579, may be W. Ken-ehph, Jeans Coll. MS. 
No. 20, fo. 36^. Here cenn seem8=W. em 'skin,' Com. eemun 
(gl. membrana), Ir. ceinn pi. cenni (gl. scamae). Lib. Arm. l76^ 2. 
The aleph may be = Ir. dlaih, F61. Sep. 3. Similar names are Corn. 
Wuen-cen, Gluiu-cen. 
Cerones {Keptove^)^ Ptol. 
Cillimon, see Deo-cillimon, cilunon. 

Cing, gen. Cinge, Sk. 4, Ir. Nenn. 154. Cmca, Ir. Nenn. 142. 
Cogn. with the Ir. ^-stem my, Gaul, einget- in Cinget-o-ris. 

Cinioiodh, L. 92*. Cinioiod, Ir. Nenn. 158i=Cimoiod filius 
Arcois, Sk. 6. Ciniod mac Derili, AU. 712. Ciniod filins Wredech, 
Sk. 7, Ciniod^ filius TJuredeg, L. 92*. Cinoidh, gen. Cinadbon, 
AU. 774, 777. Cynoth, Cynoht. Sim. Dunelm. 774, 775. Cenioyd, 
Cemoth (leg. Cenioyth), Ann. Camb. 776, 856. Ciniath mac 
Lutrfn, L. 92*=Cinhoint f. Luitriu, Ir. Nenn. 164, Cinioch filins 
Lutrin, Sk. 7, gen. sg. mors Cinedon filii Lugthreni, AU. 630. The 
name underlying this mass of mis-spellings is Cini-oi^, gen. 
Cini-oi^otiy where cim- 18= cin- in the Irish name Cinaedf and 
ot ^ i8=Gr. aiOwv * fiery.* Cf. the O.-Ir. gen. Lugu-aedon^ Inscrn. 
of Inis an (j\io\\\=i Lugudon, AU. 780, 809, Lugedon, ATI. 739, 
the ogmic Biv-aiddonasy and the Gaul, to-stem Aedonius, C.l.L. 
V. 3459. 

Cinid one of the thirty Brudes, Sk. 5, and see Ur-cinid. Perhaps 
=0.W. Cinuit, Harl. 3859, fo. 194*. 

Cint, Sk. 5, one of the thirty Brudes, also in Ur-cint. Cintu- 
* first * in Cintu-gennSf Cintu-gnatus, 

Circinn son of Cruithne, Sk. 4. Circin, Circing, Ir. Nenn. 154. 
Mag Cirgin, Jr. Nenn. Ixxi. i cath Chircind, Tig. 596 (where Bp. 
Reeves would identify Circind with Kirhin-tullochy N.E. of Glasgow, 
on the borders of Dumbarton and Stirling), in terra Circin, Tig. 752. 
Ciricc, Sk. 324. Cirig, Ir. Nenn. 50. Ciric, ib. 51 note. A. 
gen. Cirigh, ibid. 124, 142. Borrowed from Cyrieus. 

^ Misprinted Oimod, Ir. NenniuSf p. IxxxYii, L 2. 



cisime, see Findoll. 

Claideom nom. loci, Sk. 10. 

Cluanan nom. loci, Sk. 8. dimin. of eluan^Ir, el^m? 

Ooblait mia Canond, Tig. 690. 

cois (Art-coi8)=W. coes, It. oohs^ Lat. eoxa, 

♦Con-gust, Talorgg mac Congusso, ATI. 733, O.W. Cingwt, 
Cinust. The con-^zcuno' is also in Cuno-harrw, Cuno-gwaif Rhys 
6, ChmO'pmmuSj Cuna-mori, Cuno-vali, In Ireland Con-ehoBar is 
not only a man's name, but occurs as the name of a river in Irish 
Pictland: see Eev. Celt. yi. 125. 

Corindu, Tig. 669, ATI. 668. An etymological connexion with 
Kopiviov is possible ; but both words are obscure. 

Comavii, Ptolemy's Yiopvaomoi, Cf. W. Comau, lib. Land. 230, 
L 85. Derived from com^Lat, camu, 

Costantin, Cosantin, Caustantin, L. 92% Castantin, Sk. 8, 
Consatin, Ir. Nenn. 166, Cusaintfn, ib. 274. Borrowed from Can- 
stantJnus, So W. Custenhin^ Lib. Landav. 69, 263, and Corn. Cos- 
imtin, Custmtin, Be v. Celt. i. 340. 

cottos (whence Ate-cotti *the old inhabitants'), W. eoth *old,' 
Br. «w, Gaul, coitos (Cotti officim, C.I.L. xii. 5686, 272). 

credi gen. sg. Caislen Credhi, Tig. 728, Castellum Credi, ATI. 
727=Collis Credulitatis, Sk. 9. Beeves, Columha, 383. Cognate 
with Ir. eretim from *ored'dimy Lat. orSdo from *er$d'do, 

Creones (K/9€ct>i/€9), Ptol. 

Crin, TJr-crin, two of the thirty Brudes, Ir. Nenn. 158. A Crin 
servus occurs in lib. Land. 198. Cf. W. crin 'aridus,' also 'avarus, 
sordidns, parous.' 

croib, in Monid Croibh, may be Ir. eraeb * a branch,' * a branchy 
tree,' the diphthong ai becoming ot, as in Cini-oi%. 

crosan, see Apor-crosan. 

crup, Dorsum Crup, Sk. 10, 'which Chalmers makes Duncrub in 
Strathem,' Beeves' Columha, 383. Cruipf gen. sing. AU. 741. W. 
cnri * gibba,* erwhan *testudo/ crwbach * hamus,' with which Gliick 
connects the Gaulish name Crupios^ and the cruppellarii of Tacitus. 

Cms mac Cirigh, the soldier of the Picts, Ir. Nenn. 124, 142. 
Perhaps an Irishism for *Prttst=W, prwat^ Com. prost (in ludprost), 
O.Br. Prost'hn^ Frost-uuorsL 

Cmithne, Ir. Nenn. 154. Cruidne . . . pater Pictomm habi- 
tantium in hoc insula, Sk. 4, an eponymous hero. An Irishism 
for *Pmtene or Predcne, AU. 783, where it is the name of the 
grandfather of an Irish king. 



Crutbolc, Ir. Nenn. 168: Crautreic, L. 92* (where the -reie 
comes from the preceding Deo-toireie) ; and Garvorst, Sk. 6. The 
name underlying these corrupt spellings may be *Crauit, an 
Irishism for *Fraust=W. Frawst. As to hole see Gartnait bole, 

Oulen-ross, Culenros, now Gulross, Sk. 417. Cuilenn ros, in BB. 
214^ 21 : Alina in^en rig Gruithnech mdihair Seirb m^'c Proic rig 
Ganandan Egipti, 7 is e sin in sruthsenoir ^ongeibh Guillenn ros hi 
Sraith Em. hi Gomgellaibh etir Sliabh n-Ochel 7 Mur nGuidan. 
Ir. ouilenn, W. eelyn-en^ M.Br. queUnn-en, A.S. holegn, hoUn 
* holly.' As to rass see infra, p. 41 2. 

Gumach, name of a Pictish champion, LIT. 88*. The gen. sg. 
may be cumig, in ^bber-cumig. 

Deauae, leg. Deuae ? gen. sg. of Diva. Obsesio Duin Deauae, 
AIT. 691. De, 8k. 136. 

Decantae (Ae/cain-ai), Ptol. From the same root as Ikeangi^ 
Tacitus Ann. zii. 32, and Decetta, Gaesar B.G. vii. 33. Ir. deck 
'best,' Lat. deeor, deeus. 
Dele-roth, Tig. 711. filius Deile-roith, AU. 710, 715. 
Demene, Sk. 187, is perhaps the Ir. name DaimefM, AIT. 960. 
deo= divO' seems to occur in the next four articles : cf. the 
Cbiulish DivO'^muif Divo-gena and the place-names Divo-duruw^ 
(now Metz), and Deo-hrigtda in Spain. W. Diu-nerth, Lib. Land* 
178, 1. 8. 
Deo ardivois, Sk. 6. Deordiuois, L. 92<^, Ir. Nenn. 160. 
Deo-cillimon, L. 92*, Ir. Nenn. 158 = Deocilunon, Sk. 6. 
Deo-ord, Sk. 6 = Deort, L. 9-2*, Ir. Nenn. 158. 
Deo-totreic, L. 92», Ir. Nenn. 158, misspelt Dectotr'ic, Sk. 6 
Here the totreic seems a corruption of the A.S. 3^tftt(frw,=N.H.G^ — ' 
Dietrichy Gaul. Teutorix^ O.W. Tutri; but the loan Tkeudrf^- 
occurs in the Jesus GoUege MS. No. 20, fo. 35*. 

deon in Abberdeon q.v. Perhaps = Ptolemy^s DSvana {Aifovwa) ^ 
cf. DivoTM, now Cahors. 

Der, nom. loci, Bk. of Deir, fo. 39*. The connexion with 
ddr, W. dagr, Gr. Baxpvy is mere volksetymologie. 

dergg in * helium Droma dergg,' AU. 728. Ir. derg *red.' 
Derile, Tig. 126, 728, gen. Derili, Derile, AU. 705, 712, 72^ 
Derelei, Derilei, L. 92*, Derelei, Sk. 7. The der- may be 
intensive prefix as in O.-Bret. Der-monoc and W. JDer-guentid, Bt 

Deva, a river, Ptolemy's Arjova : see Deauae, supra. W. Di"!^- 


raoh. Lib. Land. 133, 1. 4. Dio-goinid, ibid. 199, 11. 6, 10. a 
mine quod uocatur Dubr Duiu, Harl. 3859, fo. 196*, col. 3. 
Devana {^rfovava), the ir6\€9 of the Taexali, Ftol. 
Diu, 8k. 6=deo q.v. i8=Tui, L. 92». 
iiuois, see Ar-diuois. 

iiuperr, Grartnait diuperr, L. 92*, Qartnait duipeir, Ir. Nenn. 
Je-Qartnaich diuberr, Sk. 6=Canath dives, Sk. 149sGarnard 
es, 8k. 172. Gamard le riche, Sk. 200. The diu may be cognate 
bh Lat. dives. The perr or peir is obscure, 
iobor, gen. doboir, see Abbor-doboir. Dobur Artbranani, Vita 
lu/nba€f p. 35*. Hence the diminutive. ^Dobran, now the 
veran, W. dufr. Com. dour. 

Doirgarto gen. sg., AU. 709, 71 1, is perhaps a Piotish name. The 
)argarto " of AU. 685 seems a scribal error for Doirgarto. 
Domech gen. sg., L. 92* = Domelch, Sk. 7. Domnach, Ir. Nenn. 

Domnual : Mors Gartnaidh filii Domnaill 7 Domnaill mic 
tholain, ATI. 662. Donuel gen. sg. L. 92% Ir. Nenn. 164 
»rruptly = Donnel Sk. 7). W. Dumn-ual. Ir. Domnall. 
Drostan, Tig. 713, Ir. Nenn. 120, 130. Drostan, Bk. of Deir i. 
ostan Dairtighe or Dairtaighe, FM. 717, ATI. 718. gen. 
ostain, AU. 7 12= Bruataffni, Hiibner, 20. Hence the liristan 
lib. Land. 267, 1. 27, and the Arthurian tales. 
Drosten, Inscr. of St. Yigeans, Hiibner, No. 212. Dnristengen. 
L. 92*, misprinted Dftuisten^ Ir. Nennius, p. Ixxv, 1. 5. 
irum * ridge ' in JDrum-ckaraeh, Drum-saej Muke-drum^ Beeves, 
ideeSy pp. 109, 133 : gen. droma, in '' bellum Droma dergg 
ithuug in regionibus Fictorum," AIT. 728. Chalmers identifies 
i#im d, h, with Drumderg^ an extensive ridge on the western 
e of the river Ila in Forfarshire, Reeves, Columba, 384 n. Ir. 
«t/», W. truMf from *drosmen cognate with Lat. danum, 
Drast, Tig. 729, AU. 728, L. 92*. Sk. 6, TF. p. 64. Druist, 
5. 725, 726, AU 724. Druxst, Tig. 724. Brest, L. 92*, Sk. 7. 
1. Drosto, Tig. 768, AU. 671, 677. Latinised abl. Drusto, 
. 6. From *drut-t0'8, *drtU-tU'S, cogn. with W. drUd * audax, 
tis strenuus.' 

Drusticc daughter of *Dru8t rex Bretan,* Lib. Hymn. 4* {Ooide^ 
h P* ^6)* ^or the diminutival ending cf. O.W. enderie (gl. 

iub ' black' in Dub-Tholargg AU. 781. So in Dup-talaich, Sk. 
7, where p seems mis written for p, and Dub-loinges mac Trebuait, 



the name of a Pictish champion mentioned in LU. 88\ O.W. duhj 
Oom. dupf Ir. dub. 

Dumna (ElK)lemy'B ^ot>fipa\ an island N. of Orcas and south of 
^ the Orcades. 

Dumnonii, *^oufip6ptoi. So we should probably correct Ptolemy's 


Dun-bulcc, Eeeves, Culdees, p. 133. Dun-oalden, Sk. 8, 9. Dun- 

Nechtaio, AU. 685, Tig. 686, TF. 687, 'supposed to be Dun- 

-^ nichen in Forfarshire,' Rhys, £.B. 143. The d^n (an Irishism 

for din f) is=Ir. d^n ^ fortress,' W. din, Gaul, dunon, A.S. tun, 

Germ, ttaun. 

Dve-caledones, a division of the ancient Picts. Hence the adj. 
dve-caledonio-s, wKeavo^ KoKovfievo^ ^ovtjKoXrfSopio^f Ptol. Bhys, 
JSarly Britain 291, equates with dvS the Welsh dwff, Ir. di, the 
fem. form of the numeral two = Skr. dve. 
^ Ebuda {'EflovSa), Ptol. 

*£ctan, gen. Eactain, Tig. 724. Perhaps a scribe's mistake for 
Nectain, gen. of Nectan, q.v. 

Eden, oppidum, Sk. 10. 

elei, ilei, ile, see Derile. 

Elgfn, Orkn. Saga, now Elgin, cogn. with Elca or Elga, a name 
for Ireland, Trip. Life, p. 426, Ir. Nenn. p. 142, said to mean 
'noble,' ib. p. 143 n. The resemblance of 'EX^acov, the name of 
a city in -Lydia or Lycia, is probably accidental. 

Elpin, Elpine, see Alpin, Alpine. 

Emchat(us), Vita Col. p. 114*=Ir. Imm-chath, a Gaul. 
*Amhi'CatuSf which is perhaps the true form of Livy's Amhigatm. 

Enfidaig L. 92% corruptly Enfidaid, gen. sg. Ir. Nenn. 164 = 
Entifidich, 8k. 7. Nom. sg. En-fidach, see Fidach, infra. 

Enfret gen. sg. L. 92*, Sk. 7. Ir. Nenn. 164. Also spelU^ 
Anfrith, AU. 656, Anfrait, Ainfrith, Tig. 654, 657. Borrowed^ 
from A.S. JSanfrith ? 

fengus, Bk. of Deir, fo. 39*, an Irishism for Oengtut, Vhgust=^ 
O.W. Ungust, Lib. Land. 201, 1. 26. 

Epidioi ('Ett/iSio*), Ptol. Epidion {*Eirihiov)y perhaps from^ 

{p)ekvidioiy {p)ekvidionf cogn. with Ir. Uochaid, Lat. pecu, Goth^ 
faihuy Skr. pagu-s. 

Erp, Drust mac Erp, L. 92», Ir. Nenn. 160=Drust filius Erp, 
Sk. 6, but *fiHus Erip,' Sk. 6, 1. 25, 'filius Wirp,» Sk. 6, 1. 3U 
Nectan mor brec mac Erip, L. 92*. The name Crach-erpais, AU* 
701, may be cognate. 



Esky the name of two rivers in Fiotland, from *lBca = (in form) 
Ptolemy's "IffKa^ now the £xe. The initial p may have been lost, ^ 
and the name may mean * (flumen) piscosum.' So the O.W. river- 
name Uise IB, ace. to Mr. Phillimore, cogn. with Ir. iase * fish.' 

Etairt, gen. sg. C8. 651, Ethairt, AU. 653. 

Eten, gen. obsesio Etin, AU. 637. *' Cair-eden, now Garriden, 
a parish on the Forth, in Linlithgowshire," Beeves, Vita Col. p. 
202 n. 

Eu=/or0, infrd, the island now called lona, LU. IP, seems 
cogn. with It. eo-ma * barley ' = Skr. yava, Gr. tea, fem. Compare ^ 
Java and Ptolemy's 'la/iaSiov [t,e, ^lafaBiov] vrjao^. Compare also 
the island-name lir-ee^Tir'etha, Adamnan's JEthica insula. 

Euganan mac Oengusa, AU. 838. 

fahel (in Fsan fahel, Beda, H.E. i, 12), gen. sg. of */d^Ir. fdl, 
PM. 1586, p. 1846, O.W. ^uaul. (As e ainm in claid sin la 
Breatnachu, ^uaul, Ir. Nennius, p. 64.) From a primeval vdlo-n 
cogn. with Gr. F7f\o9 in apr^vp6Ffi\o9, Latin valltu, of which vallum 
is a collective. For the insertion of the h see Catoc, Tarain. 

Faich, gen. sg. name of the ancestor of a Pictish champion, LU. 
88*: cf. perhaps Fo^w-magi, Ptolemy's Ovaxofia^oi, O.W. Quoeeaun, 

Fecir, Ur-fecir, two of the thirty Brudes, Sk. 5. Possibly = W. 
gtvyehyr, gwychr ' alacer, strenuus.' 

feimn, see Luto feimn. cf. W. guemin * alder,' LL. 230, 1. 27. -^ 

feirt, in Apur-feirt, Sk. 6. ^ 

Feradach (Pheradach, Sk. 137) may represent an O.-Celt. 
VeriddeO'9, cogn. with W. gorwydd ^ horse/ Low-Lat. veredus, 
whence paraveredus=p/erd, 

Feroth, AU. 728, gen. Ferith, AU. 652, corruptly Ferich, Tig. 
653, W. Gueruduc, Lib. Land. 201, 1. 17. 

Fet, one of the thirty Brudes, Sk. 5 ; Ir. Nenn. 156, see also 
Ur-fet. Either cognate with Gaul, vitu in Fttudurum, now 
'Winterthur, or miswritten for feth, q.v. 

Feth .i. geis, BB. (Ir. Nenn. p. xcii), .i. ges, Ir. Nenn. p. xcv. 
Sk. 324. If gets, ges here be meant for gits * swan,' Feth may 
be=* W. gwydd * goose.' 

Fib, Ir. Neno. 50, 154, Sk. 4, son of Cruithne and an eponymous 
hero: comite de Fib <earl of Fife,' Bk. of Deir, fo. 39». Fif, 
Sk. 136. O.-Norse F\fi, Orkn. Saga. 

Fibaid, Sk. 4. Fidbaiid, Ir. Nenn. 154. Obscure. 

Fidach, Ir. Nenn. 50, 154, Sk. 4, son of Cruithne and an 



eponymous hero. Pidaich, ib. O.-W. Ouidaue^ Ouidoe, See En- 
fidach, supdi. 

File, gen. Bg., L. 92*=Fle, Jr. Nenn. 164. Ir.Jili 'poet,* cogn. 
with W. gweUd * to see.' 

Finchem, name of a Pictish queen, Sk. 185. An Irish FiiU* 
€hoem ? Fkn-choem ? 

PindoU cisime, a Pictish king of Ireland, Ir. Nenn. Izxii. The 
find v&s^vindo' in Yindo-gara {Omvlo'^apa) a iroX<9 of the Dunmonii, 
It, find ' white,' W. gwynn. As to oil see infra, p. 411. 

Pindgaine mac Deleroith, Tig. 7llaPinnguine filins Deileroith, 
ATI. 710. Mac Phindguini is now Maekinnon. 

Podresach, '*in P. id est in Claideom," Sk. 10. 

Foirchiu, Poircu: o crich [Cjath co Foirchiu, BB. 205* 13s=o 
crich Cat co Poircu, Ir. Nenn. 148, Sk. 43, ' from Caithness to the 
Forth,' as Mr. Macbain translates. 

Porchet, a man's name, Sk. 187. 

Porcus (from *ver-gU8tu-), inscr. of St. Vigeans, Hiibner, No. 212. 
Porous, Vita Col. p. 33. 

Portrenn, son of Cruithne, Sk. 4, Ir. Nenn. 50, an epon3rmoa8 
hero : gen. sg. of *Portriu = Verturio, AU. 692, 762, 819, 833, the 
country between the Tay and the Forth ; dat. i Fortrinn, AU. 
767 ; ace. Poirtrind, AU. 735 ; pi. dat. Fortreannoibh, TP. p. 58. 
The * Wertermorum ' of Sim. Dunelm. 934 is prob. a scribal error 
for Verturtonum (fines). Rhys compares Verterae and W. gwerthfr 

* fortification.' 

Pooth, gen. Pooith : ^c Tolairg* meio, Pooith regis Pictorum, 
Tig. 653 = mors . . . Tolairg mic Pooith, AU. 652. Gartnaith 
mac Poith, AU. 634 : mors Bruidi filii Poith, AU. 640. The 
Uuid of Sk. 28 is possibly = W. gunfdd, 

Pothad mac Brain, FM. 96 1 = Pothach (misspelling of Pothath?), 
Sk. 10, a Pictish bishop. Another Pothad, bp. of St. Andrews, 
died in 1093. 

Pother, foither, gen. sg. Obsessio Duin Poither, Pother, AU. 680, 
693 = Dun foeder, Sim. Dunelm. 934. Opidum Pother, Sk. 9. 
** Probably Dunottar in Kincardine," says Bishop Reeves, Fita Cd. 
377 n. This may be =fothtrf the nom. sg. of Ir./oithre .i. coillte 

* woods,' O'Cl. It is anglicised as Fetter and Father, ace. to Macbain. 

Pothreue, Sk. 136. Pothrif (Pothribe ?) was, according to 

^ Mr. Skene, following Dr. OTonor and the carelessly written MS., comhinei 
these two words, and gives us, as a Pictish name, Ectolairg. See his Chroniclei 
of the Picti and SeotSy pp. 71, 454. 


r. ReeTes (Culdees, 128), the S.W. half of the united connties of 
fe and Kinross. The Jr. fothirhe, Trip. Life, 82, 168, said to 
3an ' forest,' may be cognate. 

Fothnir-tabaicht, 8k. 8 = Fothiur-thabaicth ibid., now Ibrteviot^ ^ 
ieves, Columba, p. 377 n. Is it fuithir .i. fearann, O'Cl. ? 
Fotla, son of Cruithne, Ir. Nenn. 50, an eponymous hero, 
le spellings Foltlaid, Foltlaig^ Ir. Nenn. 154, and Floclaid, Sk. 

are corrupt. Identical with Fdtla, one of the names of Ireland, 
rip. Life, 426: glan-Fodla, EM. 1601, pp. 2288. Hence 
tbfolla, q.T. 

gaed, Guidid gaed brechach, Sk. 5=Guidedh Gaeth Breatnach, 
'. Nenn. 156=. Guidid gadbre, Sk. 25, 324. Ir. gaeth * wise ' ? or 
. W. Oaidan, Lib. Land. 117, 1. 18? 

gal, see Bern-gal. Br. gal * force, puissance,' in OtMudio^ etc. 
•. gal * bravery.' 

Galam cennaleph, L. 92*, Sk. 7, corruptly Galum cenamlapeh, 
*. Nenn. 162, Galan-arilith L. 92*, Galam-arbith, Ir. Nenn. 
32, Galanan erilich, Sk. 7. Por an Irish Galamh, see O'Curry's 
t8. Hateriah, etc. 447. 

Chint, Sk. 5, XJr-gant. See Grant. 

Gart, XJr-gart, two of the thirty Brudes, Sk. 5. Ir. gart 'head,' 
orm. m. W. garth ' cape,' ' headland.' 

Gartnait, Sk. 7, L. 92*. Ir. Nenn. 160, Bk. of Deir, iii. 
aniat, AU. 715, gen. sg. Gar[t]nait, Bk. of Deir, vi. Corruptly 
artnaidh, AU. 662, 687 ; Gartnaith, ATI. 634, Sk. 6 ; Gartnaich, 
k. 6; Garthnach, Sk. 7; Gartnart, Sk. 7; Gamard, Sk. 7; 
amait, AU. 669. A diminutive of gart ' head ' : cf. Irish forms 
ke B$ecna%tf BkUhnait, Frcnait, Oolmait, dadnaii, mdthamait. 
his name is Anglicised Garnet, 

Gsitnan, gen. Gartnain, AU. 634, another dimin. of gart * head.' 
f. Irish names like Adamndn^ Dadndn, Fladthndn, Zommndn, 
i0ikHdn, Luhndn^ Mencndn. 

Geide (gen. Geithi) oUgothach, Ir. Nenn. 154, IxxiiissGede 
Igudach, Sk. 5. 

Genunia, Fevovvia fioTpa, Pausanias, cited by Rhys, £.B. 89. 
damnan's Geonae . . . cohortis, Yita Columbae, i. 34**, may be a 
ribal error for Genonae. 

Gest, Sk. 5 for Gust ? Or is it cognate with O.-W. Gistin, Lib. 
and. 1771, 206, etc., and En-gist, Lib. Land. 217, L 4? 

Gilgidi, Sk. 5EBGidgie, Ir. Nenn. 158. Hopelessly corrupt. 
Giromy Giron gen. sg. L. 92*. Girom, Gtirum, Ir. Nenn. 162. 



Gyrom, Girom, Sk. 7. Possibly cognate with Tifpvwt^f Ir. ^dvr, ¥. 

Giudaa gen. sg. muir n-Giudan, the Firth of Forth, Bk. of 
Lecan cited in Reeves' Culdees, 124. Perhaps the ^ here is only a 
way of expressing the semi-vowel of ludeu, q.v. 

Glun-merach, Sk. 187. A nickname, qy. OMift^imerdc 'marrowy- 
knee,' W. mvrog, 

Gnith, one of the thirty Brudes, Sk. 5 : see Ur-gnithssO.-Br. 

Gobriat : ' flumen Gobriat in Pictavia,' Acta SS. Mart. torn. iL 
p. 449, cited by Dr. Beeves, Culdees, p. 45, note, where he identifies 
it with the Inver-Gowrie river, which nearly divides Gowrie in 
Perthshire from Angus or Forfar. 
4 Gouerin, Sk. 136, now Gowrie? 

Grant, XJr-grant, Sk. 324, two of the thirty Brudes. These 
names are (corruptly) Oant and Urgant in Sk. 5. Cf. the Irish 
adj. grant .i. each liath no findach, 'every grey or hairy one,' 
Gorm. s.v. Crontsaile. Conall Grant, AU. 717. 

Graupios, the mountain on which Agricola defeated Calgacos. 
J The root may be gruq^ whence also Gr. f^pihroi 'hooknosed, curved, 

^ Grid, one of the thirty Brudes, Sk. 5, and see Ur-giid infra. 

Here grid may be = 0.-Br. gred in Gred-canham^ Gred-uuohri^ 
Gred'Uuoconf Gred-uuoret. 

Gud, L. 92», Gud, Ir. Nenn. 158, corruptly Gub, ib. 124, 
name of a Pictish king of Alba, cognate perhaps with Ir. GdideU 

Gudid, Guidid, Sk. 5, 25, Guidedh, Ir. Nenn. 156. Obscure. 

gurcich, Sk. 5, where Geat gurcich seems = the Geaseuirti of Ir. 
Nenn. 156. Hopelessly corrupt. 

gurthinmoch, Sk. 7, gurthimoth, Brest g. L. 92*, -guitimoth 
Ir. Nenn. 162. The gurth may be = W. gwrdd 'fortis, robustus, 
strenuus,' and the inmoch may be = Com. envoeh (gl. facies), the 
Irish scribe writing (infected) m for v, as in Catmolodor and S%mQl> 

Hii * insula quae uocatur Hii,' Beda H.E. iii. 3, v. 15, v. 22, 

now called lona. No conuexioD with Eu, lova, 0'Cler3^s /.L Iseal 

V ' low,' / .i. inis * island,' seem mere guesses. Is the h from p^ as 

in O.Ir. haue, hiut = 7rai9 and MMu cogn. with Tliepta ? If so, we 

might connect Mi with Lat. pius (from *pM-t-»o») and pu-ttu. 

g Hilef, a river, Sk. 136. Etym. obscure. 

Hinba, name of an island, Vita Col. p. 46*. Hinbina, insula, ibid. 
"^ p. 26*. Etym. obscure. 



lambodb (=.*l8amo-bodvo-8), gen. loscoth lamboidbb mic Gart- 
liaith, AU. 642, corruptly lamduidby Tig. 643, and perhaps Ythern^ 
hmthih^ Sk. 187. Here tarn is = 0.-lr. wm, Corn. iVifTi-, O.-Br. 
Jhrn-f hoiam, from eisamO' * iron,' G.C.* 106, which helps to form 
numberless Celtic names, e.g. Gaul. IsamO'dori (i.e. ferrei ostei) 
It, Jaman, W. Haem-g^n^ Com. lam-wallon, 0.-£r. lam-bidoe^ 
'^hud, -eant, -ear, etc. 

Ila, a river, Ptolemy's "IXa. Cogn. with O.H.G. Um, now eilen ? 
Im mac Permn, Ir. Nenn. 142»Imm mac Pirn, Sk. 328. 
A Gaulish *AmhiO'8y compounded in Amhio-rtx. 

inbocc in Gurth-inmoch. Here the prefix tn- is = Com. m-, 
It, in* (in in-chinn), ogmic ini in inigina * daughter/ Gaul, enif in 
£nignu9, C.I.L. iii. 3784, 3793. Gr. ivl, Lat. in-. 

logenan(us), Yita Col. p. 60* (Reeves, p. 117) = Ir. Euganan, 
AU. 659, 676, 691. Dimin. of £ogm=^ Ougen infra. 

Ibva, Vita Col. passim, the island now called lona from mis- 
Teading ti as n. Bee £u, supra, 
ior, see Achiuir. 

Ipeuoret, inscr. of St. Yigeans, Hiibner, No. 212. Ehys com- 
pares the Gaulish Amh%var$toB, For p from mh, cf . O.-W. *leipio, 
now lleihio, £r. lippat, and O.-W. ^helip, now hefyh in eiff-helyh^ 
Khys, Rev. Celt. ii. 191-192. 

Ithaman, Tig. 669, Itarnan, AU. 668. This may be a dimin. 
of *t^am=Ir. iihama ' a torch,' cogn. with Com. itheu 
(gl. titio), £r. eUoj and the Irish saint's name It/iarnatsc, Felire, 
Dec. 22. 

Itis {*lri9), name of a river, Ptol. t-ti'S, root i whence Lat. i-re, 
Gr. Uvatf O.-Slav. iti, Lith. eiii * to go.' 

ludeu, a city, Nennius § 64, possibly =B8eda's Urbs Oiudi. Moni 
Ittdeorum, Rhys, E.B. 226. See Guidan supra, p. 406. 

laib : de rege Cruithniorum qui Echodius laib uocitabatur, 
Vita Columbae, p. 18^: mors Eugain mic Echach laibh, 
AU. 610. A nickname possibly identical with Ir. laoibh in 
laoihh^i .i. r{ claon no leathronnach, O'Cl., which seems a loan 
from Lat. laevus. An Irish man's name Laehdn occurs^ Trip, 
life, 266. 

Land-abae, AU. 675, identified by Skene with Lundaff in 
Perthshire. O.-W. lann^ now llan, Ir. land. 

Lemannonios {^Aefiawovio^ koXtto^^ Ptol.), supposed to be Loch 
LeOy Sk. 5, one of the thirty Brudes: see Mor-l^o, Ur-leo. 




Prof. Bezzenberger snggests) come from ^eandO', ^emti'to't 
be cognate with Lat. eandidu», 

Moreb, Sk. 10, Muref, Sk. 136, gen. Mnrebe, ATI. 1032, now 
Moray. A similar word occurs as the name of an Old- Welsh 
witness in Lib. Land. 199, I. 3. The Morhafi^ Marhmfi of tb 
Orkn. Saga seems to rest on a popular etymology. 

mor-glas, sea-green"^ 'arbor pomifera,' Sk. 416. 

Mor-leo, L. 92», Morleo, Sk. 6=W. Mor-Uu * sea-lion,' tiie 
name of a witness in Lib. Land. 193, 195. 

Mouren, Muren, name of a daughter of a Pictish king, Sk. 185, 
1 87. A scribal error for Moruen= W. Morwen [ex ♦Mori-gena ?] the 
name of the foster-mother of Meriadocus. Ward's Catalogue, L S74. 

Mucc-ross, nomen loci, ''in terra Pictorum, ad locum qui 
Muehros fuerat nuncupatus, nunc autem Kylrimoni dictus, nocte 
Sancti Michaelis, applicuerunt. Muchroa vero nemus porconm 
dicitur," Legend of S. An(kew, Sk. 185. Here Mwh^rou (rectios 
Mucc-ross) is^sW. moeh-roa (gl. locus porcorum), Lib. Land. 77, 
1. 15. There is also an Irish muee-roMf now the name of an abbey 
in Kerry. The first element muee occurs also in Ifnk$»dnmi 
Beeves, Culdees, p. 133, and with ch from ce in Mbch^anf supra. 

Munait, Sk. 7, 1. 12=Munaith, gen. sg. L. 92*. 

Mund, Urmund, two of the thirty Brudes, Sk. 5 : cf. Lat. 
tnundus? or O.N. mundr, the latter element of many compoond 
names like Asmundr ? 

Muriel, Forbes's Kalendars, p. 407==:Ir. Mutryel, C8. 882, AU. 

Mur-tolic, gen. sg. Ir. Nenn. 162=Murtholoic, L. 92». Corruptly 
Muircholaich, Sk. 7. Perhaps the nom. sg. w&s murtalde 'great- 
browed : ' mur from mdr, mdr ; taldc derived from tal * brow.* 

Nabaros (Na/3a/)os), name of a river, Ptol. 

Nairan, Sk. 9, where it is misspelt Nrurim, 

namet ' albus,' an epithet of Vipoig infra. Cognate with the 
Gaulish Ad-nametos in an inscription at Bourdeaux : I)(is) M(aDibas) 
Cl(audiae) Mat(emae) Adnameti f(iliae), JuUian, No. 102, p. 
231, 232. 

Necton, Tig. 717, Sk. 6, Necthon, Sk. 7, Nechtan, Tig. 726, 
732, AU. 620, Ir. Nenn. 120, Nectan, L. 92*, N^ctan, Bk. of Deir, 
iii. Nechtain, Tig. 728, Ir. Nenn. 130, Nectu, Necthon, Sk. 7: 
gen. Nectin, AU. 692. Latinised Nectano rege, AU. 716, Nectonius, 
L. 92», Sk. 6, Naiton, Beda, H.E. v. 21, O.-Br. Naitan, for *Neitban. 
Nechtain occurs in BB. 148% 24 (Skene, 309), as the name of a 



iah Gael, and a compound name Necbt-lecc occurs, ATI. 689. 
I neeht .i. glan * pure,' * clean,* Conn. s.v. Cruithnecht. 
T : gen. sg. dormitatio Nectain Neir, ATI. 678 (cf . Nechtan 
de Alba, E61. Jan. 8). Quies . . . TJinei abatis Neir, 

«, fluvium . . . Nesam, Vita Columbae, p. 74*, Nisae fluminis, y 
From ^nes-ta, *ned-ta, cognate witb ffdBa and Skr. nadl 


)thige, Apur-netbige, for ♦Ne^ige, gen. sg. of *Ne^ec ? 

daari, * ad terram Pictorum quae Niduari vocatur, navigando y 

jnit,' Beda, Vita S. Cutbberti, c. xi. 

jhel, Sliab n-Ocbel, * tbe Ocbil Hills,' Bk. of Lecan, 43*, 2, 

in Reeves* Cvldees, p. 124, note. W. uehel ^bigb, lofty,' Ir. 
P, Gkral. uxeUo'9, 

mbecan (misspelt Cenbecan), Sk. 5, Aenbeagan mac Gaitt, 
9'enn. 50, Oenbegan, ib. 154, Onbecan, ib. xciv. 

Oengus Pictorum rex, Beda, H.E. v. 24. Aengus, Ir. Nenn. 

ISO, Hungus, Sk. 188=Com. Uhgust, Rev. Gelt. i. 345, a 
leval Geltic Oinogwtu-s. 

Oengus tbe territory now called Angus, or Forfar, gen. mor- ^ 
' Oengusa, Sk. 9. Gorruptly Enegus, Sk. 136. 
ith, Gartnaitb mac Oith, ATI. 634. From Octo- f Octa f cf. 
a-wi-rapov ixpovy Ptol. W. oeth 'barsh.' Or is it for t>i^=3 

l=iro\\o9, see* OU-fiacba, 011-finecbta, oll-gotbacb. Find-oil, 

L-oll. Tbe Gaulisb reflex of oil may be in Ollo-vtco. 

Uam, gen. OUaman, name of a Pictisb king of Ireland, Ir. 

n. Ixxii, tbe title for tbe bead of any art or science. 

U-fiacba, one of tbe Pictisb Kings of Ireland, Ir. Nenn. Ixxiii. 

U-finacbta, Ir. Nenn. 154=01flnecta, Sk. 5, see Ailill oUfin- 


I-gotbacb, ffreaUvoieedf Ir. Nenn. 154, Ixxiii, olgudacb, Sk. 5. 

mmon, name of an island in Vita Golumbae, p. 37*, may be ^ 

at. umbo, umhofiM, and cogn. witb o/uxpaXov, 

nbecan for XJnbeccan, see Oenbecan. 

Onbest, Onbes, f. Urgurt, Ir. Nenn. 164 = 0nnist [leg. Onuist?] 

A TJrguist, Sk. 7. = Onui8 f. Urguist, L. 92*. Talorgen filius 

list^ Sk. 7 = Talorcen filius Omuist, L. 92*=Talorcen f. Onust, 

Nenn. 164. 

iTcaa ('0/>ico«), a promontory, Orcades (*0/>ica5€«), 'tbe Orkneys,' 

.681, where Ptolemy's -aBev is probably due to the analogy of 



KvK\ad€9, y,wopd^€s. Bellum for Orcaib, AU. 708. fecht Ore, 
AU. 579. The are seems cogDate with Ir. or^ssLat. porcHs, Gr. 
ir6pK09f O.H.G. farah. 

Ord, see Deo-ord. Cognate with Ordous, BEiibner 116, Ordo- 
viee8, O.-W. and Ir. ord * malleus/ Br. orz, 

Orrea {"Oppeajy the town of the Venicones, Ptol. 

Ougen rex Pictomm, Ann. Cambr. 736 = Uven, Sk. 8. Oan 
princeps Ego, AU. 724, O.-W. Oueiuy Lib. Land. 214. Ou^tmt 
Ouguein, Lives, 30, 81. Ir. Uugan, Eogan, From *Avigeno9. 

pant, 8k. 5 and see TJr-pant. From *qvnto- = Ir. Cit (mac 
Magach), and possibly cognate with Lith. nwentai, O.-Slav. m/i, 
Zend spehta 'holy,' Skr. gvdtra 'offering.' Corruptly bout, Sk. 5, 
pante, Ir. Nenn. 156. 

pean (for penn), in Fean fahel : '' Incipit an tern duorum feme 
milium spatio a Monasterio Aebbercumig ad occidentem, in loco 
qui sermone Pictorum Pean-fahel, lingua autem Anglorum Pen- 
neltun appellatur, et tendens contra occidentem terminatur iuxta 
urbem Alcluith," Beda, H.E. i. 12. Here penn ^W, penn, Ir. cenn^ 
'head,' 'end,' urkelt. ^qvendo-e. Also in Pen-ieuick. 

Pern : Im mac Permn, Ir. Nenn. 142 = Imm mac Pirn, Sk. 328. 
An Old-Celtic *Qvem0'9 : cf. Ir. cern 'victory' (do cemaib .i. do 
buadaib no do gnimaib, Amra Conroi), whence Cemaeh ' victorious,' 
AU. 700 (0. Norse I^'amakr), and the name Cemaehdn, 

perr, peir, see diuperr supra. 

Perth = W. perth ^rubus, dumus,' Ir. ecairt, urkelt. sqtterto't 
eqtiarti-. Or is it = 0. -Bret, pert in P^r^-uuocon? 

pett ' a portion of land,* anglicised Pit, gen. pette, Bk. of Deir, 
i. ace. pett, ib. ii. pet, ib. iii. dat. pett, ib. ii. W. peth, Ir. cuii 
'portion,' urkelt. *guettiy Thurneysen, Keltorom, 71. From a 
prehistoric Pictish petti the Icelanders borrowed their petti * a 
small piece of a field.' 

♦Rfg-mone^, gen. ♦Rig-moni^, Eigh-monaigh, Tig. 747, Cin" 
rigmonai, AU. 746, are corrupt Middle-Irish spellings. The 
Righmonaidh of FM. 742 is better. Erat autem regia urbs Rymont 
Regius Mons dicta, quern praefatus Rex Hungus Deo et sancto 
apostolo dedit, Sk. 188. Kel-rimoneth, Sk. 202. Still preserved 
in East and West Bal-rywowM, two high grounds in the southern 
part of the parish of S. Andrews (Reeves). The Monedorigi of 
Hiibner, 128, has the same elements in converse order j cf. 
Ptolemy's ^Pi'^o-Bovpov, 

ross, see Mucc-ross, Calat-ross, Culcnn-ros. The JRoss (Kos, Sk. 


136) in i2oM-8hire is the £os of the Orkn. Saga. In Ireland Hoes, 
gen. EoIb, ATI. 815, the name of a district in co. Monaghan, 
israW. rhds 'plaoities irrigua.' The same word is in Ard-ross 
part of Perth. 

Riiy L. 92*. Ra, one of the thirty Bmdes, Sk. 5. Ir. Nenn. 
160. Ru, Sk. 6, and see Ur-ru (MS. eru). Either = Com. ruy 
(gl. rex), or a scribal error for Ran=0.-W. Run. 

Rumrn, gen. Ruimm, ATI. 676, the lozenge-shaped island west ^ 
of Sleat Point in Skye, identical with Or. pvfifio9, pofifio^. 

Scetis (E*tolemy's Skv^tiV), the wing-shaped Isle oi Skye^ Norse 
8kk^, Ir. Seiif dat. sg. AU. 700, latinised 8eia by Adamn^n, gen. ^ 
8o6th, AU. 667-=Scith, Tig. 668, means < wing/ Ir. iciath, sciathdn. 

Scoan, civitas, Sk. 9, now Scone. ^ 

Bcollofthes, ' clericiqui Pictorum lingua cognominantur/ Reginald. 
Dunelm. de Cuthberti Virtt. p. 179, cited by Reeves, Coktmba, 
p. 63 note. This is no Pictish word. It is a corrupt loan from 
Lat. uholasticus, whence Com. seolhete^ W. y^golhaig. 

Simal, Tig. 725, Simul, AU. 724. If m be here written for v, 
as it certainly is in Cat-molodor^ cf. W. JSiyuel, an Old-Celtio *8u' 
ukhif where the prefix su- is=Ir. mi-, w-, Skr. mi-. 

Slan-oU, one of the Pictish Kings of Ireland, Ir. Nenn. Ixxiii. 

smerach, in Glunmerach, q.v. Cognate with Ir. tmir * marrow.' 

Smertae (S;t6/>Tai), Ptol. cf. the Gaulish iSn^r^ti-litanos, Ad- 
imeriot, etc. 

Solen, Ir. Nenn. 120, 130, 138. Possibly =0.-W. Sulyen, Sulten. 

8pe, Sk. 136, now the Spey. Supposed to be Ptolemy's Thesis ; 
but it points to an Urkelt. squSas, cognate with Ir. sciim * vomo,' 
W. ehwyd 'a vomit.' For the connexion of ideas cf. Pliny's 
Vomanus a river of Picenum. The river name Spean may be a 
dimin. of Sps, 

srath, strath, srad, strad in Sratho Ethairt, gen. sg. AU. 653, 
but Sraith Cairuin [or Cairiun], AU. 641. Srad-esm [leg.-^^], "" 
3k. 136, Strad'kines, Reeves, Ctddees^ pp. 109, 111. Strath-ersn^ 
ibid. 113. Cognate with Ir. srathy W. y strad. 
tabacht, see Fothuir-tabaicht. 

Taexali {TaifaXoi), Ptol. 

talach, toloc in Dup-talaich, Nach-talich, Sk. 187, mur-toloc 
nipra. Cf. W. talawg 'high-fronted, bold-faced.' 

Tal-orgg, AU. 686, 733. Tal-orc, Tig. 731, L. 92\ Thalarg, 
5k. 187 and L. 92*. Talorg, L. 92». Tol-arg, Tig. 713, 734. Tol- 
ugg, AU. 712. Tolar[g], Tig. 786, gen. Tolairg, Tig. 653, AU. 

no. Ttaai. 1888-90. 28 


652 = Taloiro ('Baitanus gente nepos Niath Taloiro') Vita Col. 
p. 25^ corruptly Talore, Sk. 6, 7. This is the Pictish reflex of the 
Gaulish Arg%o4alu9 * bright-browed/ Eev. Celt. iii. 157. Com- 
pound : Dub-tholarg. 

Tal-orggan, AU. 725, 733, 736, 738. Talorgen, Sk. 7. Talorcan, 
L. 92». Talorcen, Sk. 7, L, 92». Tol-orcain, Tig. 657. Tol-arcan, 
Tig. 739. Tol-argan, Tig. 750, AU. 656. Gen. sg. mow 
Tolorggain, AI. 610. Tal-argan, Ann. Cambr. 750. A diminutive 
of Talorgg, q.v. 

Tamia {Ta/nt'a), Ftol., a town of the Yacomagi. 

*Tana. Thana filius Dudabrach [leg. Dubabrath ?] scripsit regi 
Pherath filio Bergeth in villa Migdele, Sk. 188. Ir. tana, W. teneu^ 
Lat. tenuis, Gr. rava69, 

Tarachin, Tig. 697, AU. 696, for Tarahin (of. Catohio, fahel), 
Tarain, AU. 698, L. 92* (misprinted Taram in Ir, Nmniui\ 
Tharain, Sk. 6. Latinised ace. sg. Tarainum^ Vita Columbae, 
p. 71* (ed. Reeves, p. 134), urkelt. *Taranjo-s? 

Taran mac Enfidaig, L. 92* := Taran filius Entifidich, Sk. 7, 
Glunmerach filii (leg. Alius) Taran, Sk. 187. Gaul. TaranU. V. 
taran * thunder.* 

Tar-vedum, a promontory, Ptolemy's TapoveSovfi. 

Tava, Ptolemy's Taova, Tau the river Tat/, Reeves' ColumbUi 
316, where this form is cited from an A.-S. tract in Hickes. {Tau 
Lib. Land. 74), Tae, Sk. 136. The gen. sg. in LU. 8^ 14^ 
^ LH. 26» 1 : LB. 240», is T6i (ic ardrig Toi, do lucht Toi, tuatha 

Toi), dat. m, LU. 14^ ace. im Thai, LU. 8*, LH. 26» 1. Gluck 
conuects W. taw * quietus, tranquillus,' and the Gaulish Tavia, 
Tavium, and the woman's name Tavena, 

Tolartach, mac Anfrait rig Cruithne, Tig. 654. 

toloc, see Murtolie. 

♦Total, Hibemicised Tuathal, AU. 864, TF. 869, is=W. TtUgml, 
Ann. Camb. x. Tiidwal : cf . O.-Br. Clut-uuaL Hence the diminutive 
Totalan, Tig. 653, gen. Totholain, AU. 652 = Ir. Tmthaldn, 

Trebuait, name of a Pictish champion, LU. 88*. The tn- w 
probably an intensive prefix=W. tre-^ (ri-, Ir. tri-, Old-Celtic H 
as in 2Vi-novante8j JVi-cassiniy etc. 

tren, see Luchtren, Lug-threni. 

Tui gen. sg. L. 92^, Ir. Nenn. 158, is=Diu, Sk. 6. 

Tulaaman, AU. 865. The context is ** Bellum duin nechtain 
... in quo etfrith . . . interfectus est et combusit tula aman duin 
ollaig *' ; and the Editor cannot say ** whether tula aman is 



;he name of a person or a term for some fiery element." It seems 
» be a man's name, derived from tulahamay an epithet following 
OonUf snpra. For aa=^dy cf. g^iaany Otho E. ziii. 

tnlig in Tulig-botuan, Sk. 418. Tulig-cultrin, Sk. 419, seems = ^ 
in oblique case of Ir. tulaoh ' bill,' cogn. with Gr. yvXri, tvKoh. 

Tnrbroad gen. sg. Bk. of Deir, iii. Turbruaid, ib. yi. dat. . 
rurbrad, ib. fo. 39*, now Turriff, cf. rex Turbi, AU. 902. 

Tvesis, a river, Ptolemy's Tov6<riv. Etym. obscure. ^ 

TJasnem (Uaisneimb, Huaisneam, corruptly Huaisem, Ir. N^nn. 
124, 142), the poet of the Ficts. The uob- (an Irishism for «#- ?) 
nay be an intensive prefix : cf. Us-con-bust ? The nem cogn. with 
[r. teM-nem ' light,' tait-iMmo^A ' shining,' and N$m mac hui Bim, 
ITJ. 653. See namet supra. 

XJerb gen. sg. L. 92», Uerp, Ir. Nenn. 162 (corruptly XTerd, 
3k. 7), Gaul. FJfr^i-genos. ' » 

uetla, Uuradech uetla, L. 92» = Wradech uecla, Sk. 6 =s Ferdach 
fyngal, Sk. 149, corruptly Stradach fingel, Sk. 200, where the Ir. 
higal ' parricide ' seems intended. 

Uidnuist, L. 92^ Uidnust, Ir. Nenn. 166. Here Uid for ITuid, 
iSssO.-W. guid in Chtid-lon^ Ouid-nerth. 

XJip, one of the thirty Brudes, Sk. 5 ; and see XJr-uip. Cf. the 
Skulish FepOy Feponiaf Fifpo-s (C.I.L. xii. 2623), Vepo-multUf 
Vipiut (C.I.L. xii. 2590), if the i (f ) be long : cf . also O.-Slav. 
9^ * kraft,' Lit. w6hd 'kraft,' lit. vikriis [Ir. Fiachra^ 'lebhaft.' 

XJipoig namet, Sk. 6 = Uipo ignaiuet, L, 92^ Uipo ignauit, 
Ir. Nenn. laO^Fiacua albus, Sk. 149, Fiacha albus, Sk. 172, 
Piachna le blank, Sk. 200. With XJipoig cf. the Ir. ace. sg. 
Fiachaig? As to namet see above, p. 410. 

irirolec(us), Ftta Colunibae^ p. 114*. Etym. obscure. 

TJist, L. 92*, Sk. 6, Ir. Nenn. 160. The Uist (gen. sg.) 
nentioned in AU. 668, and the Gall-uist (gen. sg.) mentioned in 
lU. 705, may have been Picts. 

TJlpha, Ir. Nenn. 130. TJlfa, ib. 120, 138. 

TJnen filius XJnuist, L. 92*. A scribe's mistake for XJven ? 

TJnest, Ir. Nenn. 166 == Unuist, L. 92». 

TJngust = Unust, Sim. Dunelm. 759, 759, Hungns, Sk. 183, 
187 =3 Oengus. 

Unuist, Sk. 8, gen. sg. L. 92*, Sk. 8. See Onbest. 

ur, a firefix in Ur-cal, Ur-cinid, Ur-cint, Ur-f ecir, Ur-fet, Ur-grant, 
[Jr-gnith, Ur-grid, Ur-leo, Ur mund [==Ur-mum, L. 92», Ur-main, 
[r. Nenn, 158], Ur-pant, Ur-uip, names of twelve of the thirty 


Brudes. This prefix (= the Old-Pictish v&T' in Ptolemy's Ver- 
vedrum, Ver-uhium^ Gaul, ver-t Gr. inrep-) is used in the list of 
Brudes like the Old- Welsh yiior-, ^ur-, in ''map Gein, map 
Guor-cein, map Doli, map Guor-doli, map Dumn, map Gur-dtmm," 
Harl. 3859, fo. 193^ 1. 

. XJs-con-bust, L. 92*, misspelt TJsconbuts, Sk. 6, Usconbert, Ir. 
Nenn. 158. Br. tM, W. ueh, 2^o-pilli, Uxa-consLf Itin. Anton, ed. 
Parthey, p. 224. Or is tM for uat ? 

uualatr, see Catmolodor. 

Uudrost, Sk. 7, printed Wdrost, corresponds with Budros, L. 92», 
Ir. Nenn. 162, and (as Mr. Egerton Phillimore thinks) the W. 
gwedros{t) in Caerwedroij Carmarthenshire. 

Uuen, Sk. 8. Unen, Ir. Nenn. 166. 

XJuid, L. 92», Sk. 7, gen. sg. of Uued » r«fo-(mavi), Hubner 
71^ Or is it W. gwydd * ferus,' Br. pwez ? 

XJuirguist (printed Wirguist) gen. sg. Sk. 7. 

XJuirp gen. sg. Sk. 6, 1. 31. 

Uurad, Wrad, filius Bargoit, L. 92*, Sk. 8. 

XJuradech uetla, L. 92* = Wradech uecla, Sk. 6. Uuredeg gen. 
sg. L. 92*. luuredeg, Ir. Nenn. 164. Uuradech L. 92*=TJuredech 
(printed Wredech). Sk. 7 = Ir. Feradaeh? 

Uurgest, spelt Wurgest, Sk. 5 = Fergustus, Mansi Concilia yiii. 
109, cited by Forbes, KalendarB, p. 338. Uurguist, Wrguist, gen. 
sg. L. 92», Sk. 8. Urguist gen. sg. L. 92», Sk. 7=0.-W. Gurgwi, 
Harl. 3859, fo. 1 94*, 1 . Ir. Fergus, The *' Fergussan mac Maelcon," 
whose obit is given in AU. 702, was probably a Pict, *Uui^8tan. 

XJuroid gen. sg. L. 92*, Sk. 7. 

Uurthrost, printed Wrthrosst, Sk. 187. Perhaps TJur-^rost. 

Uuthoil, gen. sg. L. 92*, Sk. 8, Ir. Nenn. 166. nom., perhaps, 
Vodd or Vodval, Forbes, Kalendars, p. 459. 

Vaco-magi {Ovaico^r^oi)^ Ptol. 

Varar (Ptolemy's Ovapdp), the Moray Frith, now represented 
by the river Farrar. 

Venicones {Oveviicivve^)^ Ptol. 

Ver-ubion, Ptolemy's Ovepovfiiovfi uxpov, Cf. perhaps Ir. «i^ 
* sword-point.' 

Ver-vedron, Ptolemy's OvepoveBpov/u. elxpop. Cf. perhaps O.-Slar. 
vedrii * heiter.' 

Vola, Volsa ? (OvoXa, Ovokaa ?), name of a river, PtoL 

The foregoing list of names and other words contains much 


^hat is still obscure ; but on the whole it shows that Pictish, 
90 far as regards its vocabulary, is an Indo-European and 
specially Celtic speech.^ Its phonetics, so far as we can 
ascertain them, resemble those of Welsh rather than of Irish. 

Vowels : the umlaut of by lis ^ : Elphin ; the breaking of t by 
3 is : Esk ; the umlaut of long d is ahe in pean-fahel ; the umlaut of 
long 6 is ohi in Catohie ; long d becomes 6 : Catde ; long H becomes 
f: Bridei. 

Diphthongs : 01 remains, Tarain, or becomes oi, Cini^oP^^ croihh : 
n becomes oe in Beda's OmptM, but u in 27n-gust and muthill: mi, 
Ml become (<5?) in Totalan, OehiL 

Semivowels: a dental is developed before y, in mone^y 
manith=W. mynyddy but Ir. miiintf; initial to (from v) either 
remains as in ur-, iitiirf, or becomes /as in fahel, Fortrenn, 

Consonants: e between vowels remains, Btceot, Catohie; et be* 
Domes ihy developing a diphthong, Nation (for *Neithdn), 0%th\ 
9€ remains : hrece, brace, muee ; ei becomes eh^ Ochil=W, uehel, but 
Ir. uasal, or «, developing a diphthong, eois; qv becomes p^ pean, 
ftitf Perth, Pern ; 

g between vowels remains : Ougen, or becomes a semivowel, 
Muriel ; -gl- becomes -«7, -el- in jra«/rAoit=Maglo-cuno8 ; rg, Tol- 
org, becomes rgg or re, Talorgg, Taloree, Forctu: Ic remains, hole\ 

i between vowels remains, Catohie, Fetter : rt remains, art, gart, 
yrgart, eartit : tt remains, eatt, pett ; tr becomes dr, Cattnolodor. 

n is kept before t, as in pant, grant, eint, Moreunty or the t 
18 assimilated : Morgunn, gen. Morgainn ; 

Indo-European p is lost, Eek, oil, Oreadee, ur, 

lb becomes Ip, Alpin, and the p is then infected, Elphin. 

1 Prof. Rhjv, in the Scottish Review for July, 1890, p. 38, asserts that « both 
Ifacbeth and Maelbeth were real names current .... in the land of the 
aorthem Picts," and seems to suppose, p. 391, that *beth ' is a non-Celtic word 
meaning '*lionnd.'' I have not inserted these names in the foregoing list of 
Pictish Tocables. For ** Macbeth" is a recent corruption of the Oaehc 
Mae bead (Book of Deir, iii. ▼}, earlier Mae brthad, AU. 1041, 1058, which 
means literally * son of Jiife ' {i.e. a religious person), belhad being s Qr. fiiimfros. 
And '* Maelbeth " is a Tery recent corruption of the Irish Mael bet had * tonsured 
(senrant) of Life,' spelt Maolbethndh in FM. a.d. 944. An antithetical ex- 
pression is mae bdie * son of death,' i.e. a malefactor or wicked person, FM. 1 600, 
p. 2218. the filius perditionis of 2 Thes. ii. 3. The ** Maelbaethe" (rectius 
Mselbaefhe or MealbsealSe), which Skene cites from the Saxon Chronicle, a.d. 
1031, is Mael-Boethi '^serrus Boetii,*' a weU-known saint, bishop of Monaster- 
boice, CO. Louth. 


initial s remains, Si-mal : vowel-flanked s disappears, lam-hoHf 
Glun-merach : st remains, Drustf UnguBt^ Uurgeii, 

Traces of declension are perhaps in Aehiuir, fahel^ CatohiCi 
CanonUf Cinedon, Cinadhan (leg. Cinioi^on), Manann. 

Diminutives in -dn {Accidan^ Drostan, Fiachan^ logenan, Ithaman^ 
Moehan, Nectariy Tahrggan^ Totalan) ; -nan ( Oartnan) ; -nait 
( Oartnait) \ -ice {Drustiec), 

Numerals : om or «n, dv^. 

Prefixes: ar^ aU^ at (in apor = (U-bor), em, en-, in-, #»-, w-, 
uu, vdT', uur-. 

V. I. Old-Norse Names and other Words. 

Intercourse between the Irish and the Scandinavians began 
in 795 (when the Yikings made their first attack on Ireland) 
and continued for about four hundred years. As the Irish 
certainly wrote annals in the ninth and tenth centuries, 
and as the oldest Old-Norse manuscript dates from the 
end of the eleventh century (Paul's Orundriss, i. 426), we 
may expect that some light will be thrown on primaeTal 
northern speech from the Scandinavian names preserved 
in the Annals, as well as from the Scandinavian words 
borrowed by the Irish. In this expectation we shall not 
be wholly disappointed, though as sources for Ur-nordisch 
the Irish documents are not to be named with the runic 
inscriptions, or with the loan-words in Finnish, Lappish,^ 
Russian, and English. Compare: — 



Aleifr, Olafr 

Barith, Barid 



elta, erell 


hjalt, jarl 




In-fuit, In-scoa 


I-hvitr, f-skoa 










Tomrair, Tomrir 



> See Thomsen, Ueber dm Ei»Jlu*s der germanuchem Spraeken mtf 0* 
Finmsch'iappiseh^n, Halle, 1870. 


In Amlaib, Imar, Tomrair, Tanirir, the m merely indicates 
the nasality of the preceding vowel. 

In the following list I have inserted, for sake of com- 
pleteness and comparison, the Scandinavian names and other 
v^ords which occur in the Cogadh Gaedhel re OaHaibh, ed. 
Todd, Dublin, 1867, and in the Book of Leinster, pp. 172*, 
309*-310^ of the facsimile. The former work is denoted 
by CQQ. : the latter by LL. The runic forms I have 
got from Paul's Grundrisa der germanUchen PhilologU and 
Noreen's Altisldndiache und Alinordische Orammatik. 

Accolbh, FM. 928. *HdWJr, The last syllable is certainly 
Ufr, Dr. Euno Meyer thinks that the first is perhaps hdhr in maU 
hdkr 'glutton,' ard-hdkr 'foul mouth.' 

Albdan, TF. p. 159, Albdon, LL. 25*, Albdann, FM. 924, 
Alpthann, AU. 925, corruptly Albann, Alband, AU. 874, 876. 
loel. Halfdan. 

Amand, Pol mac Amaind, FM. 1103, p. 974, ATI. 1103. Amend 
mac Duibginn, CGG. 206. Icel. Amundi? Mdmundr? 

Amlaidhi, TF. 222, Icel. Amld'Si. Saxo's AmUthua, Shakspere's 

Amhlaeibh, FM. 851, 904, 943, 1027, etc. Amlaim, Tig. 997, 
980, Amlaiph, ATI. 856, 863, 865, 869, Amlaiph, AU. 870, 
imhlaim, AU. 976, Amlaib hua luscoa rig Lochlanit, LL. 172% 2 ; 
= Alaib, ibid. 172*, 17. gen. Amlaim, AU. 866. Icel. O'ldfr. 
Mac Amhiaoibh is now MaeAtdiffe, 

Anlaff, FM. 938 = the Afddf of the Saxon Chronicle, immediately 
brom *Anleifr. 

Anrath mac £lbric, CGG. p. 164. 

Aralt, Tig. 989, FM. 938, 998« mac Aralt, AU. 986, mao 
Irailt, AU. 988. Norse Haraldr. 

Asgall, FM. 1170, Norse AagelL Mac Asgaill is now McCaskil. 

Aufer, FM. 924. Norse Afvir^r^ Icel. Auvir^rt A.S. afwyrd. 

Auisle, AU. 862, 865, Ausli, AU. 882, Oisli, LL. 310*, 46, 
Oisle, TF. 866. UaUsi, FM. 861 = IceL auvuU 'devastation,' 

Budbarr, Baethbarr, CGG. 24, 32. Icel. BiPSvarr, from *Ba^U' 

Barith, TF. 873, AU. 880, FM. 878, 935, LL. 310^ 13, 15, 
Band, AU. 913, Baraid, CGG. 24, Barait, FM. 878, Bairith, TF. 
873. gen. Baritha, FM. 888. Icel. i5ar««r, Vigf. b.v. porr. 


Or from *B6or«r, Bo^wor^r, O.H.G. Badward, Noreen, in Paul's 
Grundriss, i. 466. 

Birndin, CGG. 40. The Bim may be Bjamt or Bi6m : the 
'din is obscure. 

Blacaire, FM. 938. Blacair, ATJ. 944. Blocair, ATI. 947, Blakari, 
Orkn. Saga 105, nomen agentis from blaka * to slap, to flutter'? 

Brodor, CGG. p. 150, Brotor, ibid. pp. 164, 172, ATJ. 1014, Brodar, 
CGG. 206, FM. 1013. Brodor roth, Brodor ffuit, LL. 172% 6, 7. 
loel. hrd'Sur, gen. dat. ace. of hr6^ir * brother.' 

Buidnin, gen. sg. CGG. 40. 

Buu, loinges MUid Buu, CGG. 40. O.N. Biii? 

Caittil, AU. 856. O.N. KetiU ? 

Cano gall, LL. 172% 13. 

Carran, CGG. 78. 

Cnutt, Tig. 1031, 1034. Cnut mac Sain ri Saxan, ATJ. 1035. 
Norse Ehiitr, 

Colphfn, CGG. 24. Norse Kolheinn f Kolfinna ? 

Elbric gen. sg., CGG. p. 164. Cognate with A.S. jElfrie. 

Elge, CGG. 38. Ailche, TF. p. 164, note o. Norse Mel^i, 

Eloir mac largni, FM. 885. Eloir mac Baritha, FM. 888. 
HaU6rr (== Hall->6rr). 

£oan, CGG. 40. Eon Banm, CGG. 206. Norse J6ainn. 

Eric gen. sg. FM. 1103, p. 974. Norse Eirxkr. 

Erulb, AU. 1014, CGG. 41, gen. Eruilb, CGG. 164, 206, Erolbh, 
FM. 1151. Norse Herjolfr, 

Etalla, EtUa, given as Norse, CGG. 78. Prob. the A.S. Mhh 
Beda H.E. 

Fiuit, LL. 172% 7 = Rvltr * white,' see Infuit infra. 

Fulf, CS. 870. TJlbh, TF. 909. Hulb, FM. 904, 917. TJH, 
ATJ. 869. Norse Ulfr. Goth, wvlfs. 

Goistilin, Gall. CGG. 206. 

Gothfraidh, Gofraid, Tig. 989. Gothrin, Gofraigh, Tig. 1086. 
Gothbraith, AX. 907, 908. Gothbrith, ATJ. 917. Goithbrith, AU. 
920. Gothfraid, LL. 25^ Gobraith, AI. 1078. Gofridh, TF. 871. 
Goffraig, AU. 1095. lufraigh, FM. 1146. lefraidh, CGG. 206. 
Norse Jdfreyr, G6r6^r ( Go^ro^r) * Gottfried.' Hence McCaflfrey. 

Graggabai, AU. 917, a scribal error for Cracahain miswritten 
Cracabam, Simon Dunelm. in Mon. Hist. Brit p. 686 B. *Krdbh 
hein * crow-log,' a nickname, like Krdku-nef. 

Griffin, CGG. 40, leg. Grissin ? 

Grisin, CGG. pp. 164, 206. Grisine, AU. 1014. May be Ir. 


dimmatiTes formed from Norse griss ' a young wild pig.' Or is it 
for Gfisinn, the -inn being the def. article ? Cf. Suinin infra. 

Hacond, CGG. 26. Norse Mdkon. 

Haimar, TF. 172. Is this Aymar = Ailmar from AgiUnar ? 

Herling, LL. 172% 18, Erlingr. 

Hil, LL. 172% 13. Icel. I'llr. 

Hingamund, TF. p. 226. Norse Ingimundr, The Igmund of 
Brut y Tywysogion, 900. 

Hona, TF. p. 144. Onund^ 

Horm, TF. p. 120. AU. 855. Norse Ormr. 

lercne, ATI. 851, largna, TF. 851 (lamgna, p. 230, 1. 12, may 
be a misprint), gen. largni, FM. 885, corruptly Ergni, AU. 885. 
Jdm-kne * Iron -knee,' of which the Irish name Gliin laim, ATI. 
988, seems a version. 

lUulb, Ilulb, Tig. 977. Culen [mac] Illuilb ri Alban, AU. 970. 
Amhlaim mac Ailuilbh .i. H Alban, AU. 976. Perhaps TU-iil/r. 

Imar, Imhar, FM. 856, etc., AU. 856, gen. Imair, LL. 310*, 
32, dat. Imur, Tig. 982, Norse Tvarr. Hence MacEeever. 

Infuit, CGG. 78=/n-At?i<r, prehistoric form of Vhvitr, 'whitish, 
Tery white, ever- white ' ? 

Inscoa, LL. 172% a nickname meaning perhaps 'Big shoes.' 

Ladar, gen. Ladair, CGG. 206=Lotar, q.v. 

Lagmand, AU. 1014, Laghmand, CGG. 40, Lagmaind, CGG. 
165, gen. Lagmain, CGG. 206. From an oblique case of Ungama^r 
* lawman,' as drmand infra from an obi. case of drmd^r. Now 
liamont, MacLamond and perhaps MacCalmont. 

Laraic, FM. 951, cf. perhaps O.N. lor 'thigh' (cf. LsBr-Bjami, 
BturL vii. 181). The ^aie is obscure. 

Leodus, LL. 172* 20 = i^V5%^, now the Lewis. 

Liagrislach, CGG. 40. Here we have perhaps a comp. of O.N. Ifdr 
' scythe,' and the Norse cogn. of A.S. grislie, gryslie, 'N.13..Qt.grauslich. 

Lotar, CGG. p. 164=Hlo«ver, Njala, 184. 

Lummin, CGG. p. 164. Luiminin, CGG. p. 206. Luimne, 
AU. 1014. 

Maghnus, gen. Maghnusa FM. 972, 1101, Henoe MacManus 

Mod mac Herling, LL. 172^ 18. 

Northmann, LL. 17i\ pi. dat. Nordmannaib, AU. 836. 

Odolbh Micle, TF. p. 176. O.-Norse Aw^dl/r inn Miklu 

Odund, gen. Oduind, CGG. p. 40. O.-Norse Au^unn, 

Oiberd, CGG. p. 40, perhaps a nickname, *6hjarto * beardless.' 
Or it is a clerical error for JRoiherd=ILT6hjai^ (Robert), FM. 1433? 

422 LiNGUisrric value of the irish annals. — ^mr. stokbs. 

OssiU, CGG. 22, Oisill, CGG. 206. Perhaps EyM, a nick- 
name meaning ' little ladle.' 

Oistin, AU. 874 = Eysteinn. Now MacQuiston. 

Ona, LL. 310*, 45, CGG. 22=Hona. 

Onphile, LL. 309% 36, CGG. 14, perhaps 0. -Norse dfeUi 'calamity/ 
cf. AuisU supra. 

Otta, or perhaps Atta, wife of Turges, LL. 309^ 16. Au^ig^ 
Au^ug ? Or is it= Auda, which occurs in Forstemaun as the name 
of a daughter of Eckard v. Meissen ? 

Ottir, LL. 310*, 42, AU. 917, Oittir, ATI. 1014, TF. 909, pp. 230, 
246, LL. 310*, 67. Oitir dubh, CGG. p. 206. Otter, An. Camb. 
913,=Icel. attarr (A.8. Ohthere). 

Plat, CGG. 152, Plait, CGG. 174. Icel. Flatr 'flat.' Cf. the 
nickname Flat-nefr. Tor p from/cf. PiBcarcarhy LL. 172», 5. 
. putrall, see Eoalt putrall, LL. 310*, 31. A similar Irish word is 
glossed by gruag * hair,' 0*C1. Perhaps it is for */iUrall= Lev- 
Lai. filrale, N.R.Q./utteral. 

Ragnall, Tig. 980, 995, 1031, AU. 913, 916, Raghnall, CGG. 
206, gen. Ragnaill, LL. 310*, 12, TF. 871. Norse Mgnvaldr, 
Hence MacEannal. 

Roalt* PutraU, LL. 310*, 31=Rot Pudarill, CGG. 28. Roilt,F]iI. 
924, Hrdaldr ? runic RhoaltR (Vatn), OHG. Mrodowald. 

Rodlaib, TF. 863, Rodolbh, TF. 852. gen. RoduUbh, TF. 860. 

roth ; Brodor roth, LL. 172* : rau^r * red.' 

Ruadhmand, Euamand, CGG. 78, Urdmundr, from *Ilr6^' 

Saxulb, CGG. p. 20, Saxalb, LL. 310*, 22 (misprinted 'Raalb' 
by Todd, p. 229), gen. sg. Saxoilbh, AU. 836. *Sazi'ul/r? An 
A.S. Sexuulfm Beda, H.E. iv. 6. 

Sciggire, LL. 172*, 4, the Faeroe Islanders {skeggjar). 

Scolph, LL. 310% 45, CGG. 22. Perhaps a corruption of 

Sigmall, gen. Sigmaill, CGG. 78. Perhaps Sigvaldi, the Irish 
scribe constantly representing v by (infected) m. 

Simond mac Tuirgeis, CGG. 206. Norse, Simon. 

Sitriuc, Tig. 977, 1022, 1031. Sitriucc, AU. 895. A.S. Sihtnc, 
Norse Sigtryggr, 

Siucrad, CGG. 152. Siuc[r]aid, CGG. 164. Siuchraidh, AU. 1014, 

^ For this (which Ib clear in the facsimile) Dr. Todd prints AtomU, 


Sicbnddh, PM. 1102. Sioghradh, GGG. 206. Siugraid soga rfg 
Sudiam, LL. 172^ 9. Siugraid mac Imair, LL. 310^ 41. Korse 

Sichfritb, ATJ. 887, EM. 1013. O.K Sigfrid. 

Smurnll, LL. 310^ 31 ( = Muraill, CGG. 28). Probably a 
nickname compounded witb smdr or smjor * butter.' 

Snadgair, CGG. 164. The -gair is probably geirr * spear,' 
cL Suart-gair, infra. The snad is perhaps for tnuad^^snau^r 
'smooth/ or cf. wiA^r 'twiRt/ 'twirl' (K. Meyer). 

Snuatgaire, CGG. 40, gen. sg. of Snuad-gatr z=*mau^ -geirr . 

Somarlid, CGG. 78. Norse Sumarh^u Hence MacSorley. 

Sortadbud sort, LL. 172», 10. 

Stabball, CGG. 78. Frob. a nickname : cf. stapal 'torch,' O'B. 

Stain, Sdain, Tig. 1031, 1034, Stain, ATT. 851, 846, Zain, 
TF. 851. Norse Stetnn. 

Suainin, CGG. pp. 40, 206, Suanin, CGG. p. 164. Perhaps a 
dimin. of *Suan = /St^anr ' swan,' or is it Sveinn ? 

Suartgair, AIT. 1014. A compound oi wart-r 'black,' and geirr 

Suimin, CGG. p. 40, a scribal error for Suinin, q.y. 

Suinin, CGG. p. 206, Sunin, CGG. p. 164. Svin-inn 'the swine.' 

Tamar, CGG. p. 38 = Tomar, q.v. 

Tolbarb, CGG. 78. 

Tomar, CGG. p. 22, P.M. 994. Hence Toner. 

Tomralt, PM. 923 =IceI. pdrvaldr. 

Tomrar, AI. 852, TF. 869. Tomhrar, PM. 846. Tomrair, AI. 
833, LL. 310», 46. Tomrair Erell, AU. 847. O.-Hi. pdrer^fdreirr, 

Tomrir Torra, TP. p. 144. Icel. p6rir. 

Torbend dub, CGG. 164 = Torfind, q.v. 

Toirberdach, CGG. 40. Pormed on porh/artr? bearded like Thor? 

Torfind, AU. 1124. Norse porfinnr, 

Torchar mac Treni, PM. 1171. Norse pargeirr? 

Torolbh, PM. 928 = Torulb iarla, AU. 931. Icel. porklfr. 

Torstan mac Eric, PM. 1103. Torstain mac Eric, AU. 1103. 
Norse parsteinn, 

Turcall, gen. Turcaill, AU. 1124. porkell Mac-Thorcaill is 
now MacCorkell. 

Turges, AB. 794, AU. 844. Turges and Turgeis, LL. 309*. 
Icel. porgeetr, whence pdrgestlingar^ Vigf. s.v. JJorr. 

Torgelsi, PM. 1167. Norse pargisli. 



Old-Norse Words Quoted. 

conung, TF. 126, 228 = konmgr *king.' 

erell, AU. 847, from *erly prehistoric form ofjarl, 

far-as, CGG. 174 = hvar es 'where is?' The context is: Is 
'arsin tanic Plait a cath na lureach amach, 7 asbert fothri : '* Ear-as 
Domnall ? " .i. cait ita Domnall ? Ro[f ]recair Domnall 7 asbert : 
** Sund, a sniding ! *' ar se. * Thereafter came Plait forth from the 
battalion of the mailcoats and said thrice: ''Where is Domnall?" 
Answered Domnall, "Here, thou villain !" saith he.' 

litil, AI. 953. Utill, CGG. p. 84. Norse litiU. 

micle, TF. 176. Norse mikill, inn mikli, 

nui, TF. p. 164. The context is : As annsaide dorala an chrech 
Lochlannach inaighidh Cinn6digh . . . Rothogbhaid gotha all- 
mhardha barbardha annseidhe, 7 stuic iomdha badhphdha, 7 sochoi- 
dhe 'ga radh " nui, nui ! " Then the Lochlaun raiders marched 
against Kennedy. . . . Thej raised foreign, barbarous shouts there, 
and (blew) many warlike trumpets, and a multitude (was) saying 
^^kniie! knits/ press on, press on!" — as the late G. Vigfusson 
orally explained the words to me. See his Icelandic-English 
Dictionary, s.v. Knyja, 

In CGG. 202, eing and prist are given as Norse words. 

V. 2. Irish Loans from Old-Norse. 

This subject has been handled by Prof. Zimmer, in 
Steinmeyer's Zeitschrift, xxxii. 267 et seq., and by Dr. 
Kudo Meyer, in the Revue Celtique, x. 367 — 369. 

armand officer^ Tig. 1 1 70, FM. 1170, p. 11 76. pi. n. armainn .i. 
oificcigh, O'Cl., dat. armannaib Tig. 1174. From an oblique case 
of O.N. drmd^r (K. Meyer). 

B,i-dm(i helmet, ALC. 1261, FM. 1261 : (gl. galea), Ir. Gl. 26, 
= clocc-att, ace. sg. trena chlocc-aitt, FM. 1583, p. 1802. Here 
the att i8=Nor8e hattr (or perh. A.S. hat), and the eluic is gen. 
sg. of chc, cognate with Highland claigeann, claigionn * cranium.* 
A dimin. of at, viz. atan, occurs in a poem cited by Dr. Reeves, 
Columba, p. 322, where it is rendered by * hood.' 


banna, a hand in toriting^ pi. dat. bannaidhib, ALC. 1584. 
Formed on O.-Norse hand, 
broc in fnatb-broc. bern-broc. LU. 79». 179*, 86». O.N. hr6k. 
cantarcbapa, a cope worn hy eeeUstasties in the choir, ALC. 1248, 
wbere eantarchaptha is printed in tbe text, eantarehapath in tbe 
translation and notes. O.N. kantara-kdpa, Tbe context is : 
Fedhlim ... do tbabairt ... do cbandncbaib Cbille moire . . . 
cantarcbaptba do sroll, ' Felim gave tbe canons of Kilmore cboir- 
copes of satin.' 
enapp, stud, hutton, pi. dat. cnappaib, LL. 98*. ON. knappr, 
costas, prociiians, eatahleSy sg. gen. cosduis, ALC. 1577. ace. 
costus. FM. 1409. O.N. koitr, NHG. kosten. Cognate with eostud, 
LL. 64*, 27 ; 263% 46. 

cniniu .i. ben, * -woman,' Conn, from O.N. hona, from *kven6. 
So partcbuine harlot, Conn. is=O.N. portkona. A.S. ewine, now 

elta htlt, LL. 268*, 47, O.N. hjalt, 

fuindeog window, aperture = vindauga, pi. fuinne6ga, O'B. 
farla earl, AB. 1324, O.N. jarl, W. iarll. Com. yurh Hence 
iarlacbt earldom, gen. iarlacbta, AXC. 1535, p. 286, FM. 1398, 
p. 760. W. iarllaeth. 

lipting, LL. 219% lifting taffrail, O.N. lypting summa 'pup- 

lonn, a roller for launching ships, from O.N. hlunnr (Bugge). 
maroc sausage, founded on O.N. mUrr (st. marva). 
pundand, punnann sheaf hundU, from O.N. hundin (Bugge). 
Tossal, rosualt, LU. 11*, 47, pi. n. rossiil, LL. 172*, 10. O.N. 
hrosshvalr, Eng. walrus. 

rum LL. 236% O.N. ritm, tbe room or place for a pair of oars 
(K. Meyer). 

sceld, scell shield, gen. pi. LL. 87*, 40, sceld-gur, LL. 83% 1. 
O.N. skf'dldr. 

scot, sheet, pi. sccti, LB. 219*, 68. O.N. skaut. 
sniding (leg. sniding) villain, C6G. 174. From O.N. ni^ingr witb 
protbetic s. 

Bopp, wisp, hundle of straw, pi. n. suipp, LL. 93*. From O.N. 
s6pr * besom.' Zimmer (wrongly, I tbink) refers sopp to O.N. svdppr 
* sponge.' 

sparr, pi. dat. sparrib, LL. 107*, 12. O.N. sparri. Hence sparre 
'a military gate,' indorus spairri na GaiUmbe, FM. 1597, p. 


staca stack, FM. 1579, p. 1722. O.N. stakkr. 
Btafc sUak, LB. 219^ O.N. steik. 

starga shield, LL. 265% 18. stargha, O'B. O.N. targs, witii 
prothetic s. Or from A.S. targe, targa ? 

tile phnk, partition, LL. O.N. \ili (K. Meyer).* 

VI. I. Anglo-Saxon Names. 

Here follow the A.S. names found in the Irish Annak 
I have inserted three from the Lebar na hUidre, p. 93. 
There are many more in the Irish abridgment of the first 
two books of Beda's H.E., which is found in Laud 610, 
ff. 89^— 92*. 

Adulstan, AU. 936, 938, Atalstan, FM. 944 =zJEthelstdn. 

Adulph ri Saxon, TF. 158. Adulf, AU. S57 =JSthslwul/, A.S. 
Chron. 855(6). 

Ailfrid, FM. 900. Alfred. 

Albruit, Tig. 629, a scribal error for Albruic=-^^?/rttf. 

Aldfrith mac Ossu, ATJ. 703. Altfrith mac Ossa, Tig. 704= 
Aldfrith, Tig. 716. AUferth, Aldfrith {Ealdferth), 

Alii rex Saxan aquilonalium, AU. 866, bellum filii, Ailli, AU. 
630 = ^//a. 

Almuine filius Osu, Tig. 680=Ailmine filius Ossu, AU. 679, 
^Ifwine, son of Oswy, (infected) m being written for tr, as in Cat- 
molodor and Simal supra, and Bristoma infra. 

Anfrith, AU. %^\=Eanfrith. 

Anna : bellum Annae, AU. 655, TF. 657. See A.S. Chron. 654. 

Beda, AU. 734, TF. 739; Beid, TF. p. 112. Baeda. 

Bernitb, Tig. 698. BeornhrPS, -hd^, -no^, -o^ ? 

Brechtraig, Tig. 698, scribe's error for Brechtraid=Brectrid^ 
AU 697, Berctrad, Beds, H.E. v. 24. 

Bristoma, ALC. 1247, Bristuma, FM. 1256. From an oblique 
case of Bricgstow, AS. Chron. 1088, now Bristol, 

Ceode espoc lae, Tig. 712. Coeddi, FM. 710. Ceadda? Cedde. 

Coniulf [printed Comulf] rex Saxonum, AU. 820. Cinwulf, king 
of Mercia. 

» To this I may add Prof. Bu<r?e*8 remark (in a letter) that Jr. Jldkckei 
* mousetrai^' lit. * wooden cat,* agrees with O.N. tiikottr. 



Cmtin, Tig. 718, mac Cuitine, Tig. 731, filius Cuidine, AU. 717, 
dericatus Echdach filii Cuidini, rex Saxan, AU. 730. CiUhwine. 

Cuthbertus, ATJ. 687= Cuihherht. 

Dolfinn mac Finntnir, slain in battle by the men of Alba, AU. 
1054. A Ihlfin is mentioned in the A.S. Chron. at 1093, as 
ruling Carlisle. 

Dunstan, Tig. 9SS=D{instdn. 

Eanfraith [MS. -ch] frater Etalfraith [MS. -ch], Tig. 600= 
JSanfriih, son of JEthelfrith. 

Ecberctus [MS. 7berctu8], Tig. 701, rectius 715, Ecbertus, TF. 
729, Eicberict, AU. 12^^Ecghyrht. 

Ecfrith mac Ossa, Tig. 686=sEtfTith mac Ossu, rex Saxonum, 
AU. Q^b^Eegferth. 

Edilfrido, TF. 687, a mistake for Ecfrido. 

Edeldrida, TF. 687, n^=JEtheldryth, -thryth. 

Etalfraidh, Tig. 613 = Etilbrith, Tig. 671, Mors Ossu filii 
Eitilbrith, AU. 670. Edelfrid, TF. 9Q^ =^ mthelferth {-frith). 

Eithilfleith famosissima regina Saxonum, AU. 917. Edelfrida, 
TF. 909 =^ JSthelfiad. 

Etgair, Tig. 965. Etgair mac Etmonni ri Saxan, AU. 974 = 

Etmonn, AU. 97 4= Eadmund. 

Etuin mac Elle. Tig. 625 =E. mac Ailli, Tig. 63l=Eadwine. 

Etulb, Tig. 717, AU. 716, Etulb ri Saxan tuaiscirt, AU. 912, 
Etalbh, TF. 9\S =Ikidul/. A gen. eg. Ecuilb, Ecuilp, AU. 716, 
740, is prob. a scribal error for Etuilb. 

Finn-tur, father of Dolfin, AU. 1054=ON. for-Jlnnr? 

Garailt, Tig. 732, Garolt TF. 732, Garaalt AU. 731 = AS. Gdr- 
wdld or Gdrwedld, 

Giaais. Aralt ri Saxan Giuais, AU. 1040. Giuoys, Ann. Camb. 
900. A.-S. Gewissas West SaxonSf Beda, E.H. ii. 5, iii. 7. 

lid, in monasterio lid, AU. l\2=Hildf abbess of Whitby. 

Lindas, LU. 93. 

Moll, Tig. 764= Moll JEthelwald, A.-S. Chron. 759. Prof. Napier 
tells me that it occurs also in the North umbriein Liber Yitae. Is 
it borrowed from the Highland Gaelic moll * chaff ' ? 

Offa rex bonus Anglorum, AU. 795 = Ofa, King of Mercia, A.-S. 
Chron. 794. 

Oisiric mac Albruit, Tig. 629= Osrio son of ^l/rte, A.-S. Chron. 
634. Oisirg father of Oissene (=08wine) AU. 650. 

Oissene mac Oisirgg, AU. 650= Oswine son of Osric, 


Osbrit lamfota, 'longhand,' LU. 93. O'thryht. 

Osrith mac Aldfrith, Tig. 717. AU. 715= Osred, King of North- 
nmbria, son of Aldferth, 

Ossiu, Tig. 656. Osu, Tig. 680, 713. Ossu, Tig. 650, 671. 
AU. 641, 649, 655, 670, 679, 685, 712, 715, TF. 671. mac Gossa, 
AI. 694 for mac Ossa ? A-S. Oswiu, 

Osualt mac Etalfraith, Tig. 632. Osualt, Tig. 634. gen. Osuailt, 
Tig. 639. Ossnalt, AG. 659. Osalt, LU. 93. bellum Osubaldi 
AU. 638 = O'sweald. 

Panta, Tig. 631. Pante, Tig. 650, 657. AU. 649, 655, 674. 
gen. Panntea, Tig. 675. Penda, Beda, HE. v. 24. 

Pilu . . . Saxo, Fita Columhaey p. 227. 

Tfne : the river Tyne ; for bru Tine la Saxanu Tuaiscirt, AU. 917. 
Latinised Tinua by Beda. 

VI. 2. Irish Loans from Anglo-Saxon. 

As to the early intercourse between the Irish and the 
Anglo-Saxons, see Beda, HE. iii. 27. The monastery founded 
for the English at Mayo by S. Colman, of Lindisfame, about 
the year 670 (Beda, H.E. iv. 4) may also here be mentioned. 
Some few of the following have already appeared in the 
papers of Zimmer and Kuno Meyer above referred to. 

assan (gl. caliga), pi. n. assain, O'B., W. hosan^ both borrowed 
from an oblique case of hosa, gen. hosan, 

bad hoaty gen. baid, ALC. 1517. A.S. hat. 

barda, bharda ward&rSj ALC. 1246, 1512, 1516. A.S. weard. 
Hence bardacht ward^rship, ALC. 1369, 1478, 1589. FM. 1584, 

beor heer, gen. beori, beoiri, LB. 215», 215*. A.S. he6r. 

blede gohlet, Tig. 1115. A.-S. hledu, 

boga hoWy pi. dat. bodhadhaibh (leg. boghadhaibh), ALC. 1405. 
A.-S. hoga. Hence boghadoir archer^ O'B. 

bord border, brink, FM. 1247, p. 320, 1318, p. 516, imel-bhord 
na habhand, FM. 1595, p. 1978, pi. dat. borddaib, LL. 254^ U, 
256*. A.S. bord in such phrases as innan bordes, utan hordes. 

bord tahhy an bord cr[uind] the Round Table, AU. 467. A.S. lord 
tabula. Hence also W. bwrdd. 


crocan (gl. olla) = W. crochan, from A. 8. crocca, O'B.'b eorcdn, 

cromb erookidssW. ertffm, from A.S. crumb. 

fiatail tpeedSf gen. sg. fiataile, FM. 1582, p. 1784. Founded on 
A.S. i€e6d, m6d, O'B. h9&fiatghail * vetches.' 

Fntema = Htoiteme in Galloway. 

geta j^a^, GFeta nna = iVW^a^^, FM. 1535, glas geta, FM. 1596, 
p. 2006. pi. dat. getadaibh, FM. 1601, p. 2258. A.S. geat, 

guala, A.S. ge6la 'yule.' iemguala, LTJ. 121^ s=m aftera 

maighden, maiden^ pL dat. maighdenaibh, FM. 1597, p. 2012. 
A.S. magdsH. 

pinginn, pinging penny, occurs in the idiomatic phrases ara phin' 

ginn fvin 'at his own expense/ ALC. 1245, FM. 1245, and dvX 

fa phinginn 'to become tributary,' FM. 1577, p. 1698. From 

A.S. pending, penning. An Ir. penning =^0,"^, penningr^ also occurs 

(LL. 64*, 2). 

ritere knight, Tig. 729, ALC. 1177, 1200, ritaire, TF. p. 170. 
A.S. rid&re. 

rot road, LIT. 104*, 106» gen. sg. r6id, FM. 1598, p. 2060, pi. 
dat. rodaibh, FM. 1592, p. 1920, A.S. rdd, 

Bcilling, scillinn shilling , pi. nom. sgillingi, FM. 1585, p. 1840. 
gen. sgillinn, ALC. 1549, p. 354. A.S. seglling. 

aiamaeh, sremach, blear-eyed, FM. 1380, 1363, deriv. of eram 
" matter running from the eyes," O'R. A.S. etredm. 

staighre aco. sg. stair, FM.. 1454. A.S. stiver. 

Bted, sd^d, ALC. 1231, pL dat. sd6daibh, ALC. 1277. A.S. stSda, 
* horse.' 

stiuraid, steerer, sdiuraidh, ALC. 1233. stiuraim 7 «^tf^, I guide, 
ro sdiurastar, ALC. 1217. A. -8. stedran, stidren, stpran. 

stoco [misprinted siocc] in the alliterative phrase gach tegh, gach 
teghdais, gach stocc, gach staca, FM. 1579, A.S. stoee. Com. stoe 
(gL stirbs). 

trdill thrall. Conn. Tr. p. 162, Old-Northumbr. ^ral or ON. 
'j^all. Hence trdillidheacht slavery, O'B. 

I take this opportunity of suggesting that gimaeh, which occurs 
as an epithet for a scorpion {Lives of Saints from the Book of 
Zismore, 1. 3651), may be a loan from A.S. gimaeh (gl. improbus), 
Epinal Glossary, ed. Sweet, p. 12, 1. 31, later gemdh, and that 
rifedh 'rope,' FM. 1590, 1592 (pi. dat. refedaih, LTJ. 63» 18), may 
be connected with O.H.G. reif (whence Ital. refe), as W. rhaff, 
rheffyn, with A.S. rdp. 

Pha Trans. 1888-90. 29 


YI. 3. Irish Loans from Middle-English. 

Lastly, we may set forth the following list of words, most 
of which are borrowed from Middle-English, though a fev 
(cited from the Four Masters) may have been taken over 
from Modern English. We know from the decree of the 
Synod of Armagh, described by Giraldus (Hib. Exp. 1. i. c. 
18), that for some time before 1170 the Irish held large 
numbers of English slaves. From that year down to the 
present time the intercourse of the two peoples has been 
incessant ; and now the jargons called Modern Irish are as 
full of English loan-words as Breton is of French. 

act pairlimint, a sesstan, do dol . . . docum acta pairlimint, 
ALC. 1585. 

airteccal, article^ gen. pi. FBf. 1597, p. 2044. 

balla wall^ gen. sg. ace. blodhadh [leg. bloghadhj an bhalla, 
FM. 1595, p. 1980, pi. n. balladha, FM. 1572. 

bardnta, warranty ALC. 1538, p. 314. Hence barantas, warranty, 
FM. 1600, p. 2164. 

beinnsi, gen. sg. bench, iustis Beinnsi an Righ, FM. 1597, p. 2044. 

brugen, strife, conflict, ALC. 1531, p. 276. N. Eng. hargane, 

campa camp, FM. 1561, p. 1586. 

caraiste, carriage, do chaiplibh caraiste, FM. 1597, p. 2032, 
caraisde, FM. 1598, p. 2060. 

cing, king, queen, ALC. 1485; 1543, p. 342 : cing Maria, ALC. 

cistinech, kitchen, gen. cistinighe, FM. 1449, p. 946. 

commesseoir commissioner, FM. 1583, p. 1802. pi. dat. comes- 
sieoraibh. Hence commessoirecht commissioner ship, FM. 1584, 
p. 1816. 

composeision, composition, FM. 1596, p. 1996. 

corinel colonel, FM. 1600, p. 2224. 

costa coast, pi. dat. costadhaibh, FM. 1580, p. 1732. 

cros cross, gen. croise, FM. 1600, p. 2222. 

cupla, couple, pi. dat. cupladhaibh, FM. 1599, p. 2108. 

daoradh, act of making dear (costly), FM. 1598, p. 2076. 

dignite, dignity, FM. 1600. 

diuice, duke, ALC. 1307, 1581, p. 438, FM. 1449, p. 964. 


druma, drumy ALC. 1589, p. 492, fuaim droma, FM. 1595. 

M(Adh phyaieian, FM. 1497, p. 1232; 1582, p. 1772. 

fisicecht medteal science, FM. 1504, p. 274. 

flux diarrhoea, FM. 1536. 

gairdian, guardian^ ALC. 1540. gdirdidn, O'B. 

gairision, garristm, pi. n. garasnin, FM. 1599, p. 2110, pi. dat. 
gairiBionaibh, FM. 1597, p. 2014, garasunaibh, FM. 1598, p. 2058. 

g&t^ guard, FM. 1570, p. 1638, 1602, p. 2296. 

general coccaidh, FM. 1595, p. 1960, gen. sg. generala, FM. 
1596, p. 2000. Hence generaltacht, generalship, FM. 1597, p. 
2020, generalacht, ibid. p. 2044. 

giomanach, geoman, pi. n. giomanaigh, ALC. 1561. gen. gio- 
manach, ALC. 1542, p. 334, 1562, gfmdnchoibh, ALC. 1581, 
p. 438. 

gjio8dMi,joisting, ALC. 1582. Eng. joist, Yt, gite, 

gobem6ir, gnbernoir, governor, ALC. 1585, FM. 1856, p. 1846, 
1586, p. 470, 8g. gen. gobernora, FM. 1586, p. 1844, goibernbra, 
ALC. 1586, p. 472. Hence gobemoracht governorship, FM. 1584, 

grdinsech, F. grange : ar an Grainsigb mboir, ALC. 1589, p. 502. 

gonna, gonna, a gun, ALC. 1516, 1523, 1546. 

haiste, hatch (of a sbip), comla an baiste, FM. 1587, p. 1862. 

imperess, empress (O.-Fr. empresse), gen. imperasi, ALC. 1189. 
An apocopated form, peress, gen. pereise, perisi occurs, Tig. 1172, 
ALC. 1171, 1183, 1210. Corn. emperi%. 

i\x&^, justiciary, AB. 1230, 1234; iustisecbt, office of a justiciary, 
FM. 1492. 

liberti liberties, FM. 1585, pp. 1840, 1842. 

loard, lord, gen. loaird, ALC. 1415, 1419, 1535, Mid.-Eng. 
louerd, lauerd, Ags. hld/ord, 

Mairgbrecc, Margaret, FM. Margbreo, ALC. 1364, gen. Mair- 
gr^ige, FM. 1597, p. 2042. 

maisde, match (Fr. michs), FM. 1598, p. 2072. 

marg, a mark (money), Tig. 1156, ALC. 1546, 1578. 

margad, market, gen. margaid. Tig. 1134, A.I. 1090, AB. 1231. 

muinission, munition, FM. 1599, pp. 2110, 2116. gen. munis- 
sioin, FM. 1601, p. 2272. 

muscaed. musket, pi. dat. musccaedibh, FM. 1597, p. 2028. 

Norbus=JVbwiV?A, FM. 1208. 

ordonass, ordnance, ALC. 1516, 1551, gen. ordondis, ALC. 1538, 
p. 314, dat. ordonds, ALC. 1581, p. 444. 


porliment, ace. ar an bparliment, FM. 1595, p. 19S4, parliatnentf 
gen. pairlimint, ALC. 1585, p. 466. 

paitcnt, letters patent, ALC. 1568, p. 404. gen. paiteint, PM. 
1603, p. 2342. 

'peceich ^atidf/f showf/^ FM. 1569. Founded on pdo^o^;^ ? 

ipicepike, FM. 1599, p. 2114. 

piosa piece, FM. 3311. The Eng. piece, Fr. piiee, comes from a 
Low-Latin pettium, which represents a Ghiulish *petlum, cognate 
with W. peth, Pictish pett, M.Ir. euitt, a primeval Celtic ^qvetti-, 

"plaisL plate, eidedh plata j^^o^-orm^ur, FM. 1570, 1597. 

Plemendach, Fleming, Tig. 1176, with pi iorflas in Plendrus, 
Plondrus, Flanders, ALC. 1585, pp. 468, 472 (but gen. sg. 
Flondrais, FM. 1586, p. 1856). 

ploit portion, pi. ace. ploiti, TF. p. 28, Eng. plotte porcinncola, 
Prompt. Parv. 

pocoit, pocket, pouch, pi. n. poeoide pudair, FM. 1597, p. 2034, 
gen. sg. poeoide, ibid. p. 2072. 

port,/or^, O'B. pl.n. puirt, FM. 1600. 

Portigel, Poirteng^l, Portugal, ALC. 1579, 1581, 1589. 

post, prop, 6n-phost, sole prop, FM. 1383, p. 690, posta, O'B. 
pi. dat. posdadhaibh, FM. 1597, p. 2012. From Eng. poet. 

potaire, potter, FM. 1461, p. 1014, note p. 

praca, a large harrow, FM. 1600, p. 2186. Eng. hnJce. 

proaitsi, jproro*^, FM. 1460. 

protexion, protex, protection, FM. 1569, 1574, 1581, 1583, 1592. 

prouision, FM. 1601, pp. 2270. 

pudar, {^xin)powder, FM. 1549, 1572, gen. pudair, FM. 1597, 
p. 2012. 

punt, pound, tri mili punt * £3000,' ALC. 1584. 

TQ^ihQv=i receiver, i.e. agent or treasurer, FM. 1581, p. 1760. 
Salender, FM. 1600, p. 2160, SL Leger. 

sop, sepet ? the chape of a scabbard : ag sfn sepea cloidem, ALC. 
1244= ag sinedh sepcte a chloidimh, Ann. Conn. 

sirriam, serriam, sirriem, siarrium, sheriff (Ags. scirgerifa)^ 
ALC. 1225, 1247, 1258, 1586, 1588 : suibsirriam, FM. 1595, 
p. 2108, su-sirriam = *wi-«^tfr/^, ALC. 1587. 

spidel spiial, ALC. 1242, tech spidel, ALC. 1244, 1245. 
spor, spur, ALC. 1376, FM. 376, Early Eng. spore (A.-S. sporaj 
spur a). 

stata, staiCy pomp, FM. 1599, p. 2138, 1602, p. 2296. Hence 
statamhail stately, O'B. 


ite, gen. sg. FM. 1600, p. 2148, statuiti statutes, FM!. 1537, 

B storeSf gen. stomis, EM. 1582 : Idn storks, FM. 1594, is 
int for Idnstdras, see Ir. Gl. 

% gen. pi. tahors, Life of Aed Ruad, cited FM. 1598, p. 2068, 
ipur, FM. 1599, p. 2132. tabar, O'B. 
tackle, pi. gen. tdcladh, FM. 1566, p. 1582. 
L8, F. tableSf draughtboard, gen. na taiplissi, ALC. 1554. 
I na samhna, Michaelmas term, FM. 1591, 1596, 1601. 
reir, treasurer, ALC. 1579, tresin^r, treisineir, FM. 1541, 

ir, gen. tr6tura, traitor ^ FM. 1546, 1579. Hence tr^tiirdha 

us, Yl^. 1601, p. 2258, treturecht treason, FM. 1581, 1583. 

se, 8g. trench, O'B. dat. treinnsi, FM. 1602, p. 2310, pi. 

dbh, FM. 1600, p. 2192. 

padh, gen. pi. trumpets, FM. 1599, p. 2128, 2132. 

i, a trunk, FM. 1598, p. 2074. 

i^, attorney, FM. 1598, p. 2088. O'B.'s tnmaidhe minister, 

[an, warden, ALC. 1585. 

ifort. Tliis awa^ \ef^6fji€vov occnrs in the following passage 

LC. 1540, referring to a literary congress at the seat of the 

mots : tdngadar 6ixe 7 oUamain Eiriond co ucsanf port 

7 engna cuicidh Connacht, ALC. 1540, where Mr. Hennessy 

ucsanfport by * seat.' I take ucsan/port to be =1 Oxnqford, 
inslate : " The poets and ollaves of Ireland came to the 
of the hospitality and knowledge ^ of Connaught." 

verse, gen. pi. uersa, FM. 1224. Compound : uers-d^n* 
lecht verse-making, ALC. 1224. 

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(By W. M. Wood.) 

**«* la this Index the names of the authors of articles are printed in smazx capitals. 
The titles of articles are placed between '* inverted commas " (" "]u The titles 
of books criticized or mentioned are placed in 'single inverted commas ' (' *). 
Words explained, or their derivation treated of, are printed in Haltcs. The 
Proceedings of onl^ one Session (i887>8} are contained in this volume, and the 
Roman numerals 1, ii, iii, etc., refer to that Session. The publication of the 
Abstract 0/ Proceedings has been discontinued since i888. 


Abbey of the Island of All Saints, 

Accado-Sumerian language, 27. 

Adamnin's 'Vita Columbae,' 392. 

Adjoining letters in Latin, 50. 

"Albanian in Terra d'Otranto," by 
Prince L.-L. Bonaparte, second 
edition, 341 et seq. [First ed., see 
'' PhiloL Trans, 1882-4," P- 492-] 

Albanian language, gradual extinction 
of the, 341 et seq, ; interesting 
family reminiscences concerning 
the, 342 note. 

Albanian language, where spoken, 
336-339» 34' -2, with Linguistic 
Maps Nos. II.-IX. and XL 

Albanian version of one of Boccaccio's 
stories, 358. 

Albanian words and phrases still in 
use in the Diocese of Taranto, 

American Philosophical Society s pro- 
posed conditions for a universal 
l^^guage, 59 et seq, ; summary of 
reasons for declining their invitation 
to consider a basis for a universal 
l^guage, 97. 

Anahuac * a province in Mexico,' 144. 

Analogy in Latin, 51. 

Andreae, Dr. Percy, "On the 

Different MSS. of Hampole's 

• Pricke of Conscience,' " Proc, 

xiii ; his classification of the MSS. 

of, 261. 
Angela, Mexican for ' angel,' 140. 
Anglo-French, £nglish words found 

in, 112 et seq. 
Anglo-Saxon names in Irish, 426-8. 
Annals at Cheltenham, 368. 
Annals in the Lebar liiignech, 367. 
Annals of Boyle, the, 365. 
Annals of Connaught, the, 368. 
Annals of Innisfallen, the, 365. 
Annals of the Abbey of All Saints, 

Annals of the Kingdom of Ireland, 

Annals of Loch C^, the, 366. 
Annals of Tighemach, the, 367. 
Annals of Ukter, the, 366. 
Anniversary Address (Fifteenth), 23- 

Aotl, * canal,' a Mexican word, 140. 
Appendix, On Caxton^s Syntax and 

Style, by Dr. Leon Kellner, pp. 




INDEX TO PHIL. TRANS. 1888-9-90. 

Article, the, in Slavonic languages, 

Aryan basis for a universal language, 

75 et seq, 
Assyrian language, 26. 
Atkinson, Professor, his edition of 

the Lebar Brecc, reviewed by Dr. 

Whitley Stokes, 203 et sgq. 
Atlf * water,' a Mexican word, 139, 

140, 143, 144. 
** Augments " in Volapiik, 83. 
AumeUtte^ the original of omelette^ 

Axoiotl, a Mexican word, etymology 

.of, 143. 
Azteca, Aztlan, Mexican for 'Aztecs,' 



Babylonian language, 26. 

Balance sheets for 1887, Proc, xix ; 
1888 and 1889, m Part II. after 
page 204; 1890,434. 

Bat, * thick stick,' etymology of, I. 

Bauer, Herr, the number of vowels 
in his Spelin, 69 ; points on which 
he agrees and differs from the 
American Committee on Volapiik, 
91, 92. 

Beetle-browed, etymology of, 130. 

Behaviour, etymology of, 1 34. 

Bell, Mr. Melville, quotation from 
his * World-English ' bearing on 
the subject of a universal language, 


Blanchardyn and Eglanttne, accounts 
of the MSS. and prints of the 
Romance of, see the ** Appendix " 
in Part II., pp. cxvi-cxxvi. 

Blet, * to become sleepy, as a pear,' 
derivation of, 150. 

Boaz, Mr. F., quotation from, on the 
languages of (Greenland, 31. 

Boccaccio's Decameron, Novel IX. 
of the First Day, versions of, 
in Italian, 357 ; Albanian, 358 ; 
Modem Greek, 359 ; Gallo-Italic, 
360 ; Provencal, 361 ; Illyrian, 
362 ; historical notes on the same, 

Book of Deir, the, 392. 

Book of Leinster, the, 367. 

Bonaparte, Prince L.-L., ** Notes 
on the Dialect of Urbino, the Nasal 
Sounds, etc.," Art. XII., pp. 198- 
203 ; ** Albanian, Modern Greek, 
Gallo-Italic, Proven9al, still in Use 
(1889) as Linguistic Islands in the 

Neapolitan and Sicilian Provinces 
of Italy," Art. XIX., pp. 335-364, 
with Ten Maps of Linguistic ls« 
lands ; second edition of *' Albaniia 
in Terra d'Otranto," 341 etieq. 

Boyle, the Annals o^ 365. 

Bradley, Mr., his remarks on Herr 
Dombusch's paper on Volapiik, 
Proc, iv. 

Brandreth, E. L., account of his 
work on the Society's Dictiooary, 
Proc, xvi. 

British languages, 5'-stems in the, 

Broad Arrow, The, 6. 

BugQf, ' a light vehicle,' derivation of, 

BULBRING, Karl D., •* On Twenty- 
five MSS. of Richard RoUc's 
* Pricke of Conscience,' etc.," Art 
XVI., pp. 261-283. 

Cacauatl, Mexican for cacao, 141. 
Calli, * house,* a Mexican word, 140. 
Caribbean Islands, words borrowed 

from the, 147. 
Cayapas Indians of Ecuador, list of 

thirty-five words of the, with the 

corresponding Quichua equivalents 

of, 98. 
Cayolli, * fly,* a Mexican word, 140. 
Celtic languages, ^-sterns in the, 100 

et seq. 
Chant It, * house,' a Mexican word, 

Cheltenham, fragment of Annals at, 

Chess, derivation of, 284. 
Chevron, derivation of, 150. 
Chilli, a Mexican word, 142. 
Chinampa, a Mexican word, 143. 
Chronicum Scotorum, 366. 
Cieling, possible origin of, 284. 
Clever, E. Friesic cognate of, 284. 
CobU, * a kind of boat,' definition of, 

Cockney, derivation of, 151. 
Cockneyisms, Mr. Ellis's paper on 

Home and Colonial, Proc, xiv. 
Cohn, Corinne, a precocious linguist, 

Congress proposed for perfecting a 

universal language, 59 et seq. 
Conjugation of the verb in Volapiik, 

Connaught, the Annals of, 368. 
Consonant- laws in Latin, ^16 et seq. 

IKDEX TO PHIL. TRANS. 1888-9-90. 


, number required in 

Speiin and Schleyer's 

and those proposed by 

ican Philosophicad Society, 

:opal' resin, a Mexican 


5. of the * Pricke of Con- 


fs, vb., derivation of, 9. 

pet-lamb/ derivation of, 

bottle/ derivation of, 285. 
nd, *a pet- lamb,* deriva- 


in assumed O. Fr. . word, 

ithority for it, 9. 


exican word, 143. 

rhaps) * a cobler,' etymo- 

[ ; correction of, 150. 

schievous boy,' derivation 

lyfr, Crare, Cray^ * a kind 
ship,* derivation of, 286. 
n open lamp,' derivation 

«tion of, 286. 

ivation of, 287. 

5 broth,' derivation of, 287. 

Inscriptions, the wide lin- 

id covered by the phrase, 

logy of, 2. 

les in Irish, 387-389. 


'a corncrake,' derivation 

tion of, 152. 

5., his remarks on Herr 

:h's paper on Volapiik, 

lology of, 2. 
ration of, 152. 
00k of, 392. 

lis. Rev. D. L., information 

by, regarding Albanian 

I the diocese of Taranto, 

jT Evening," Proc, v. 

in Latin, 52. 

nologyof, 2; dismal day s^ 

days,' 3. 

« word in A.S., 3. 

ling- vessel,' derivation of, 

Dombusch, Mr., first drew the atten- 
tion of the Philological Society to 
Volapiik, 67 ; his paper on Volapiik, 
Proc, ii ; discussion thereon, iii-v. 

Doi, a Dutch word=A.S. Dott^ 288. 

DowUt a term in falconry, etymology 
of. 3. 

Down^ down-feather^ a proposed sub- 
stitute for, 4, 5. 

Draiiiy derivation of, 152. 

Draught-house^ * privy,' derivation of, 

Lhaughts^ * a game,* meaning of the 
name, 289. 

Dream f derivation of, 153. 

Drivel, 'a drudge, servant,' derivation 

of, 153- 
Duck, derivation of, 153. 

Duskf derivation of, 154. 

Dye^ derivation of, 154. 


* Early English Pronunciation,' Part 
v., Mr. Ellis's account of (since 
published), Proc, xiv. 

Earnest, 'a pledge, security,' etymo- 
logy of, 5. 

Ecuador, list of words of the Cayapas 
Indians in the interior of, 98. 

Eldon, Lord, his dictum on shall 
and will^ 89. 

Ellis, Alex. J., ** On the Con- 
ditions of a Universal Language, 
in Reference to the Invitation of 
the American Philosophical Society 
of Philadelphia, U.S., to send 
Delegates to a Congress for per- 
fecting a Universal Language on an 
Aryan Baitis, and its Report on 
Volapiik," Art IV., pp. 59.98 ; 
his remarks on Herr Dombusch's 
paper on Volapiik, Proc. iii ; his 
account of the present state of Part 
V. of his * Early English Pronun- 
ciation,' Proc, xiv; ** Home and 
Colonial Cockneyisms," Proc, xiv. 

Elworthy, F. T., «• Western En- 
glish Dialects," ix. 

EngUy Ingle, 'a favourite,' derivation 

of, 154. 

English Etymology, notes on, by Prof. 
Skeat, 1-22; 150-171 ; 284-315. 

English words borrowed from the 
West Indies, 144 et seq- ; alpha- 
betical list of the words discussed, 

English words found in Anglo-French, 
112 et seq. 



INDEX TO PHIL. TRANS. 1888-9-90. 


Entice^ etymology of, 5. 

Esperanto, Dr., his scheme for a 
universal language, 82 ; on Inter- 
national language, Proc, v. 

Esquimaux^ derivation of, 154. 

Etymologically interesting Irish words, 

Etymologies, English, 1-22; 150-171; 


Faldstooly derivation of, 29a 

Fallow^ derivation of, 155. 

Fanteaguiy 'worry, bustle, etc.,' de- 
rivation of, 290. 

Fcon^ etymology of, 6. 

Filbert, derivation of, 155. 

Final vowels in Latin, 49. 

Firk, * to beat,* derivation of, 290. 

First declension, the, in Russian, 

Fii^ various meanings of, 290-292. 

Fives, 'a horse-disease,' derivation 
of, 292. 

Flabbergast, * to scare,' derivation of, 

Ftaw, * a gust of wind,' derivation of, 

Fleischhaker, Robert von, *• On 
the Old English Nouns of more 
than one Gender," Art. XIV., pp. 


F/ipt derivation of, 155. 

Fiotsam, etymology of, 8. 

Foin, * to thrust with a sword,' ety- 
mology of, 7. 

Four Masters, the, 366. 

Fraby, Fred, letter from, on behalf 
of the American Philosophical 
Society proposing the perfecting a 
Universal Language, 60. 

Funky derivation of, 155. 

Furlongs meaning of, 292. 

FuRNiVALL, Dr., his copy of the 
* Pricke of Conscience,* 265 ; his 
extracts from the Lichfield Cathe- 
dral MSS. of the, 279 ; his remarks 
on Herr Dornbusch's paper on 
Volapiik, Proc, iii ; his account of 
Thomas Vicary, Proc, x et seq. 


Gallant^ derivation of, 293. 

G alio- Italic language, where spoken, 

340, with Linguistic Maps Nos. 

VIII. and XL 

Gallo-Italic version of one of Boc- 
caccio's stories, 360. 

Gantbesen, * a quilted jacket,' detira^ 
tion of, 293. 

Gambol, derivation of, 293. 

Gang, derivation of, 156. 

Gamep, * a small mat, derivation of| 

Gay, derivation of, 2g^ 

Genealogical tree of the MSS. of 
Rolle's ' Pricke of Consdence,' 
to face page 262 (explanation of it, 
pp. 262-265). 

Genitive case in Russian, difficulty 
of the, 255. 

Georgian language, the, a lingoistic 
puzzle, 39. 

Gkazul, derivation of^ 156. 

Ghoul, derivation of, 294. 

Gigging, derivation of, 294. 

Gite, Gyte, derivation of, 294. 

Glossary in Professor Atkinson's 
translation of the Passions and 
Homilies in the Lebar Brecc 
criticized by Dr. Stokes, 215-232. 

Goluptious, derivation of, 295. 

Gooseberry, derivation of, 156. 

Gorce, ' a pool of water to keep fish 
in,' etymologr of, 8. 

Gourd, ' ^se dice,' derivation oi^ 296. 

Graze, derivation of, 157. 

Griddle, * pan for baking cakes on,' 
derivation of^ 158. 


jff, the aspirate, difficulty in, 73. 
Hain, H. M., 'Grammar of Volapiik.' 


//ale, derivation of, 296. 

Hall, B., quoted, 3. 

Hampole's * Pricke of Conscience,' 

Dr. Andreae's paper on the MSS. 

of, Proc. xiii; 261. 
//and of Glory, derivation of, 295. 
//astelets, • part of the inwards of a 

wild boar,' derivation of, 158. 
//avoc, translation of, 296.. 
Hayti and Cuba, words borrowed 

from, 145. 
//ead, figurative expressions in con- 
nexion with the word, Proc, xviii. 
Health, various meanings of the word, 

Proc, xvii. 
//eart, various meanings of the word, 

/V<v. xvii. 
/leaty in horse-racing, Proc. xvi. 
Henderson, Mr., his Lingua based on 

Latin, 80. 

INDEX TO PHIL. TRANS. 1888-9-90. 


Heterodites in Modem and Middle 
Irish, io8 ti sea. 

Historical and Biblic^rapbical Notes 
on various non-Italian languages 
spoken in some parts of Italy, 

liockepot^^^Xo pot,' 18. 

Uog^ as the first portion of place- 
names, 297. 

Homt^ original meaning of^ Proc. xvi. 

Home and Colonial Cockne^isms, 
Mr. Ellis's paper on, Proc, xiv. 

HonU'Rule^ origin of the invention of 
the term, Proc, xvi. 

HoH€^ 'a stone,' derivation of, 159. 

Horse^ourser^ Horse-scorcer^ 'ad^er 
in horses,' etymology of, 9. 

Hughes, Prof., his printing telegraph, 

Hurlyburly^ 'a tumult,' correction in 
the derivation of, 159. 

Huichy etymology o^ 12. 


Jft the virtue in an, 65. 

lU^ derivation of, 297. 

Illjrrian language, where spoken, 340, 

with Linguistic Map No. III. 
Illyrian version of one of Boccaccio's 

stories, 362. 
Imperfect and aorist, their early 

disappearance from Russian, 257. 
Initial vo in Latin, 46. 
Innisfallen, the Annals of, 365. 
Inscription of S. Vigeans, 392. 
'* International " or rational language, 

mentioned, Proc. v. 
Irish Annals, linguistic value of the, 

365 et seq, 
Ireland, Annalsof the Kingdom of, 366. 
Irish Annals, Three Fragments of, 367. 
Irish loans firom Anglo-Saxon, 420- 

Irish loans from Latin, 378-384. 

Irish loans from Middle-£nglish, 430- 

Irish loans from Old-French, 384-387. 

Irish loans from Old-Norse, 424-6. 

Irish loans from Welsh, 389-90 

Irish words etymologically interesting, 

Irregular numerals in Russian, 260. 

Italian simple sounds, table of, 201- 

Italian version of one of Boccaccio's 

stories, 357. 
Ive^ or Hero Ive, derivation of, 297. 


Jalaps a Mexican word, derivation 

of, 142. 
Jay^ etymology of, 298. 
Jetsam^ etymology of, 13. 


Kappadokia, ancient, the language of, 

Kellner, Dr. Leon, "Caxton's 

Syntax and Style," etc, see the 

"Appendix," printed in Part II., 

pages i-cxxvi. (For Contents of this 

paper see its page iii.) 

Kerckhoffs, M., Director of the 
Academy for Volapiik, on the num- 
ber of vowels in Volapiik, 69 ; 
books on Volapiik by, 85. 

Key to Albanian phonetic symbols, 

King's * Art of Cookery,* quoted, 17. 

Kirchof, Alfred, ' Grammar of 

Volapiik,' 85. 

Knave of Clubs, the, 15. 

L (in combination with preceding 

letters), the difficulty o^ 73. 
Lacaita, Sir J., 341. 
Lake^ not a borrowed form, but a 

genuine English word, 298. 
LampaSt ' a horse-disease,' derivation 

of, 299. 
Lampers^ Lawmpas, *thin silk,' deri- 

vation of, 299. 
Langue Internationale, Dr. Esperanto's 

scheme for a universal language, 82. 
Larboardy etymology of, 13. 
Latchy *to moisten,' derivation of, 

Latin consonant-laws, 316 ^ seq, 
Latin Language, Vocalic Laws of the, 

43 et seq, 
Latin, Irish loans from, 378-384. 
Latin, loan-words in, X'jz et seq. 
Laveer^ 'to tack against the wind,' 

derivation of, 159. 
Leoy * un tilled land,' 300 ; LeOj Lee, 

* a pasture,' derivations of, 301. 
Lebar Brecc, Professor Atkinson's 

Edition of the, reviewed by Dr. 

Whitley Stokes, 203 et seq, 
Lebar Laignech, Annals in the, 367. 
Lecan Mic Firbisigb, the Lost Book 

of, 366. 


INDEX TO PHIL. TRANS. 1888-9-90. 

Lecky, Mr., his remarks on Heir 
Dombusch's paper on Volapuk, 
Proc. iv. 

Leet^ derivation of, i6a 

Letters, difficulty in distinguishing 
pairs of, 71. 

Liana^ lAane^ * cordage formed by 
climbing plants,' derivation of, 302. 

Lichfield Cathedral MSS. of the 
• Pricke of Conscience,* 279. 

Limpet^ Latin origin of, 302. 

LingOf derivation of, 160. 

Lingua^ the name of Mr. Henderson's 
scheme for a universal language, 80. 

Linguistic Islands (including Maps), 
where non-Italian languages are 
spoken in the Neapolitan and 
Sicilian Provinces, 335-342. 

Linguistic value of the Irish Annals, 
365 et seq. 

List of Members corrected to July, 
1888, printed in Part I. ; August, 
16, 1890, printed in Part IL ; July, 
1891, printed in Part III. 

Loan-words in Latin, 172 et seq. 

Loch C4 the Annals of, 366. 

Long-vowels in Latin, 52. 

Lord's Prayer, The, in Albanian and 
Romance, varying versions of, 
350-1 ; nine varieties of, in the 
Albanian dialect of Italy, 351-354, 
five other varieties of the, 354-356. 

Low- Latin words in Irish, 375-8. 


-m (/) stems in Russian, 259. 
Maguey and pulque^ nou- Mexican 

words, 144. 
Maltitty Mexican for Martin, 138. 
ManiiOy * a spirit or fetish,* derivation 

of, 160. 
Marabout, Marabou, * saints or 

religious persons,* derivation of, 

Marcasite, *a kind of iron pyrites,* 

derivation of, 161. 
Marry Gip, derivation of, 302. 
Marten, derivation of, 303. 
Maunder, * to drivel,* derivation of, 

May -weed, *a plant,* derivation of, 303. 

Mazzard, *the head,* derivation of, 

Mean, * to moan,* derivation of, 304. 

Meese, Mees, *a mansion, etc.,' deri- 
vation of, 304. 
Alelocotone, * quince,* derivation of, 


Merdles, * a game,* derivation ol^ 161. 
Metl, a Mexican word, 144. 
Mexicatl, 'a Mexican,' 140. 
Mexico, pronunciation of, 138, 
Mexico, the Rev. Prof. Skeat's artide 

on the language of, 137 ^ seq. 
Milk, the verb, 305. 
MUIL, ' a field,* a Mexican word, 138. 
Mite, 'a small coin,* derivation of, 305. 
Moccassin, derivation of, 162. 
Modem Greek language, where 

spoken, 339-40, with Linguistic 

Maps Nos. VII. and X. 
Modem Greek version of odc of 

Boccaccio*8 stories, 359. 
Modem Russian compared with its 

earlier forms, and with other 

Slavonic languages, 255 et seq. 
Modification of original diphthongs 

in Latin, 56. 
' Modified * u in Latin, 43. 
Molland, * high ground, ' = maoT'knd, 

Monntts, derivation oC 306. 

Montanto, Montant, fencing terms, 

derivation of, 305. 
Moose, derivation of, 162. 
MoRFiLL, W. R., "An Attempt to 

Explain somePeculiarittes of M odem 

Russian,*' etc., Art. XV., pp. 255- 

Morris, Dr. R., his edition of the 

* Pricke of Conscience,* 261 ; "Pali 

Miscellanies.*' Proc. vi. 
Moteuh^oma, Mexican for Montezuma^ 

Mulatto, derivation of, 162. 

Murray, Dr. J. A. H., "On the 

term beetle-browed, and the word 

behaviour," An, VIIL, pp. 130-135. 


Nahuatl, * Mexican,* 137. 

Nasal sounds of the dialect of Urbino, 

199 ^/ seq. 
Naua, *to move in cadence,' a 

Mexican word, 137. 
Nauae, *near,* a Mexican word, 144. 
Necutli, * honey,* a Mexican word, 140. 
Nenuphar, Nuphar, 'the yellow 

water-lily,* derivation of, 162. 
Nest, derivation of, 163. 
New Umbrian, changes in, 55. 
Not-pated, * hair cut short,* derivation 

of, 306. 
Noun -endings in Latin, 47. 
Noun -stems in Latin, 47. 
iVlS'-stems, iii. 

IHDEX TO PHIL. TRANS. 1889-9-90. 


' the entrails of a deer/ 
>gy of, 14, 163. 
in Russian, 256. 


'a kind of vitreous lava,' 
>gy of, 14. 
exican for ' tiger,' derivation 

ans of Kilronan, the lost 

f the, 366. 

itian language, 35. 

ish nouns, 235-254. 

ch words in Irish, 3S4-387. 

e names and other words in 

41&-424; Irish loans from 

irian, changes in, 54. 
[exican for Lorenzo^ 138. 
Mrs., ambiguous use of the 
nil by, 89. 
tymology of, 306. 
iry, the lost Books of the 

vowels in Latin, 49. 
in early example of, 307. 
id,' a Mexican word, 140. 


nology of, 15. 

iscellanies," by Dr. Morris, 


ae of the Knave of Clubs, 15. 

; etymology of, 15. 

', ' a measure of long distance, ' 

ion o^ 163. 

)eeches of language, 33 etseq, 

to plaister a wall, etymology 

Iheinold, his suggestion of 
Kliseval institution of annal- 

s 365. 

tdroizin^ Mexican for Peter^ 
n, 141. 
•a furrier,* 2. 
exican for Felix ^ 137. 
jeish gray,' derivation of, 307. 
exts of Darius, the, 26. 
Mexican for ' mat,' 144. 
See Feon. 

tiical Society of America, 
t report on Volapiik by their 
ittee, 85 et seq, 
language, 39. 

^, PUkanmny^ *a negro or 
infant/ derivation of, 307. 

Pictish Chronicle, the, 392. 

Pictish names and other words in 

Irish, 390-418. 
Picts, four irreconcileable hypotheses 

as to their linguistic and ethnological 

affinities, 392. 
Pile^ * a stake,' derivation of, 164. 
Pinches, Mr., his discovery of the 

language of ancient Kappadokia, 

Pinjold^ derivation of, 164. 

Placky ' a small Scotch coin,' deriva- 
tion of, 164. 

"Plumes ^oustrkh^^^ an early form 
of ostrich^ 307. 

Pompelmoose, Pomplemoosiy ' a shad- 
dock,' derivation of, 308. 

Popoca^ * to smoke,' a Mexican word, 

Popocalepetl, a volcano in Mexico, 144. 

Potf to go tOt derivation of, 17. 

Poverty of the tense-system in Russian, 

' Pretonic ' letters in Latin, 47. 

' Pricke of Conscience,' analysis of 

the various readings of the MSS. 

of the, 261 ^ seq. 
Printing types, new, required in 

Volapiik, 72. 
Proven9al language, where spoken, 

340, with Linguistic Map No. IV. 
Proven9al version of one of Boccaccio's 

stories, 361. 
Ptolemy's Geography, 392. 
Pully derivation of, 308. 
Purse, origin of, 18. 
PnsSf * a cat,' derivation of, 308. 


Quassia, derivation of, 308. 
Quauhnecufayolli^ 'bee,' a Mexican 

word, 140. 
Quauitl, ' tree,' a Mexican word, 140. 
Quran, 'a wench,' derivation of, 309. 
Quichua words, list of, 99. 
Quip, derivation of, 164. 


R, the difficulty of, 73. 

Rail, * a bar,' derivation of, 164. 

Recheat^ 'recall' (hunting term), 

derivation of, 165. 
* Re-composition ' in Latin, 52. 
Reest, Rest, Wreest, *a part of a 

plough,' derivation of, 105. 
Reel, derivation o^ 165. 


INDEX TO PHIL. TRANS. 1888-9-90. 

Reeves, Dr., 'Culdees,* 392. 

Reveille^ derivation of, 309. 

Kid^ * to clear ground/ derivation o( 

Rigol^ *a circlet,* derivation of, 310 

Rtll^ ' a streamlet,* derivation of, 166. 

Rwelled^ * wrinkled,* etymology of, 18. 

Robbins^ derivation of, 310. 

Rolle, Richard, his * Pricke of Con- 
science,* 261. 

Romance of Blanchardyn and Eglan- 
tine, account of the MSS. of, by 
Dr. Leon Kellner, see the Appendix 
in Part II., pp. cxvi-cxxvi. 

Romance phrases still in use in the 
Diocese of Taranto, 349. 

Roots, the impracticability of any, on 
an artificial scheme, for the pur- 
poses of a universal language, 78 
et seq. 

Root-syllables, change of, in Latin, 44. 

Rossi, Monsignor R., thanks accorded 
to, 341. 

Rother^ • an ox,* derivation of, 167. 

Runty ' a bullock/ derivation of, 168. 

Russian nouns, formation of, 256. 

Russian phonetics, 255 ^ seq, 

Rustf derivation of, 168. 


Samenhof=Dr. Esperanto, 82. 

Santoro, Signor Cosimo, 341. 

Sayce, the Rev. Prof., ** The 
Fifteenth Anniversary Address 
delivered by, " Art. II., pp. 23-42. 

Scabious^ * a plant,' derivation of^ 168. 

Scamble^ * to struggle,' is allied to 
scamper and shamble^ 310. 

Schleyer, Herr, the inventor of 
Volapiik, 63 et seq. ; his statement 
of the principles of a universal 
language, 93. 

Scotorum, Chronicum, 366. 

Scour^ * to run hastily over,' deri- 
vation of, 310. 

Scur^ Skirr, * to run rapidly over,' 
derivation of, 311. 

5-stems in the Celtic languages, ic» 
et seq. ; in British languages, lia 

Sequin y * a. die for coins,' derivation 
of, 168 

Sere, * withered,' derivation of, 168. 

SAal/ and w///, illustrations of the 
confusion of, 19. 

S^iiittfocJby derivation of, 31 1. 

S/iare, * to fork the l^s,' derivation 
of, 312. 

Shatters * scatter,* 1 8. 

Shire^ derivation of, 312. 

Skeat, the Rev. Prof., "Notes on 
English Etymology,** Art. I., pp. 
1-22; *'A Second List of English 
Words found in English French." 
Art. VIL, pp. 112-130; "The 
Language of Mexico; and Words 
of West-Indian Region,** Art. IX., 
pp. 137-149; "Notes on English 
Etymology,** Art. X., pp. 150-171 ; 
•* Notes on English Etymology," 
Art. XVII., pp. 284-315. [FuU 
alphabetical lists of the words con- 
tained in these Articles are given 

on pp. 22, 1 14-130. 149. 171. 3*5 ] 

Skene*s ' Chronicles of the Picts and 
Scots,* 392. 

Skirretj Skerret^ *A plant allied to 
thewater-parsnep, derivation of, 313. 

Sophy J ' a title of the Shah of Persia,' 
derivation of, 168. 

Sounder^ * herd of wild swine,* 313. 

Souset Scrwsey ' to plunge down upon 
suddenly,* etymology of, 18. 

South America, words borrowed from, 

South-Eastem Susiana, the language 
of, 27. 

Sparver, * canopy of a bed, ' derivation 
of, 314. 

' Speckled Book,* or the Lebar Brecc, 
203 et seq, 

Spelin, points in which it is superior 
to Volapiik, 91 ; the value of, 

Sprague, C. E., ' Handbook of 
Volapuk,* 85. 

Stalwart^ derivation of, 314. 

Stammer y derivation of, 314. 

Staniely ' a kind of hawk, * etymology 
of, 2a 

Stewardy origin of, 22. 

Stoffel, C. , his article on Decoy^ 2. 

Stokes, Whitley, D.C.L., "On 
JS'-stems in the Celtic Languages,' 
Art. VI., pp. loo-iii ; •*On Pro^ 
fessor Atkinson's Edition of tb^ 
Passions and Homilies in the Leb?-* 
Brecc,'* Art XIII., pp. 203-234 
his proposed etymologies of son» * 
words in the Lebar Brecc, 233-4- 
** On the Linguistic Value of tip- ' 
Irish Annals," Art XX., pp^* 

StoPy derivation of, 314. 

Stoupy * a conflict,* derivarion of, 31-^ 

Stress-accent and pitch-accent ^-^ 

Latin, 46. 
Sullivan, A. M., inventor of the ter**^ 

Home Rule^ Proc, xvi 

INDEX TO PHIL. TRANS. 1888-9-90. 



Italian simple sounds, 2 

Albanian and Romance 
still in use in the Diocese of, 
'temple,' a Mexican word, 

!xtcan for God, 140. 
mountain,' a Mexican word, 

Otranto, Albanian language 

in, 341 et seq. 

Professor Atkinson's trans- 
3f the Passions and Homilies 
Lebar Brecc, 206. 
lerivation of, 170. 

'large lute,' derivation of, 

agments of Irish Annals, 367. 
acican for Diaz^ 138. 
.ch, the Annals of, 367. 
'earth,' a Mexican word,' 

'to eat,' a Mexican word, 141. 
ire,' a Mexican word, 139. 
Mexican for the blundered 
h hmatOy 143. 
r/, 'egg,' a Mexican word, 

tien,' a Mexican word, 14a 
on of the Passions and 
ies in the Lebar BrecCi by 
tor Atkinson, 208 ei seq, 
•, denvation of, 315. 
r's Cash Accounts for 1887, 
xix; 1888 and 1 889, see 
II., immediately after the 
page, 204 ; for 1890, 434. 
protoxide of zinc,' derivation 


derivation of, 315. 
prince of cats,' derivation of, 

iavourite Mexican diminutive, 


he Annals of, 366. 

: in VoIapUk, 68. 

ited vowels in Latin, 48. 

il language, Schleyer's state- 

3f the principles of a, 93. 

d language, various schemes 

sed for a, 62. 

il language, proposed con- 

3 for a, 59 ^ seq. 

Urbino, the dialect of, 198 it seq. 


Vagrant ^ derivation of, 22, 315. 
Vannic inscriptions, their importance, 

Verb-endings in Latin, 47. 

Vicary, Thomas, first resident surgeon 
governor of St Bartholomew's, 
Dr. Fumivall's account of, Proc, 
X et seq, 

Vigeans, S., inscription of, 392. 

Vocalic Laws of the Latin Language, 
43 et seq, 

Volapuk, Herr K. Dombosch's paper 
on, Proc, ii. 

VolapUk, the American Philosophical 
Society's Report on, 59 ti seq, ; 
ignored by the American Philo- 
sophical Society, diet seq. \ eminently 
suitable as the basis of a universal 
language, 63 et seq, ; the at present 
scanty literature of, 81 ; points in 
which it is superior to Spelin, 90 ; 
the American Committee on, points 
on which Prof. Bauer differs from 
and agrees with, 91, 92 ; the value 
of, 96. 


Wave^ derivation of, 17a 

Wayfarings 'travelling,* derivation 
of, 17a 

Welsh, Irish loans from, 389-9a 

Welsh settlers in Tyrawley, 389. 

West- Indian origin, words of, 137 
et seq. 

West Indies, English words borrowed 
from the, 144. 

Western Asia, importance of the ex- 
tinct languages of, 25. 

Western English dialects, F. T. El- 
worthy's paper on, Proc, ix. 

Wharton, E. R., "The Vocalic 
Laws of the Latin Language," 
Art. in., pp. 43-58; "Loan- 
Words in Latin," Art. XL, pp. 
172-197; "On Latin Consonant- 
laws," Art. XVIII., pp. 316-335. 
Whicche^ see Hutch, 
Whimbrel^ 'a sort of curlew,' etymo- 
logy of, 22. 
Wigwam, derivation of, 171. 

WiLCZYNSKi, GusTAVUS, "Thirty- 
five Words of the Cayapas Indians 
in the Interior of Ecuador," Art. 
v., pp. 98.99. 


INDEX TO PHIL. TRANS. 1888-9-90. 

Wilkins, Bishop, quotation from his 
* Essay towards a Real Character 
and a Philosophical Language,* 78. 

Windhill, Yorkshire, Dr. Joseph 
Wright's paper on the dialect of, 
Prifc, vii. 

Woodhouse, Sir Wm., quoted, 2. 

Wright, Dr. Joseph. ''The Dia- 
lect of Windhill, in the West 
Riding of Yorkshire," Firoc. vii. 


Xolotl, 'servant, slave,' a Mexican 
word, 143. 


Yatn^ * a kind of fruit,' derivation of, 









(From Dr. E/s edition of Caxton's eDglisht Bkmchardyn avd Eglantine 
for the Early English Text Society, 1890.) 







§ 1. Relationt between theNimm 
and the otiier paHi of 
speech, p. V. 

§ 2. Abstrat't and concrete 
Nouns intercluingedy p. 

• • • 

§ 3. NuviheTy p. ix. 

4. The Nominative GisCj p. xi. 

5. The Genitive Case^ p. xv. 

6. The Dative Case^ p. xxiii. 

7. T^ Accusative Case, p. 

5 8. The Article^ p. xxvi. 
I 9. The Adjective^ p. xxviii. 

10. Personal Pronouns^ p. xxix. 

11. Bejlexive Pronoun, p.xxxv. 

12. ITie Possessive Pronoun, p. 


§ 13. The Demonstrative Pro- 

nonns, p. xxxvi. 
§ 14. InteiTogative Pronouns, p. 

§ 16. The Relative Pronoun, p. 

§ 16. The Indefinite Pronouns, 

p. xlvi. 


§ 17. Impersonal Verbs, p. xlvii. 

§ 18. Intransitive, Transitive, 

and Reflexive Verbs, p. li. 

Auxiliary Verbs, p. liii. 

Voice, p. liv. 

Verbal Forms in Old Eng^ 
lish, indifferent with re- 
gard to Voice, p. Iv. 

Tense, p. Ivi. 

Mo4td, p. lix. 

Imperative Mood, p. Ix. 

The Infinitive, Active and 
Passive, p. Ixi. 
§ 26. The Simple Infinitive not 
so much restricted as in 
Modem English, p. Ixiv. 

§ 27. * To » and 'for to ' preceding 
the Oerundial Infinitive, 
p. Ixv, 

§ 28. Fu/notions of the Infinitive, 
p. Ixv. 

§ 29. The Infinitive Absolute, p. 

§ 30. The Infinitive in connec- 
tion with the Accusative 
{or Nominative) Case, p. 

§ 81. The Infinitive sometimes 
omitted, p. Ixxi. 

§ 32. The Present Participle, p. 

§23, The Past Participle, p. 
34. JZmt Verbal Noun, p. Ixxiv. 
36. The Adverb, p. Ixxvii. 

36. Prepositions, p. Ixxxii. 

37. Conjunctions, p. Ixxxvi. 

§ 38. Concord, p. xoi. 
§ 39. Co-ordination instead of 

Subordination^ p. xciv. 
§ 40. Noun Clauses^ p. xov. 
§ 41. Chafige of direct and in- 
direct speech, p. xovin. 
§ 42. Adjective Clauses, p. c. 

§ 43. Subject and Predicate {In- 
version), p. ci. 
§ 44. The Predicative Verb, p. 

• • • 


45. Place of the Object, p. ciii. 

46. Place of the Attribute, p. cv. 

47. Place of the Adverb, p, cvi. 
§ 48. Apposition, p. cvii. 
§ 49. Contraction, p. cviii. 


L Caxton as a translator. Hi* 
style, p. ex. 
II. The Manuscript sand Prints 
of the Romance, p. cxvi. 



Abbott, A Shakspearian Grammar. 

Aelfric's Homilies. Ed. B. Thorpe. 

Aelfric's Lives of Saints. Ed. Skeat, E. E. T. S. 

Aucren Riwle. Ed. Morton. 

Ayenbite of Inwyt, by Dan Michel. Ed. R. Morris, E. E. T. S. 

Aymon, The four Sonnes of, by Caxton. Ed. Octavia Richardsoo, E. E T. 8. 

Beowulf. Ed. M. Heyne, Paderbom, 1879. 

Blades, William Caxton, 4°. 

Blnnchardyn and Eglantyne. The present edition. 

Blickling Homilies. Ed. R. Morris, E. E. T. S. 

Boorde, Andrew. Ed. J. F. Fumivall, E. E. T. S. 

(Charles the Grete, by Caxton. Ed. S. J. Herrtage, E E. T. S. 

Chaucer, Boece. Boethius's De Consolatione philosophic. Ed. K. Monis, 188^. 

Chaucer Society. 
Chaucer. Ed. R. Morris, 1866, 6 vols. 
Chronicle, Anglo-Saxon. Ed. Earlo. 

Cura Pastoralis, Pope Gregory's. Old English Translation. Ed. Sweet, R E. T. 8. 
Curial, Caxtou's. Ed. F. J. Fumivall, E. E. T. S. 
Cursor Mundi. A Northumbrian Poem of the 14th Century. Ed. R. Morris, 

I— V. London, E. E. T. S. 
Curtcsye, Book of, by Caxton. Ed. F. J. Fumivall, E. E. T. S. 
Eiuenkol, Streifziigo durch die M.E. Syntax. Miinster, 1887. 
Elene, Cynewulf s. Ed. Zupitza. Berlin, 1877. 
Eneydos, Caxton's. Ed. M. T. Culley, E. E. T. S. 
Gascoigne, Steel-Glass. Ed. Arber. 

Genesis and Exodus, Story of. Ed. R. Morris, E. E. T. S. 
Gesta Romanorum. Ed. S. J. Herrtage, 1879, E. E. T. S. 
Gorboduc or Ferrex and Porrex. Ed. L. Toulmin-Smith. Heilbronn, 1888. 
Greene, Robt., Works. Ed. A. Dyce. 
Guy of Warwick. Ed. Zupitza, E. E. T. S. 
Hampole, Prose Treatises. Ed. Perry, E. E. T. S. 

Huon of Burdeux, by Sir John Bourchier, Lord Beriiers. Ed. S. L. Lee, E, E T. S. 
Koch, C. F., Ilistorische Grammatik der englischen Sprache II. Second edition. 

Revised by Zupitza. 
Layauion's Brut. Ed. Sir F. Madden. 
Lyly's Euphues. Ed. Landmann. Heilbronn, 1887. 
Marlowe's Works. Ed. A. Dyce. 
Melusino. Ed. A. K. Donald, E. E. T. S. 
Morte Darthur, by Malory. Ed. 0. H. Somraer, 1889. 
O. E. H. = Old English Homilies, I. 11. Ed. R Morris, E. E. T. S. 
Old English Miscellany. Ed. R. Morris, E. E. T. S. 
Orm. = Ormulum. Ed. White-Holt. 
Orosius. Ed. Sweet, E. E. T. S. 
Pc(rl(i's Works. Ed. A. Dyce. 
Piers Plowman. Ed. Skeat, E. E. T. S. 
Schmidt, Alex., Shakspere- Lexicon. 
Shakspere's Works. Globe Edition. 
Spenser's Works. Ed. R. Morris. 
Starkey, England in the Reign of Henry VII. Ed. J. M. Cowper and S. H. 

Herrtage, E. E. T. S. 
Trevisa, Higden's Polychronicon. Ed. Churchill Babington and Bawson Lamby. 
Wills, Bury. Camden Society. 

Wills, Early English. Ed. F. J. Fumivall, E. E. T. S. 
Wulfstan, Homilies. Ed. Napier. Berlin, 1883. 
Wyclifs English Works. Ed. F. D. Matthew, E. E. T. S. 



§ 1. Relations between tJie Noun and the other parts of speech. 

From the logician's point of view, every * part of speech ' has a 
rovince of its own, strictly limited and separated from the other 
parts ' ; but in practice, language constantly cuts the line drawn by 
listotle, and some English students are wont to say that nearly 
^ery short English noun and verb can be used as verb, noun, and 
Ijective, while nearly every adjective can be used as a noun : * a 
lant, plant-life or plant-culture, to plant ; tea, tea-district, we'll tea 
3U at our tent ; love, love trifles, to love ; his english, English ways, 
) english ; the true, the beautiful ; true that line,' <kc. 

In Old English there are several instances in which both noun 
Qd adjective are denoted by the same form of a word, as earfo^ 
lifficulty and difficult), leoht (light «&., bright adj,\ weor^ (worth, 
). and adj,)f yire (wrath, sh, and adj.) ; every adjective may be used 
ibetantively, in the singular as well as in the plural, in the positive 
% well as in the comparative and superlative degree ; the infinitive 
ad the verbal noun (in -ung^ -i'ng) may be said to belong to the 
oun as well as to the verb. Theoretically, the tendency of every 
terary language of the present day is to observe the laws of logic in 
rammar and style, and to restrict as far as possible the use of every 
irt of speech to its own dominion, though practically, as stated 
jove, speakers and writers claim and exercise full freedom in this 
ispect. Caxton and his contemporaries did not care to bo fettered 
y niceties of logic, and thus we have to state the following relations, 
L his books, between the noun and the other parts of speech. 

1. Nouns used as adjectives. 

We have kept in Modern English a few such expressions as 
j^ueen-mother, queen-dowager, lord-lieutenant,' ^ where *queen,' *lord ' 

1 At the Philological Society's Meeting on Nov. l.,when parts of this Intro- 
action were read as a Paper, the Members divided these 3 sample-words into 
vo classes, I. two nouns, * queen-mother ' ; IL noun and adjective, ' queen- 
owager,' * lord-lieutenant.* 

vi Syntax L § 1. Relations between the Noun and other parU, 

aro to be looked on more as appositions than as the first part of 
compounds; and there are others, like * fellow-creature, deputy- 
marshal, champion-sculler,' where 'fellow,' 'deputy,' 'champion' are 
used quite adjectively. But while in Modem English this use is 
restricted in common speech to a few case^, — I exclude the conscious 
archaisms in poetry and historic romances, — Caxton is very free in 
forming such ajyposidve comjyositiwis : — 

the paynem kyngo Aly modes, BlancJiardyn 38/2, 90/25, 133/11; 
a man straunger,^ ibid. 43/9 (original : homme estrange) ; a knyght 
straunger,! 51/19, 125/33; lady paramours, 78/31,205/23; leches 
cyrurgiena,^ 102/18; kyngo sarasyne,! 129/8, 133/31 (sarasyn is a 
pure adjective as well, cf. 131/15); kyng prysoner, 148/5; felon 
conspiratonrs, 178/16; felon paynems, 189/1 ; felon enmyes, 205/25. 

This is quite a common ^liddlc English use. 

Cursor Mundi — yon traitor juu, 4397 ; knau bams (male chil- 
dren), 5544. Cf. Orm. Gloss, s. v. 

Chaucer — a coward ape, III. 198 ; felon look, V. 9. 

Gesta Ronmnorum — the fole knyg*t, p. 20 ; lorell knaue, p. 80; 
a leper man, p. 190 ; the traitour servant, p. 316. 

Early E, Wills (ed. Fumivall) — the freres prechoures, 17/2. 

Morte Darthur — queens sorceresses, 1^1 I'll ; cf. 212/19. the 
same traitour knyght, 289/34 ; cf. 290/17, 294/33. 

This use becomes rare in the 16th century, and probably dies out 
for a time, though it is afterwards revived in literary, if not iu 
common, speech. Berners, in his Huon of Bnrdeujc, has still *a 
felon traitour,' I. 5/4 ; * thou false traitour knyght,' I. 41/26. But 
the edition of 1601 alters the latter passage into ^trai/terous knyght' 
'Traitor knight' and like expressions will, however, be found in 
plenty of later poems and romances, thoiiu:h more or less consciously 
as archaisms. 

2. Adjectives used suhstiDdirelf/. 

Compared ^^'ith its power in Old English, and even in the first 
two centuries of the Middle-English period, the adjective of llie 
prt^sent day has lost a good deal of its vigour and indei^udencc. 
By inflexion, any adjective coiihl formerly express alone what it can 
now say only by adding a noun : e. g. se gikla (the good man), faf 

* This |K>8tiK>sition of the atljcctivo-nouD, due to French influence, will I* 
ilonlt with under Arrangement of Words. 

Syntax L § 1. Adjectives used as SuistarUives. vii 

kI (the good, in opposition to evil), ])a gddan (the good ones, the 
y;hteon8). We can still use : ' the good and evil of this life, of 
Iveraity,' &c. ; * the good (jil.) shall be happy, the evil (pi.) miserable, 
tieafter.' But in consequence of the inflexion having decayed, the 
dependence of the adjective was to some extent given up, in order 
avoid ambiguity. In Modem English prose we only retain — and 
the plural only, as to persons — those which exclude all ambiguity, 
g. * the poor and the rich,' always plural now, Psalms and Bible 
led singidar, or whose ambiguity the context removes. Caxton's 
le of the adjectives is, in this respect, nearly modem. 

The adjectives used substantively may be divided into the 
Uowing groups : — 

(a) Adjectives qualifying concrete nouns, mostly persons. 

Speeyall = friend, Blanch. 84/34; elsewhere, frende specyall, 72/ 
), 73/30, 75/9. 

crysten ^=. christians, 154/1, 183/31 (crysten men, 140/2). 

famyllyer = intimate friend. 'That night noon of them alio, 
ere he neuer so moche her famyllyer, cam to see her,' Blanch, 

the quycke = the quick (living) flesh. Cf. the French : toucher 
1 vtf, ' loue smote her ayen wytli a darte to the quycke tyll |)e horto 
f her,' Blanch. 67/32. 

his elder ^ his elders. ' He passed them that were his elder in 
^,' Blanch. 13/21. Original : les plus sagies de soy. 

(fi) Adjectives used as abstract nouns. 

Such adjectives in the positive degree are rarely met with. 
]!a8uall fryuolles,' Blanch, 44/21, translates Old French 'frivoleances.' 
ret ought ye to maynten & holde thapposite,* ibid. 44/17 ; in 
irtayne, 97/1. 

To this group belong also the adjectives denoting a. languages, 
\ : frenshe, Blanch. 1/24 ; englysshe, 1/24, 2/9 ; b. colours, as : in red, 
4/10, 164/5 ; and c. adjectives in the genitive case used adverbially, 
I : of freshe, Blanch. 164/12, 165/21 ; of newe, ibid. 100/26, 147/18, 
95/7. The latter correspond to the Middle English * newes,' Story 
f Gen. and Eocodus (ed. R. Morris), 1. 240, and note; of lyght = 
ghtly, 129/33. 

There is one instance of an abstract adjective in the comparative 
egree : * men must suflre, for better to haue,* Blanch. 68/25. 

viii Syntax I. § 1. Prepositions as Nouns. § 2. Absircut Noum, 

But it occurs pretty often in the superlative : — ^The thykkest of 
the folke = the thykkest press, 42/6, 59/5, 106/8, 167/16 ; it is for 
your best, 44/23, 185/19 ; he sholde do the best and the worsts 48/16; 
at the last, 188/20, and frequently. 
3. Prepos-ltums used as Nouns. 

* Her best biloued (Blanchardyn) was alle redy com to his aboue 
ouere Eubyon,' Blanch. 85/3 ; his aboue (in this as weU as in the 
following two passages) translates the French au-dessus ; ' they were 
come to their aboue of their enmyes,' 142/32 ; *ye are therof come io 
your dbovs* 149/27. 

4. The Adverb used as a Noun. 

There is one instance only in Blanchardyn : ' he had called alle 
his barons and lordes, & alle the gentylmen of there aboute^ 98/16. 
Cf. Modem English, the whereabouts ^ perhaps also Aymon, 59/5: 
* ye shall now here and understande from tJie hensf ourthon a tenyble 
and a pyteous songe.' 

§ 2. Abstract and concrete Nouns intercJtanged. 

Logic classifies nouns, with reference to the mode in which 
things exists into concrete and abstract. However, not <Hily in 
poetry, but also in simple prose both classes are often (as now) 

(a) Abstracts used in a concrete sense : — 

counseyll (as now) = French conseil, * (She) spake at that same 
owre wyth certayne of her counseyll^' Blanch, 76/32. 

chivalrie = knights. * I do yelde and delyuere into your handes 
the kynge of Polonye, your enemye, whiche I haue taken with the 
helpo of your sone, and of your noble and worthy cheualrye,'^ 108/34. 
Cf. Morte Darthur, 47/22. 

/ofe = lovor, sweetheart (as now), 25/2, 26/15, et passim. Cf. 
Gloss, lover occurs 30/14. 

tjrace = gracious j>crson. *I presente this lytyl book unto the 
noble grace of my sayd lady,* 1/7, 8. (* Her Grace, your Grace,' 

Verbal nouns in -huj^ originally abstracts, often become concrete. 

rlMitiij = clothes, Blattch. 148/18, 159/32. (Bible: *her 
clothing was of wrought i^^Ki.*) 

A*v^w<; = a kiss. * That one onelv kvssvng that I toke of yow, 
Bhwch. i3i 8. 

^ So in Byron, Macaulay's /rry, &c. &c 

niax L § 2. Changes of Abstract and Concrete Nouns, ix 

It is doubtful whether ' holpes ' in the following passage is cor- 
if or a misprint for helper* :^ * Would Subyon or not, and all his 
Ipos, the noble lady was taken out of his power/ 197/21. Helpe 

helper looks suspicious, because it does not occur, so far as I am 
are, elsewhere in Caxton ; but it is used in the same sense in the 
Try of Genesis and Eocodus, 1. 3409 : 

And (letro) at wi^ moysen festelike, 
And tagte him si^en witterlike 
Under him helpes o^ere don. 

Of course * helpe' is not to be confounded with *help'; the 
ter is abstract, the former concrete ; cf. hunte = hunter. Laya- 
m, 21337 ; 0. E, Horn. XL 209 ; Orm. 13471 ; Chaucer, Knight's 
&, 1160; Stratmann, s. v.; Skeat, Notes to Piers Ploioman, p. 

Abstracts used for concretes are not very common in Middle 
glish : — 

Cursor Mundi, barunage = barons, 4627, 8533. 

Chancery message = messenger, Maii of Law's Tcde, 333. Cf. 
de = messenger, 0. E. Horn. I. 249, Story of Oen. and Ex, 

Langland {Piers Plowman), retynaunco = a suit of retainers. 
3at, Notes to P. PL, p. 46. treuthe = a true man, a righteous 
Q, Skeat, I. c. 297. 

A few are retained in Modern English, as a justice = judge, a 
ness, <&c. 

{b) Concrete nouns used as abstracts. 

I know of only one instance in Blanchardyny chief = beginning : 
euer he myght come to the chyeff of his cnterpryse,' Blancfi. llj^, 
ef is = cap (caput), which exactly answers to heafod, head Cf. 
rte Darthur 144/8 : * ther by was the liede of the streme, a fayro 

jield = battle, occurs in Morte Darthur 172/17, and is often to 
met with in Elizabethan authors : Gorhodnc, 1. 230 ; Gascoignc, 
el-Glass, pp. 58, 63, 64 ; Spenser, F. Q., I. iii. 379 ; Shakspere, 
unidt, s. V. 
§ 3. Number. 

Cf. our * lady-help,* and * help' (American), the regular word for servant. 

X Syntax I. § 3. Changes of dngular andi plwral Nouns, 

Not all nouns can be used in the singular as well as the. ploial; 
some are restricted to the former, some to the latter. The so-called 
pluralia tantum, which are so numerous in Modem English (beUows, 
gallows, etc.), are not to be met with in Blanchardyn, Tydinge is 
used in the singular as well as in the plural C£ Gloss., • well ga^ 
nyshed of vytaylle,* Aymon, 182/31. Galloics occurs three times. 
*he shold doo make and to be sette up a galhouse,* 187/24; *to 
make him deye upon the galhouse,* 189/3; * (he) sawe a payre of 
galhouse,* 188/2. The French has lesfourches. To conclude by the 
spelling, which also occurs in Four Sons of Aymon, 331/22, Caxton 
apparently connected the word with house; hence the flingolar, as 
proved by the indefinite article in the first instance. 

There are several nouns in the singular and singular form, which, 
according to modern use (save as to * foot '), should appear in the 

'Men see rdte eye his beaulte,* 54/34, 118/1, 10; * which of 
heyght was XV fote long,' 56/34, 163/26; '(they) fel both doune 
humbly at the fote of him,' 126/14 ; * they followed after at the 
back of hym, as the yonge lambe do the sheep,' 106/27.^ 

On the other hand, we find a few plural forms where we should 
expect the singular : 

*When the fayr beatryx, that at her wyndow was lening her 
hande ouer her breste,s%' 189/11. In Old English, as well as in the 
other Teutonic languages, ' breast,' even with reference to male persons, 
was often used in the plural. Cf. Grein, s, v. breost. 

heuem = sky, 43/18, 98/5. The same in Old English, Grein, 8. v. 

shores = shore. * They were nyghe the lande, where as the sayd 
mast, and Blanchanlyn upon it, wjvs cast of the waves imto the 
shore.*^',' 1)7/33 ; * lie sawe hem in grete iiombre, for to fyght nyghe 
by tln' see shorix,' 162/4. 

Al)stracts are, in Alotlorn English, restricted to the singular; in 
Old and Middle English the pUiral is very frequent. It then denotes 
either ,<in(juhtr arfiotitt, as: godnesses, Orw, Ded.^ 252, 276, etc; 
different linds of the ronceptinu^ as : twa sarinesse beo^, 0. E. Hofn-, 

* Or Innibe = lambren ? Stratmau quotes * lombe * as plural from Bobert 
of (rh»ce:ttrr, 'MMK 

yntax L § 3. Plurals of Nmins. § 4. Nominative Case, xi 

103, 105 ; gleadshipcs, Sautes Wards, 263 ; or tho unusual force 
I the conception : 

'whiche boke spceyfyeth .... of the greto adventures, labours, 
igaysshe^, and many other grete disease* of theym bothe,* Blanch. 
/3, 4 ; * the grete humylyte and courtoysy^* that were in Blanch- 
rdyn,' 50/12 ; * sore wepynge & sorowynge his byttirness^,* 114/18 ; 
they beganne to make greto festes and grete loyes, 201/1 ; * other 
ifinyte thynges that are wont to tarry the corages of some enter- 
tyses,' 17/11 ; * But th«ir corages were neuer the lesse tlierfore,' Ayju. 
S2/29 (original: couraiges) ; *all rewthw layde apartc' (French, 
^retz), 17/8, '20 /Q ; *(he) toke ayen his strenthe* and corage wythin 
jrmself,* 190/13 ; ' (he) gafif louyngo and thankes to our lord,' 98/6, 
19/36, 132/13. 

Plurals of verbal nouns (-ing) occur : 26/3 (wepynges) ; 30/1 1 (the 
me); 132/13 (praysynges); 133/29 (the same); 174/10 (sobbynges). 
f. 0. E, Horn,, I. 103, 105, 253, 255; Ayenbite of Inwyt, 18, 19, 
I, 83; Gesta Rmn., 174, 176, 235, 287; Morte Darthur, 173/14, 
)3/32; Buon, 16/8, 172/17, 325/7, 387/24. 


§ 4. The Nominatwe Case, 

The Nominative in Middle English ranges over a wider area than 

Old English. First, its dominion is enlarged in consequence of 
le other cases losing their characteristic inflexions, and being mis- 
ken for the nominative ; secondly, it is used in syntactic connec- 
ytkB and expressions which were unknown to the older periods of 
le English language. 

In the struggle between the nominative and the accusative (or 
itive?) case of the personal pronoun {ye and you), as late as the end 
: the 15th century, the nominative is far from being overcome. 

1. The first function of the nominative is to express the subject 
f a sentence. So far as the logical subject is concerned, there has 
2en no change from Old English down to Afodern English times. 

2. But in tlie course of the 14th and 15th centuries, the gramma- 
cal subject became much more frequent and important than ever 

was before. 

(a) While Old English is very rich in impersonal verbs, there is a 
jndency in the later periods of Middle English towards the personal 
xpression, that is to say (as Koch puts it), what once appeared as a 

xii Syntax I. § 4. Coms. Nominative for DcUive, 

dim sensation is made to appear as the conscious action of the free 
mind. Instead of * hit hredwe^f hit sceame^, hit Hca^S^ hit langa^l 
there appear *I repent, I am ashamed, I like, I long.' This natural 
development was favoured by two external causes. In such instances 
as * Wo was this kyng/ CJiaucer, II. 193, what is an indirect object 
was mistaken for the nominative case; and secondly, tho French 
model had great influence. See Chapter VL on the Impersonal Verbs, 
p. xlvii, below. 

(b) The second encroachment of the nominative on the dative case 
took place in the passive constructions of transitive verbs governing 
a direct and an indirect object, or of intransitive verbs followed by 
prepositions. This innovation was brought about first by the dative 
and accusative cases being confounded. Objects governed by verbs 
like * command, answer,* etc., were consequently looked upon as 
accusative cases, and were treated as such, so that they became 
capable of the passive construction. 

In Caxton^s time, however, that process was not yet completed; 
hence such expressions as the following, which we still keep: *as 
was tolde liim by the knyght,' Blanch. 43/1 ; * all that was told him,' 
196/20. See the chapter on the Passive, p. Ixi, below. 

3. The Nominative absolute wholly supplanted the Old English 
dative, and became much more popular than the Old English con- 
struction (apparently from Latin) had ever been. This use, which is 
quite common in the 14th century (for Chaucer, cf. Ei7ietikel, p. 74, 
fl'.), occurs rather frequently in tho time of Caxton, and offers nothing 
of special interest : — 

* This misuere y-herilp^ Alymodes . . . made his oost to approche,' 
Blanch. !)7/2^; ' and that ih^on, . . . he shall mo we,* etc., 73/24 :— 
preceded bv after, 94/G ; Charles the Grete, 44/21, 47/31, 58/31, 
1)1/12, 62/17, and ^>a.W?;/ ; Unon, 3/29, 39/5. 

4. Another function of the nominative case was that in connec- 
tion with tJif' innnitire : — 

e. (/. * I say tliis, be ye redy with good hert« To al my lust, and 
that I frely may As me best liste do you laughe or smerte. Ami nener 
ye to iji'uch it niijhf ne day.' — Chaucer, II. 289. See the chapter on 
the Infinitive, jx Ixiv, b«'low. 

5. Interchange of the Nominative and the Accusative cases. 

Syntax I. § 4. Use of * you ' dud ' ye/ * me ' and * // xiii 

(a) Though the use of you instead of ye occurs as early as the 
middle of the 14th century (*yhow knaw/ Hampole, Pricke of 
Ckmscience, p. 127, 1. 4659 ; cf. Book of Curtesye, Introduction, 
p. x), the nominative holds its place on to the time of Henry VIII. 

Caxton, as a rule, has preserved ye ; it is only in the inverted 
position (imperative, less frequent in interrogative sentences) that you 
is introduced ; but the number of ye's, even in that position, prevails. 

In Blanchardyn there are two you's in the imperative : — 

*Come you with me,' 60/28; *be you sure,' 185/17. (The 
instances are, of course, much more numerous in The Foure Sonnes 
of Ayinon and Morte Darthur.) 

Aymon, * But knowe youy that Hftrnyer dyde mysse of his enter- 
pryse,' 90/16 ; ' Fayr chyldren, now be you sure,' 129/1 ; * defye you 
hjJD. on my behalf e,' 157/32; *now gyue you me good counseyll,' 
203/14, 361/9, 412/26. 

Interrogative sentences. *What be you, fayre knyghte]' 91/ 
25 ; * telle me, how thynke you ? ' 170/1 ; * what thynge aske yoii of 
meV 246/20, 184/31, 291/31, 343/17, 373/29. 

Morte Darthur, 206/6, 240/22, 242/14, 251/29, 255/16, 255/ 
33, 269/8, 279/18, etc., etc. 

Hum, 33/9, 33/19, 41/5, 79/32, 98/10, 102/5, 110/13, etc. 

There are, however, several instances of you in another position : 

* You holde,' Aymon, 26/18 ; * Cosin, sayd Reynawde, you speke 
well and wysely,' ibid. 132/33; 'now up, Ogyer, and you, duke 
Naymes,' ibid. 157/23; *yf you wyl yelde your selfe to his merci,' 
189/22, 432/14, 438/10. 

(b) There is another instance in which the nominative case has 
been encroached upon by the dative. That well-known tendency of 
using absolute personal pronouns in the dative case, which has divided 
the French pronouns into two different classes {conjoints and absolus), 
and which appears in such modem English phrases as 'it is me, 
older than me,' is not wholly unknown to Caxton. He always 
has * it is I '^ (never me/), but in the following passages, p. xiv, there 
is apparently a faint germ of that use. 

In Blanchardyn the dative occurs twice where we expect the 
nominative case ; but there seems to be a sort of mixed construction : 
' And syn aftre, he lyghtly dyde sette hande on the swerde, of the 

1 Ohaucer * it am L' 

xiv Syntax I. § 4. Cases, Change of N<yimnatwe and Daim, 

whiche he smote here and there with bo the hia handes by suchc a 
strengthe, that ?iim that he rought with fall stroke was all in to 
brused/ 63/2, — him that = whom that, for * he whom,* as if the 
use of the flexionless that threw tlie case on to he; * and sware that 
he sholde neuer departe from afore the place unto the tyme that the 
castel were take, and theym of within at his wyll,' 181/31, — 'them' 
for * they/ 

But the passages from Af/mvn do not admit of such an explan- 
ation : — 

* whan thise wordes were fynysshed, all the foure brethren, and 
all theyni of theyr compauye arayed themselfe . . .* 78/22; *the 
base courte began to be sore moved, and the crye was so great, for al 
them of the dongeon defended themselfe valyantlye,' 94/12 ; * But I 
telle you, upon your fey the that none other shal knowe the same, 
but only we, lis three, unto the tyme that the dede be accomplysshed/ 
212/30. Cf. TJie Curialj 4/18 : * For ther is nothyng more suspecte 
to euyl peple than them whom they knowe to be wyse and trewe.' 

On the other hand, there are striking instances of the nominative 
being used instead of the dative or accusative case : — 

' But at thentree of a forest that was there, they loste their 
trayne, and went oute of ther waye, wherby they myght not folowe 
nor ouertake the pucell, nor they that brought her with theym.*— 
Blanchardyn, 181/22 ; * Go ayen to Tormaday to see the noble lande 
of that lady, she of whom thou art amorouso so moche,* 186/19. 

On this point I cannot refrain from quoting those passages of a 
16th century play which contain the same use, as I have never come 
across any parallel earlier or later. Both in the last passage of 
Caxton's and in those of Sir CI y avian and Sir Clamydes (falsely 
attributed to Peele, and printed in Dyce's edition of Peele's works, 
pp. 490 — 534 ; see my essay in Englische Sttidieny XIII, p. 187), (^ 
pronoun referring as apposition to a noun in one of the oblique cnse* 
appears in the noininative : — 

To go and come, of custom free or any other task : 
I mean by Juliane, she, that blaze of beautie*s breeding. 491, i. 
Do never view thy father, /, in presence any more. 497, n. 
Sith that mine honour cowardly was stole by caitiff lie, ibid, 
r>ut shall I frame, then, mine excuse by serving Venus, she. 501, b. 
Than thus to see fell forttme, she, to hold her state in spite. 505, h. 

hffUax I. § 4. Cases, Nominative for Dative. The Oeniiive. xv 

Clamydes, ah, by fortune, she, what froward luck and fato 

Most cruelly assigned is unto thy noble state. 507, h. 

Fie on fell Fortune, she. 508, a. 

Although that uoith Clamydes, he,l haue not kept my day. 511, a. 

Yet though unto Neronis, she, I may not show my mind, ibid, 

^eronis, daughter to the king, by the king of Nonoay, he. 

Within a ship of merchandise conveyed away is she. 514, a. 

So do I fly from tyrant he, whose heart more hard than flint. 515, a. 

The Foure Simnes of Ayiiwn and Huon contain several striking 
Ostances of the nominative instead of the dative case : — 

'Beynawde toke hym, . . . and made all they that wei-e wyth 
lym ... to be hanged and slayne.' — Four Sims, 90/19 ; * For never 
lector of Troy was worthe thou,^ 127/29. * Before you and all your 
larons I haue dyscomfyted in playn batayll he that hath brought 
ou into all this trouble.* — Hu^i, i. 46/10. * Syr, ye may se here 
lefore you he that wolde do lyke case agaynst me.' — ibid, 288/16. * I 
laue found so nere me ^e that purchaseth my dethe and shame.' — 
bid, 288/23. On pages 83, 84, and 87, thou is apparently a misprint 
or you. 

Finally, it is worth stating that bat and sauf (save) don't govern 
he accusative as prepositions, but are followed by the nominative, as 
i they wera conjunctions. * Noon but /have seen it.* — Blanchardyn, 
:3/32. • Al be ded sauf V— Charles tJie Crete, 102/31. 

§ 5. T?ie Genitive Case. 

(a) The genitive in connection with nouns (and pronouns). 

The applicability of this genitive, which was nearly unlimited in 
)ld English, especially in poetry, is rather restricted in Caxton's 

1. The first function of this case, viz., that denoting birth and 
relationship (whence the name genetivus), shares its dominion with 
he dative : — 

*My lady Margaiete . . Moder unto our naturel & soueiuyn 
orde.' — Blanchardyn, 1/3. * Blanchardyn, sone unto the kynge of 
Fryse.' — ibid. 1/27. * Blanchardyn ansuered that ho was of the lando 
)f Greco, and sone to a kynge,* 100/1 ; *and sayde to the kynge, 
fader unto Blanchardyn,* 174/18 ; * daughter to Kyng Aly modes,* 83/ 
) ; * queue Morgause of Orkeney, moder to Sire Gawayne.* — Morte 
Darthur, 357/25 ; * kynge Lots wyf and moder of sir Gawayne and 
V> sire Gaheris,* ibid. 425/1 2. 

2. The objective genitive is not very frequent >— 

xvi Syntax I. § 5. The Genitive Case: *of thee* for 'thy! 

* She bereth in her herte care ynough and dyspleysnre for the 
lone of himJ—Blanchardyn, 73/33, 76/5, 77/25; *for right moche 
he desyred to shewe hymself, for his ladyes loue,' 83/8. 

3. The genitive denoting quality is used in the same way as 
in Modern English ; only it is noteworthy that Malory treats it quite 
as if it were an adjective, so as to use it in the coxnparatiye and su- 
perlative degree. * She is the fairest lady and most of heautie in the 
world,' MoHe DaHhur, Zbl 12,^ ; more of beautie, 358/13, 358/18, 
360/33, 450/13, and frequently. Instead of o/, a sometimes 
appears : — 

* yf he had been yet man alyvA, I wolde haue gyucn you tyl his 
wyff.' — Blanch ardyn, 93/22. dyue = of life ; cf. lines = afife.— 
Bob, of Gloucester, 301/376; Owl and Nightingale, 1632; Moms, 
note to L 250 of Stoi-y of Genesis and Exodus, * I am not a power 
to reward the after thy merite.' — Blanchardyn, 109/9. 

4. The genitive of the personal pronoun instead of the possessiye 
pronoun occurs very frequently : — 

(I) * knewe wel that the story of hit was honeste.' — Blanchardyn, 
1/11. ' the sowle of the (thee),' 17/21 ; *for pryde of her,' 39/U; 
'the herte of hym,' 39/33, 64/17, 86/20, 87/31, 92/7, 106/17, 114/ 
32, etc. 

This use is especially worth noting, when it occurs in sentences 
like the following : — 

* ye haue exposed the body of you and of your men/ 171/20. In 
Modem English we should say : * your body and those of your men.' 
Malory once says : * I pray you hertely to be my good frende and to 
my sones,' Mmie Darthur, 406/28. 

5. The partitive genitive was not a great favourite with the 
English of the 14 th and 15 th centuries. After comparing the use 
of this case in that time ^vith what it was in Old English, we 
cannot but conclude that the idea of partition attached to such 
phrases as mA^ma fbla (many treasures), Beowulf 36, in OW 
English was about to be supplanted by that of the simple apposi- 
tion. Apart from the fact that the numerals, as well as many 
indefinite adverbs and pronouns, no longer governed the genitive, 
compare the following expressions : — 

Bohert of Gloucester (quoted by Koch, II 2, p. 169) : * J» frydde 

StfiUax L § 5. Ths GenUim Case; vnthaiU 'ofj xvii 

. my kingdom, y geue pe' 286 ; * fe frydde del ys londe/ 711 ; 
rom ye on ende Comewayle/ 178. 

Chaucer (Einenkel, p. 93) : * A buBshel venym/ IV. 267 ; * no 
»i8el bred,' III. 215 ; 'the beste galoun wyn,' III. 249. 

E, K Wais (ed. FumivaU) : * a peyre schetys/ 4/16, 6/8, 41/24, 
/1 6, 101/18 ; ' a peyre bedes,' 5/3. 

Bury WUls (Camden Society) : ' a pece medowe,' 47 ; * a peyre 
ictaclys,' 16 ; * a quart wyne,' 16 ; * a galon wine,' 30. 

But there was a sadden stop in the development towards apposi- 
n instead of the genitive ; and at the end of the 15th century there 
ts a sort of reaction in favour of the Old English use. Exprcs- 
•ns like those quoted above are not to be met with in Gaxton; 
ly a few traces of the Middle English tendency remained. 

Maner without of occurs in Blanchardyn three times : ' by al 
mere wayes,' 50/l'9 ; * all manere noureture,' 74/8 ; * al manere 
yntes,' 109/16; while there are 18 instances of maner + of 
I, 28/20, 53/17, 56/27, 58/19, 60/31, 73/34, 93/32, lll/2«, 117/ 
, 119/2, 119/11, 169/34, 174/12, 177/4, 186/8, 188/26, 197/28, 

Other is used for * others of.' * Other her gentyll women,' 76/31 ; 
ther his prysoners,' 121/26. 

Also any occurs for ' any of * : — 

' Affermyng that I oughte rather tenprynte his actes and noble 
ktes than of Grodefroy of boloyne or ony the eight' — Caxton's 
eface to Morte Darthur, 2/1. 

In Aymon is a curious remnant of what must have been rather 
nmon in the 14th century, as Chaucer offers several instances of it. 
le passage runs as follows : ' but of all Fraunce I am one of the heat 
truest Tcnyght that be in it,' 272/23. These are the parallels in 
laucer : — 

* Oon of the grettest auctour that men rede ' (5 MSS., one has 
detours '), III. 234 ; ' On of the best farynge man on lyue,' III. 8 ; 
►n of the best enteched creature,' V. 35 (cf. Einenkel, p. 87). 

This odd expression is made up of two constructions : I. * One the 
si knyght.' II. ' One of the best knyghtes.' The former, which 
kS at last supplanted by the second, crops up many times in Middle 
iglish, and has its parallel in other numerals : — 

' Cute of ])ilke hilles springe]) pre ]>e noblest ryueres of al Europe.' 
Trevisa, L 199. 'I deuyse to lohane my doughter . . • IIL the 


xviii SyrUax I. § 5. Cases, The PartUive CrtniHve, 

bei«t pilwes after choys of the forseyde Thomas my sone.' — JSL E, 
WillSf 5/9. ' I wyll that Kichard my sone bane tweyne my best 
hors.'— t^M^. 23/23. ' II. the best yren broches.'— t6ui 46/17. *too 
the best sanapes/ 101/ 24, Guy of Warwick (ed Zupitasa), 8096 ; 'at 
two the firste strokes/ Morte Darihur, 343/29 ; ' two the best knyghtes 
tliat euer ysFere in Arthurs dayes/ ibid. 419/31. 

Tills free use of apposition (instead of the modem gonitiye) did 
not die out before the time of James I. : — 

' Enough is, Uiat thy foe doth vanquisht stand 
Now at thy mercy : Mercy not withstand : 
For he is one tJie truest knight aliue.' — Faerie Q,y I. iiL 37. 

* Or who shall not great Kightes children scome, 
When two of three her Nephetces are so foole forlomef ' 

IbicL 1. V. 23. 

' His living like sawe never living eye, 
Ke durst behold ; his stature did exceed 
The hight three the taUest sonnes of mortall seed.' — Ibid, L viL ft. 

' Was reckoned one the wisest prince that there had reigned.' 

Shakspere, Henry VIIL^ II. iL 48. 

Apart from this liberty, we have to state a few other noteworthy 
points respecting Ca3dK)n's use of the partitive genitive. 

(a) There are numerous instances of the independent^ or, as it is 
sometimes called, the elliptic genitive partitive, which is so often 
met with in Chaucer ; cf. ' Of smale houndes hadde sche, that she 
fedde/ II. 5. Before Chaucer the instances are rare. Perhaps tlie 
following passages may be looked upon as approaching that use : — 

' hwa se euer wule habbe lot wi% )>e of bi blisse : he mot deale 
wi^ ^ of ^ine pine on eor))e.* — 0, E, Horn, 1. 187. * man ^ge^ his 
negebure to done o^er to speken him harm, o^r 8(c)ame, and hauc9 
ui% elch wi9 o^er, and rnake^ him to forlese his aihte, o^r of huf 
rihteJ — 0. E, Horn, II. 13. * J)e priue fyeues byef J)0 Jjet ue steletS 
ua3t of oncou])e ac of priue]>. And of zuichen )>er bye% of greate 
and of smale. ))e greate bye^ of ]>e kneade and ]>e ontrewe reuen.' . • 
— Ayenbite, 37. 

Caxton has several instances of this use : — 

' (She) tolde hym that she was right wel content of his seruyce, 
and wolde reteyne hym in wages, and j^-ue hym of her goodes^ for he 
was worthy therofl* — BlcmfhardyUy 75/5. 'wherof the kynge waa 
right wele content^ and reseyued hym of his hous.' — ibid. 99/21 ; = 
as one of his house, or court (Cf. Huon^ L 13/20 : ' the two somies 

^fyniax L § 5. Independent and Pseudo-PartUive Genitive, xix 

f Duke Seuyn of buideux shal come to the courte^ and, as I hauc 
Afde say, the kynge hath sayde that, at there comynge, they shal be 
lade of hys piyuey counsell.') ' And wyte, that Guynon hadde wyth 
ym of the beste knyghtes of Charlemagne.* — Aymon^ 91/18. *and 
[lerefore lete us set upon hym or day, and we shalle slee doune of 
is knyghtes: ther shal none escape.' — Morte Darthur^ 121/10. 
(He) charged hym that he shold gyue hym of al maner of metes.' 
-ibid. 214/20. (Cf. Gesta Romanarum, 197 : ' ^ knyghte of baldak 
9nt to the knite of lumbardye of al maner thinges/) 

This use too was continued in the time of Hemy YIIL : — 

' I wyll ye take of your best frendys.' — Huony 5/25. ' this that 

baue shewid you is of truth.' — ibid, 61/26. ' I requyre you, shewe 

ae of your newes and adventures that ye haue had.' — ibid, 566/12. 

Englysh marchauntes do fetch of the erth of Irlonde to caste in 

heir gardens.' — Andrew Borde, p. 133 ; cf. p. 170. 

From an alteration of the 1601 edition of Htum we may perhaps 
ionclude that the English of that time did not relish this use in 
>rose. The original edition has : ' for incontinent they wyll sonde 
/ theyr shyppes, and take thys shyp,' 212/29; the edition of 1601 
liters of into *9ome of 

(b) Here and there indefinite pronouns like 'much, man; 
other) ' are followed hj qf •{• noun : * for he hath doon to us this 
lay so moche of euyL' — Blanchardyny 169/22. * wherof soo many of 
ihildren (were) faderles, and soo many churches wasted.' — Aymon, 
J7/19. * a grete many of prysoners.' — ibid, 87/4. But, as a rule, 
he modem use prevails. 

(e) There is another sort of Genitive, which we may, perhaps, not 
mproperly term pseudo-partitive^ viz. that which appears in sentences 
ike ' a castle of hers, a knight of Arthur's.' It is true, that in many 
lasee we might translate these phrases by ' one of her castles, one of 
!bihur's knights ' ; but there are many examples in Middle English 
rhich do not admit of such an explanation, and the Modem English 
ise (' that beautiful face of hers ! ') proves that no idea of partition 
8 included in such expressions. After a dose examination of the 
Idest instances as met with in the 14th century (second half 1), we 
eu that they are brought into existence by another necessity. 

In Old English the possessive pronoun, or, as the French say, 
pronominal adjective,' expresses only the conception of belonging 

XX Syntax I. § 5. Cases of Pronouns — Possessive DeUrminaivx 

and posaession ; it is a leal adjective, and does not convey, as at 
present, the idea of determination. If, therefore. Old English 
authors want to make such nouns determinative, they add the 
definite article: 

heeled mfn se leofiEt, Elene, 511 ; ))ii eart d6htor min s^ d^reste, 
Juliana, 166 ; ))8et tacnede Leoni^a on his ))sem nihstan gefeohte and 
PerHa, Orosius, 84/31 ; Mammea his sio gode modor, ibid. 270/26 ; 
mid hire ^sqvo yfelan sc^onnesse, Blickling HomilieSf 5/1 ; openige na 
I'in se fecgresta feej^m, ibid, 7/24 ; ))onne bi% drihten ure se trumeeta 
sta^ol, ibid. 13/10; h^ wolde oferswl^an lime %one &an d6aX, JEl- 
fric*8 Homilies ^ I. 168/1 ; lire se selmihtiga scyppend, ibid, I. 192/6; 
))urh his baes md^ran forryneles and fulluhteres ^ingunge, ibid, 1. 
364/5. The article preceding the possessive pronoun: se heora 
cyning, Orosiua, 56/31 ; seo heom iugo^, Blickling Homilies^ 163/3; 
sec hire gebyrd, 163/9, etc 

111 Middle English the possessive pronoun apparently has a 
detefiminative vieaning (as in Modem English, Modem German, and 
Modern French) ; therefore its connection with the definite article is 
made superfluous, while the indefinite article is guiie inymsiMe, 
Hence arises a certain embarrassment with regard to one case which 
tlie language cannot do without Suppose we want to say * she ii in 
a castle belonging to her,' where it is of no importance wba(e?er, 
either to the speaker or hearer, to know whether ' she ' has got more 
than one castle — how could the English of the Middle period put iti 
The Fi-ench of the same age said still * un sien castel ' ; but that was 
no longer possible in English. There's only one instance of indefinite 
article + possessive pronoun that has come to my knowledge, and Uiat 
is of tlie early period of Middle Engh'sh : Sawles Warde (0. E, iT., 
I. \\ 265) : ' for euch an is al mihti to don al ))at he wule, ^e, makie 
to cwakien heouene ba ant eor^ wi% his an finger* (for one is 
mighty enough to do all that he desires, yea, to make heaven and 
earth quake with one of his fingers. Translation by R Morris).^ 

We should expect the genitive of the personal pronoun (of me, 
etc., i\s in Modem German), — and there may have been a time when 
this use prevailed, — but^ so far as I know, the language decided in 

^ Other instances, boweTer, mar hare escaped mj notice; and it is worth 
while to search Middle English literature for eTidence od tiiis hitherto 
puailing (H>int 

Syntax I. § 5, Cases of Pronouns : ' of mine, yours,* etc. xxi 

favour of the more complicated and rather absurd construction ' of 
mine, of thine/ etc. 

This was, in all probability, brought about by the analogy of 
the yery numerous cases in which the indeterminative noun con- 
nected with minBy etc., had a really partitive sense (cf. the examples 
below), and, moreover, by the remembrance of the old construction 
with the possessive pronoun. 

There is a good deal of guesswork in this explanation, of course ; 
but one thing is sure — it was the impossibility of connecting the 
indefinite article with the possessive pronoun which suggested the 
new construction. This is proved by indisputable chronological facts. 

L First, we find the indefinite article (or the equally indefinite 
words any, every, no) in connection with of mine, of thine, etc. This 
oonstruction is met with in the 14th century. 

11. Next, analogy introduces the indefinite article in connection 
with the double genitive of a noun, ' a knyght of king Arthur's.' 

TIL Last, we come across definite pronouns (this, that) in con- 
nection with of mine ; and exceptionally the definite article occurs 
there also in connection with the double genitive of a noun (the 
knight of kyng Arthur's). 

Chaucbr: a friend of his, IV. 130, IV. 257, IV. 356 ; an hors 
of his, II. 271 ; an old felaw of youres. III. 97 ; eny neghebour of 
myne, IIL 198 ; every knight of his, II. 239 ; no maner lym of his, 
V. 170.— -Cf. that ilke proverbe of Ecclesiaste, 11. 226; this my 
sentence heere, III. 40 ; oure wreche is this, oure owen wo to drynke, 
IV. 184 (Einenkel, pp. 86, 87). 

Early E. Wills: I will that William ... be paied of their 
billes for making off a liuery of myn, 53/20 ; 3if any servaunt of 
myn haue labord for me . . . 53/23 (both instances ab. 1420 a.d.); 
I will that Chaco haue a habirion of myne, b^jl \ he may haue such 
a good honest booke of his owne, 59/9 ; every child of hires lyuynge 
at the day of my decesse haue xx ti to their, manage, 107/1. 

Bury Wills (a.d. 1434) : and more stuff I haue not occupied of 
hers, p. 23 ; such goodes of myn ns shall be sold, 24 ; such tyme as 
money may be reysid of goodes as shal be sold of myn, 36. 

In neither of these ' Wills ' volumes is there any instance of the 
second or third stage of the development of our construction. Cf. 
E, E. Wills : this my present testament, 49/4 ; similar cases are in 
51/5, 79/26, 119/15. 

xxii Syntax I. § 5. Double Genitives of Nouns and Pronouns, 

Gesta Bomanorum offers instances of II, but not of III : I am 
forrester of the Emperouis, 206 ; a no))ere kny^t of the Emperouis, 

In Caxton the /. group is represented by numerous instances : 
And for this cause departeth now my sayd lady from a eastell of hers^ 
Blanchardyn 38/6. (Original : dun sicn chastel.) He toke also a 
grete spere from the hande of a knyght of his, ibid. 107/32 ; for the 
kyng Aly modes hath a daughter of his owne . . . ibid, 125/4; a 
yeoman of his owne^ ibid, 201/18; a town of his, Aymon 69/15; 
a gentylman of his, 412/29 ; a neuewe of his, 527/22. Cf. Malory's 
Morte Darthur, 35/35, 38/28, 365/12, 366/2, 369/17, etc 

Group II. is often met with in the Morte Dartkur : a knyghte of 
the dukes, 37/7, 9 ; Syre gawayne, knyghte of kynge Arthurs, 146/ 
30; I am a knyghte of kynge Arthurs, 153/32, 263/31, 263/34, 
330/22, 331/19 ; a trusty frende of Sir Tristrams, 363/8 ; and ryght 
so cam in knyghtes of kynge Arthurs, 386/29 ; and he had gotten 
hym ten good knyghtes of Arthurs, 459/33 ; and therewith fours 
knyghtes of kynge Markes drewe their swerdes to slee syre Sadok, 
469/30, 521/24, 522/12, 635/21.— In two instances s is omitted: 
Thenne came forth a knyght, his name was lamb^us, and he was a 
knyght of syr Trystrem, 318/16 ; there was a knyghte of kyng 
Arthur, 331/17. 

The frequent occurrence of this genitive in connection with 
Arthur and his knights has often (in English Grammars, &c.) sug- 
gested the supposition that there is a sort of ellipsis in this con- 
struction : a knyghte of kynge Arthurs = a knyghte of kynge 
Arthurs court,^ But first of all, such instances as ' a trusty frende 
of syr Tristrams,' * I am forester of the Emperors,' do not admit of 
such an explanation — unless we say 'among Sir T.'s friends,' 'among 
the Emperor's foresters ' ; — and secondly, there are no other examples 
of this elliptic construction in Caxton or !Malory. 

Of Group III., there arc ttco instances in BlancJiardyn with that, 
and a few with the definite article in Morte Darthur : 

* as for to wene to haue her, thou haste that berde of thyne oner 
whyte therto ; thy face is so mykel wonnc, and that olde ekynne of 
thyiie ys ouer mykel shronken togyder,' 186/22-25. Original : * vous 
auez la barhe trop grise, la face trop usee, et le cuir trop retrait.' 

Elsewhere Caxton is not afraid of using this in connection with 
the jx)ssessive pronoun. Cf. this my towne, Blanch. 73/18 ; this her 
werre, 90/1. 

1 Cf. two knyghtes of kynge Arthurs Courte, 297/1, 6, 16, 208/33, etc 

ijftilax I. § 5. Genitive after Verbs. § 6. Dalive Case, xxiii 

There are two passages in Morte Darthur belonging to this 
proup: *Alle the knyghtes of kynge Arthnrrf,' 330/9; *he sholde 
laae her and her landes of her faders that sholde falle to her/ 488/ 
A', — ^in both instances the partitive genitive is wholly excluded. 

R The Genitive governed by adjectives and verbs is, on the 
rhole, the same as in Modern English. But it is worth noting that 
he ideas of reference and catise are still expressed in Gaxton by of 
fhile, in Modem English other prepositions (tn, as to, with &c.) are 

(a) Sefeience : — 

The childe grewe and amended sore of the grete beaulte . . . 
Blanchardyn^ 13/6 ; of the tables and ches playing, and of gracious 
md honeste talkynge, he passed them that were his elder in age, 
13/9; demaunding of the batailles of Troy, 14/13, 15/8; sore 
xoubled of wyttis, 45/8; nought dommi^ed of nothing, 48/31; 
here was no man ^t of prowes and worthynes coade go beyonde 
lym, 65/21 ; wele shapen of alle membres, 99/14 ; sore dbaunged of 
aoe, 145/30; what wyl you do of mel, 146/16. Of. 150/25, 178/ 
a, 184/6, 193/14 ^-ilymon, 54/25, 64/5, 290/32 ;—ifarfe Darthur, 

(6) Cause : — 

(They) judged hem self right happy of a successoure legytyme, 
L2/17 ; (the kyng) that of this adventure was ful sory and dolaunt, 
21/4 ; Kanchudyn sore angry and euyll apaid of that he sawe . . . 
28/13 ; sore passioned of one accident, 68/20 ;— thank of 49/33, 60/ 
25 ; pardon of, 50/9, 10. 

Qf is sometimes replaced by ouer: Eight enamored they were 
)uer hym, 66/25 ; auenged ouer hym, 86/30. Once for of occurs : 
md olaofor of the grete dysplesure that he had . . . 111/34. 

(e) For the Genitive used adverbially, see Adverb, p. Ixxvii. 

§ 6. The Dative Case. 

After the decay of the Old English inflection there was a tendency 
x> make up for it by the preposition to. But from the time in which 
^he Old English Homilies were composed, down to our own days, to 
Qever became the rule. 

In Gaxton to is often used after verbs, where we omit it, 
Mpecially after tell : — 

Now anon brynge to me myn armes, Charles the Chrete 48/15 ; 
but on the same page : he shold brynge hym hys armes, L 4 ; after 

xxiv Syntax L § 6. Dative Case. § 7. Aceusaiive Case, 

brought he hym hys hors, L 22. I assure to you by my fiuth that I 
shall do it . . . ibid. 49/30 ; I graunte to you alle my goodes, ibid, 
60/3 ; I do to the grete amytye, ibid. 55/34. C£ Blanchardyn, 20/ 
17 ; Aymon, 362/31, 367/9. 

Tell, and whan thou hast told to me ihy name . . . Charles 
the Grete, 53/16 ; I telle to the, ibid. 54/17. C£ 66/2, 67/23, 61/3, 
86/5, etc. 

Demand is usually followed by of; but there is an exception, 
perhaps brought about by French influence: ^Thenne cam kyng 
Alymodes forthe, and demaunded to the stywarde ' . . . Blanehardynt 
283/23. Reguire, also, occurs with to : Blanchardyn^ 168/3 ; Aymo^^ 
34/20. Ask^ followed by two objects, occurs : Aymon, 362/31 ; (he) 
asked for hym to two of his men. 

There is one instance of offend + to ; ' Yf there be ony man here 
that I haue offended unto,' Morte Darthur, 292/19. 

The Ethic Dative is not frequent in Caxton : 

^ A right grete and impetuouse tempeste rose, that lasted t» thie 
dayes,' Blanchardyn, 100/9 ; their sorrowe redoubled them full sore, 
ibid. 119/34; the bloode ranne me doune, Aymon, 88/19. (But 
ye withdrawen ms J)is man, — Chaucer, Boethius, ed. Morris, p. 7. 
Caxton has : fro me.) 

§ 7. The Accusative Case. 

A. The Accusative Case, as governed by transitive verbs, some- 
times differs in Caxton from the modem use. 

Besides such verbs as * demand, require, serve, tell,' quoted above, 
behold is followed by of, e. g. Aymon, 391/26 ; and especially note- 
worthy is the construction of swear. In Middle English this verb is 
followed by on. Cf. Chaucer, IV. 363: and this on every God 
celestial I swere it yow, V. 222. Caxton uses ' swear ' as a transitive 
verb, and makes the accusative case follow it : he sware his Codes, 
Blanchardyn, 92/25, 107/22 ; swore (Jod,Aymony 38/4, 73/14, 87/10, 
185/4, 201/33, 459/11, 471/7, 515/7, 526/17. In Aymun are only 
three examples of * swear ' followed by a preposition : (he) sware by 
God, Aynioii, 61/29 ; he sware by saint Dcnys, ibid. 411/11 ; I swew 
upon all sayntes, ibid, 85/4. 

From one passage of the Ayenbite, and another in BlancJiardfpi 
we may safely infer that this use is duo to French influence. 

Syntax L § 7. The Accusative Case. xxv 

Ayenbitey p. 6 : liuo ))et zuere]) wi)>-oute skele bane name of oure 
lorde ... he him uorzuerep, Blanchardyn, 107/22 ; The kynge of 
olonye . . . aware his goode goddes, that he sholde neuer haue 
oye at his herte. Original : ' jura ses hons dieux.' 

Dan Michel always translates literally ; and Caxton too, in this 
ise, introduced the French construction. 
The Cognate Object occurs several times : 

And there she had not heen no longe whyle, when she had 
sreeyued the playn choys and syght of a right grete and myghty 
eiuye, BlancJiardyn, 56/2 ; (choys = syght). deye a shamefull dethe, 
nd, 190/4, and very often in the other works of Caxton. T rehuke 
ym neuer for no hate that I hated hym, Morte Darthur, 349/4 ; the 
3od loue that I haue louod you . . . ibid. 364/4. 

B. The Accusative absolute is used with great freedom by Caxton 
id Malory, and even by Bemers. Instances abound. I quote only 
few to illustrate my statement : — 

He fonde hym the terres (= tears) at the eyes of him makynge 
18 full pituouse complayntes, Blanchardyn 123/24; (there) he toke 
bote, prest and gamysshed wyth eight goode felawes, eche of them 
A ore in his hande . . . ibid. 154/7 ; The good erle, then, the 
ronost, and the knyghte of the fery, their swerdes in their handes 
aked, toke and seysyd her by force, ibid. 180/19; Thenne came 
fluayn, his felawes wyth hym, and ascryed the two barons to dethe, 
nd. 205/19. Original : ' siluain auant auec ses compaignons.' 

C. For the Accusative with Infinitive, see Infinitive^ p. Ixx. 

D. The Adverbial Object exhibits some peculiarities worth stating. 

(a) Time. Nether the days of h^ lyff she sholde wedde paynem 
or no man infidele, Blanchardyn^ 65/15. Malory has : neuer his 
/, 127/23 ; cf. Chaucer. Imeueus, that god of weddyng is, Seigh 
euer his lif so mery a weddid man, II. 333 ; many a wighte hath 
>ued thynge he neuer saugh his lyue, V. 8 (cf. EinenJi^, p. 52 ; 
iapitza, note to Guy of WarwickylL 1747-8); (he) wend neuer to 
aue come tyme enough, Blandiardyny 158/4. Original: *a tans 
Usmps).' Cf. 170/5 ; Aymmy 265/19, 343/5 ; Morie Darthur, 228/ 
4 ; Huon, 332/8, 334/10. 

That tymCy in Mm-te Darthiir, 48/8, is equivalent to * ai that 
yme,' ibid. 49/16. Cf. the same tyme, Blanchardyn, 127/13, 128/8, 
43/29; and at that same hours, 139/8; at the tyme, 194/32; 
\{orte Darthur, 363/35 ; and the instructive example, Morte Darthur, 
156/7, 8 : sometynie he was putte to the werse by male fortune, and 
i sometynie the wers knyghte putte the better knyghte to a rebuke. 

xxvi Syntax I. § 8. The AHicU. 

(b) Manner. 

Seeyng that noon oihermyse he myghte doo, BlancJuirdyn^ 30/26 ; 
and noon otherwyse wyll I doo, ibid. 93/25 ; the best wyse that he 
myght or coude, he ordeyned his bataylles, 162/27, 171/32; — but 
we find too : in like wise, 98/23 ; in the best wyse, 125/24, 166/2. 

Chaucer never uses other wyse; only other toeye^ other weyes. 
Cf. Einenkd, p. 66. 

§ 8. 7%e AHide. 

There are several remarkable peculiarities about Cazion's use of 
the Article. 

(a) Nouns in the Vocative case are preceded by the definite 
article instead of O : — 

' Sith that we haue lost thee, fareweU the ioye of this world ! ' 
Aymon, 574/30 ; 'Then syr Launcelot cryed : ilije knyght wyth the 
blak shelde, make the redy to Juste wyth me!' Morte Darthvr, 

(b) Possessive Pronouns used substantively are sometimes pre- 
ceded by the definite Article : — 

' Thenne toke the prouost his spere, and so dyde Blanchardyn the 
hiSf* Blanchardyn, 48/20 (Original: la sienne); I praye you that 
euery man force hymself to do worthily hys deuoyr, that your worship 
and t?ie oures be kepte, Aymon, 72/21 ; In whiche he hath not rendred 
the reason or made any decision, to approve better the his than that 
other, Eneydo8y 23/19. 

(c) Numerals denoting part of a whole are sometimes preceded by 
the definite Article : — 

* And yf perauenture one of them dare not come allone hardyly, 
late come the two or thro or fouro of the moost valyauntest ' . . . 
Charles the Grete^ 41/27 ; and yf the fouix) dare not come, late come 
fyue, ilrid, 29. Cf. Morte Darthur, 355/5 : wete thou wel, said sir 
Tristram, the one of us shalle dyo or we departe. 

In the last two groups Caxton copied only too faithfully his 
French originals. I do not know of any other Middle English 
instance of ' the his * ; but as for ' the two,* there is the authority of 
Chaucer and the unknown translator of the Romaunt of the Roee, if 
not to sanction it as a good Middle English expression, at least to 
excuse it : 

And sins he ran . . . And borwed him large boteles thre ; and in 
the two his poysoun poured he ; The thrid he ke|)ed clene for his 

Syntax I. § 8. The ArUcU hefwt Adjedives. xxvii 

Tiike, Cani. T. III. 103 ; And if thou maist so fer forth wynne, 
bat thou resoun derst byginne, And woldiRt seyn thre thingis or mo, 
[ion shalt fuUe scarsly seyn tlie two. — BomaurU of the Base, V. 77/8. 

Perhaps the following expressions too may be attributed to 
rench influence : — 

The captayne ga£E the goode nyght to the damoyselie, BUmchardtjn, 
./27 (Original: la bonne nuit); and gaff hym the goode nyght, 
id, 74/26 ; onely the captayne of Tormaday, that cam for to make 
ito her the reuerence, ibid. 61/17. Cf. 77/2, 158/16 : Blanchardyn 
ade not kepe hymself, but that tJie grete teerys dropped &st out of 
i eyen, ibid, 145/33. 

{d) Before two adjectives qualifying one noun, the Article is 
^n repeated : — 

He sawe there under in a playn a moche ample and a grete 
)dowe, Blanchardyn, 32/2 ; the prouoste of the towne dyde ordeyne 
Btronge and a bygge warde, 58/20; ye be enamored of a hyghe 
d a ryche pryncesse, 75/7 ; he was a ryght yalyaunt and a hardy 
fnce, 113/20; makyng a grete and a solempne oath, 177/16. — 
lere are, in Blanchardyn^ but two exceptions ^ : A noble and 
(torions prynce, 1/26 ; the rude and comyn englysshe, 2/9. 

{e) The definite article is repeated where one of the two adjectives 
in close connection with the noun. Thus in Blanchardyn ' proude ' 
d 'pucelle' are looked upon as one noun, hence the following 
pressions : — 

The right gracious and fayre, the proude pucelle in amours, 76/ 

; the fayer, the proude pucell, 83/12; the right desolate, the 

3ude pucelle, 89/29; cf. 94/9, 96/7, 127/10, 129/29. There are 

o exceptions : the fayr pucelle and proude in amours, 128/8 ; the 

ft proude may den , 131/10. 

(J) There are three instances (in BlancJiardyn) of the indefinite 
dele used in analogy to such + adjective + a : — 

It nedeth not to be doubted that he is come to his extremyte 
prowes and valyantes, wythout that amours hathe be the cause in 
3 persone of some hyghe a pryncesse, 72/20 ; hy gaf to hym-self 
)te merueylle, and was wel abashed of thai soudayne a wyUe that 
is come to hym, 126/9; which is the most iayr, and the most 

^ These are where Caxton is writing hin own EiigliHh, not englishing 
other nuui's French. I wish all his Prologues and Epilogues, as collected 
Blade8*s quarto, could be examined for other contrasts of his phraseology. 
F. J. F. 

xxviii SffTUax I. § 9. The Adjective. * One ' after a Noun. 

noble, and the most complete a lady, and most pleasaunt of all the 
renmaunt of the world, 166/13. 

§ 9. The Adjective. 

FoT adjectives used substantively see § 1, p. vi. For the arrange- 
ment of noun and adjective see the chapter below, on * The Arrange- 
ment of Words.' The tautology in the formation of the comparative 
and superlative degree (more better, most best) so well known &om 
Shakspere, occurs here and there in Caxton, and is extremelj 
frequent in Morte Darthur : — 

more werse, Blanch. 23/33; more better, ibid. 91/35; the most 
valyauntest, Charles the Grete, 41/27; more sonner, ibid, 44/18; 
most next, ibid. 44/17 ; more gretter, Gtirial, 5/13. Morte Darthur, 
74/37, 142/8, 144/29, 35; 148/5, 215/29, 218/3, etc. 

Adjectives referring to preceding nouns are not yet followed 
by one : — 

So grete a stroke and so heuy he gafife hym, Blanch. 62/22 ; god 
hath well kept hym from so moche an hap and so hyghe, 75/24 ; a 
trusty man and secret, 81/23, 86/17, 97/20, 110/2, 156/14, 163/4, 
169/17, 178/2, 179/5, 200/29. Ayirum, 392/9, 504/20. MorU 
Darthur constantly. 

But the Middle English use of ' one ' following a noun is met 
with in Malory several times : — 

There lyueth not a bygger knyght than he is miCy 72/22; (it) 
was grete pite that so worthy a knyght as he was one shold be 
ouermatched, 87/35 ; such yong knyghtes as he is one . . . ben neuer 
abydynge in no place, 251/25. Cf. Chaucer: For in my tynie a 
seruaunt was I on, II. 56, V. 112. The oldest instance quoted by 
Matzner, Glossar, is from Robert of Gloucester, p. 17: *a wonder 
maister was he on ; ' but without the preceding article, the use goes 
as far back as the Onnuhim : — 

fatt 3)10 wass adi3 wimmann an 
All wimman kinn bitwenen. 2333. 

So far as I know, but one instance occurs in Caxton of one 
following an adjective : — 

And after whan thou shalt haue employed thy body, thy tyme 
and thy goodes for to iJeffcnde the, another newe one cometh to the 
courte, and shall supplante thy benediction. — Curial, 12/13. 

The syntax of the numerals is that of our own day. 



§ 10. Personal Pronouns. 

(a) Gases interchanged. See § 4, p. 

(b) Use of tliou and ye. 

Thou is used firom superiors to inferiors, or from equals to equals 
» a sign of contempt or defiance : — 

Lohier, the son of Charlemagne, delivering his message to the 
lake Benes of Aygremonte, addresses him with ' thou^ Aymon, pp. 
14, 25 ; and so do all the knights challenging each other to fight 
nstances ahound. 

In many cases tJiou and ye are used in the same speech : — 

BlancJiardyn. Eglantyne always addresses her lover with ' ye ' ; 
mt on p. 109 the following passage occurs: 'Ha, my right trusty 
rend .... that hath ben &e pyler, susteynynge under thy swerde 
x>the myself and all my royaulme, I am not a power to rewarde t?ie 
iter the meryte that ye deserued to haue of me. Well ye haue 
hewed . . . the excellent vertu of humylite that is in you/ etc., 11. 
) £ Again, Beatrice addressing her father Alymodes with contempt, 
ays : ' medel tJwu nomore wyth loue, leue thys thoughte, and msJce 
10 more thyne accomptes for to entre wythin thir cite ; for yf ye 
laue taken and bounde my husband . . .' 186/28 ff. 

Aymon. Ogier the Dane addressing his sword Cortyne: *Ha, 
])ortyne that so moch I haue loued the, and, certes, it is wel rayson, 
or ^6 be a good swerde, and in many places ye haue wel holpen me,' 
!68/l ff. 

— Charlemagne asks Kypus to hang Richard : ' Rypus, yf ye wyll 
lo 800 moche for me that ye wyll go hange Rychard, I shall make 
he lord of grete londes,' 333/6—8. 

— Mawgis blaming Rypus : * Ha, rypus, thou traytour, euyll man, 
fe haue always be rody for to doo some euyll against us, but sith 
hat I haue found you here I shall not seke you nowhere else,' 339/ 
17 ff. Cf. 435/10 ff., 468/8 ff. 

Morte Darthur. The lady's thanking Sir Lancelot for his killing 
h& giant: 'For thou hast done the most worship that euer dyd 
cnyght in this world, that wyll we here recorde, and we all pray you 
o ieHL us your name,' 199/15 ff. 

— Sir Raynold addressing Lancelot : ' thou art a strong man, and 
[ suppose thou hast slayn my two brethren ... I wolde not haue a 
loo wyth you,' 202/35 ff. CI 209/14, 211/8, 214/13, 224/20, 226/ 
S, 227/14, 234/14, etc. 

XXX Syntax I. § 10. Change of Thou and Te. 

This change of the pronoun in the addieBS may be observed even 
in good Elizabethan prose : — 

* Young gentleman, althoug[h] my acquaintannoe be amall to 
intreate you^ and my authoritie lesse to commaund you^ yet my good 
will in giuing you good counsaile should induce you to beleene me, 
and my hoarie haires (ambassadors of experience) enforce you to 
follow me, for by howe much the more I am a straunger to yoUy by 
so much the more you are beholdinge to mee, hauing therefore oppor- 
tunitie to vtter my minde, I mcane to be importunate with you to 
foUowe my meaninge. As thy birth doth shewe the expresse and 
liuely Image of gentle blonde, so thy bringing yp seemeth to mee to 
bee a greate blotte to the linage of so noble a boute, so that I am 
enforced to thincke, that either thou dyddest want one to giue thee 
good instructions, or that thy parentes made thee a wanton wyth too 
much cockeringe ; either they were too foolishe in Tsinge no disci- 
pline, or thou too frowarde in reiecting their doctrine, eyther they 
willinge to haue thee idle, or thou wylfull to be ill employed.' — ^Lylj, 
EvphveSy p. 2, ed. Landmann. 

Philautus answering to Eyphves : ' friend Euphues (for so yow 
talke warranteth me to terme you\ I dare neither yse a long pio- 
cesse, neither louing speach, least vnwittingly I should cause you to 
conuince me of those thinges which you have already oondemnei 
And verily I am bolde to presume vpon your curtesiey since ym 
yourself haue vsed so little curiositie, perswading my selfe that my 
short answere wil worke as great en effect in you, as your few words 
did in me. Try all shall prouo trust ; heere is my hand, my heart, 
my lands and my lyfe at thy commaundement : Thou maist well pe^ 
ceiue that I did beleue tJiee ; and I hope thou wilt the rather loue me, 
in that I did beleeue thee.* 

Lucilla, declaring her love to Euphues, uses both thou and you, 
— Ibid, p. 50. 

Cf. New Custom (Dodsley's Collection, ed. Hazlitt, Vol. IV.), p. 
18 ; Trial of Treasure {ihid,\ p. 264 ; Marlowe, Tamburlaine^ 1. 
189 ff. ; Greene, A Looking-Glass for London and England; for 
Shaksperc, see Abbott, § 231. 

(c) Personal pronouns are emphasized by a preceding it is. It is 
he . . . Aymon, 33/9, 251/18; it is she, Blades, p. 166; it was I, 
Morte Darthur, 38/21, 83/25. In Malory the older expression 
occurs several times: I am he, 36/18; I was he, 67/7, — 'It is me* 
was never used by Caxton, though he had the strong temptation of 
the French. 

SynUax I. § 10. Pko)iast%c Use.^ xxxi 

(d) Pleonastic use of the personal pronoun. If the predicate is 
)parated from the subject by any adverbial, participial, or adjectival 
«latiye) clause, a personal pronoun is pleonastically inserted to 
lark the subject : — 

The proude pucdle in amours, with what peyne and grief that it 
as, atte thynstaunce and requeste of her sayd maystresse, she mounted 
i<m upon her whyte palfray, Blanch. 45/4 ; The kyng thenne, after 
le knyght had thus spoken to hym, he ga£E commandment . . . ibid. 
}2/16; How Gryffon of Haultefelle and Guenelon, after that they 
idde slayne the Duke Benes of Aygremonte, they retomed to Paris, 
ymon^ b^jlZ ; whiche, whan he sawe that Guycharde was entred 
ito the castell, he retomed ayen, ibid. 73/6 ; the whiche whan he 
rnude not his master in the chirche, he wats al abasshed, ibid, 573/ 
6 ; the damoysel that came from la Eeale Isoud unto syr Tristram 
He the whyle the tournament was advoynge ehe was with Quene 
kienever, Moiie Darthur, 389/8 ; thenne Kyng Arthur with a grete 
pe herte Jie gate a spere in his hand . . . ibid. 391/18, 395/37. 

This pleonasm is very frequent after participle clauses : — 

Thenne one of the daughters of the provost, knowing that Blanch- 
idyn was armed and rcdy to goo out wyth her fader, 8?ie cam and 
xonght with her a fayre whyte coueryng . • . Blanch. 61/5; the 
[ynge Alymodes, seeynge the grete prowes that was in Blanchardyn, 
Did that non so hardy durste approche hym, he began to crye aloude 
. . ibid. 88/18; cf. 126/17, 128/28, 129/27, 138/9, 144/14, 150/19, 
62/83, 167/12, 170/2, 173/24, 181/16. 

But the pronoun was not the rule. The nimiber of the passages 
noted above is 13 ; but there are 16 (in Blanchardyn) where the 
ronoun is omitted, 22/20, 26/17, 27/23, 33/3, 41/27, 48/1, 50/1, 
3/2, 56/12, 57/24, 93/11, 118/10, 148/22, 152/9, 166/30, 169/16. 
Ids use crops up very often in the Gesta Bomanarum^ pp. 3, 5, 45, 
71, 209, 210, 221, 233, 235, 276, 316, 335. 

After adjectival or relative clauses this use may be traced back 
> the earliest periods of the English language. A few instances will 
office for the present occasion : — 

JElfred^s Orosiue. Ac ])a lond on east healfe Danais ))e fssr nihst 
indon, Albani hi sind genemnede, 14/23; and he Ninus Soroastrem 
iaotriana cyning, se cu^ manna ssrest drycrsef tas, he hine of erwinnand 
faloh, 30/10; cf. ibid. 12/16, 26/20, 72/13, 98/2*, 124/16, 188/26, 

Ctira Faetoralis. Ure sddren, ]>a pe ))aB stowa ssr hioldon, hie 
ifedon wisdom, p. 4 ; cf. 22. 

xxxii Syntax I. § 10. Pleonastic Use. Omi$sum, 

BlicMing Homilies. Lazarus, )>e Grist awehie \j feor))an da^ge 
])8es ])6 he on byrgenne wsbs ful wunigende, he getaoia^ J^ysne mid* 
dangeard, 75/4 ; cf. 86/25, 147/2. 

Ancren RiwU, ))eo ilke ))et he bledde yore ne broohten heo him 
to presente ne win et. 114. 

0. E. Horn. L pp. 3, 7, 9, 263; IL pp. 15, 19, 41, etc OU 
English Miscellany , pp. 17, 18, 40. Story of Gen, and Exodus, IL 
1003-4, 1066, 3839. Cursor Mundi, IL 283, 286, 7184, 8940, 9014, 
etc., etc 

Caxton exhibits several instances of this pleonasm : — 

He that wyU bee enhaunced in price, he oughte not to looke so 
nyghe, Aymon, 354/23 ; he that beginneth a game, he onghte to see 
an ende of it to hys proffyte, 355/6; and again the fVenshemen 
thai sawe their kynge come agen, they were ryght glad, 413/19 ; for 
he that had ony mete, he hyd it incontynent, 422/2 ; and Charle- 
magne, that sawe aymon goo thus quyte, and that he had gamysBhed 
mountalban of yytayllis, he was full angry for it, 436/14; this 
mornynge, thenne, reynawde that was wythm ardein, after that he 
had herde his masse, he called his thre bredren, 476/10 ; and thenne 
therle FafEras that was a worthy knyghte and a wyse^ he wente to 
the gate of saynt stevyn, and kepte hym there, 604/21 ; for he that 
shall deye in the sawtynge of the holy cite, he shall be saved wyth- 
out doubte, 512/8. 

There are many instances of the pleonastic personal pronoun after 
the compound relative who that or simple toho = whosoever. 

And who had seen him at that tyme, he wolde not haue trowed 
that he had be a man . . . Blanch, 194/21 ; who soever rekeneth 
wythoute his hoste, he rekeneth twys, ibid, 202/6 ; who thai beleueth 
ouermoche in dremes, he doth agenste the commaundemente of god, 
Aymon, 222/12 ; who that doth you goode, he leseth well hys tyme, 
2G9/18, 363/6, 3G8/5, 420/28, 453/3, 514/15, 590/24. 

For the apparently pleonastic use of personal pronouns in the 
oblique case, see * Relative Pronouns,' p. xlii. 

(e) Personal Pronoun omitted, 

A. As subject. 

This omission is a remnant of the oldest stage of the language, 
when the personal endings of the verb made any pronoun (as a 
subject) superfluous, as in Greek and Latin. It is common to Old 
English, Middle English, and Old French :-- 


SfjftUax L § 10. Omission of the Personal Pronoun, xxxiii 

Old English. Her com Eomer from Cwichelme West Seaxna 
cininge. ])ohte |)SBt he woldo ofstingan Eadwine cininge, Chronicle, ah. 
€26 ; cf. 656 (Laud MS.) faes on pajm afterran geare Hannibal sen Je 
sciphere on Rome, and faer ungemetlice gehergedon (sctl. hie, namely 
the army), Orosius, 180/3 ; cf. 68/27, 134/6. 

Middle English, and 3if he hit naue%, a3efe (scil, he) swa muchel 
swa he mai, 0. K Horn,, I. 29 ; |)a he iseh Maitham and Mariam 
Mi^alene pe snstren wepe for hore bro'Ser de^, and nre drihten 
%urh rou^e ])et he hefde of hom, schedde of his halie e^ene hate 
teres, and hore broker arerde, and (sciL heo, they) weren stille of bore 
wope, ibid, 157 ; J)u seist pat on gode bileuest (sciL thou), ibid, II. 
25, 1. 2 ; after pe forme word of pe salme abugest gode (scil, thou), 
ibid, I 4. Cf. 71, 89, 93, 97, 101, 111, 119, 123, 197, 199, 215. 
Gen. and Exodus, IL 1183, 1729, 1732, etc., etc. 

Caxton is extremely free in omitting the pronoun. The instances 
occarring may be divided into the following groups ; — 

1. When the subject is the same in two co-ordinate sentences, it 
is omitted in the second. The omission is striking, whenever there 
is a clause inserted between the two principal sentences : — 

So lanne the vasselles to gyder, and rough te eche other by suche 
a force upon the sheldes, that they were brusen and broken all to 
peces ; theire spercs (that sore bygge and stronge were) broke also all 
to peces. And thenne take theire swerdes {scil, they) . . . Blandi, 28/ 
11 ; A lytyl shal here cease oure maiere to speke of hym, unto tymo 
and oure sJial be for to retome to the same. And shall shewe the 
Borowes and the com play ntes of the proude pucelle in amours {sell, 
it, namely, oure matere), ibid, 43/5 ; [the provost is introduced mak- 
ing a long speech ; then the author continues :] and thenne (that is, 
after the speech) wythout taryeng drewe his swerde (namely, the 
provost), 49/29. On p. 52 the subject for the first sentence of the 
16th chapter must be supplied from the preceding chapter: — whan 
the proude lady in amours understode the squyer speke thus, the 
bloode ranne up at her face, and [she] wexed red as a rose, 64/16 ; 
wherof the provost was not lesse reioysshed than blanchaMyn was. 
The dyner was redy, and [they] made an ende of their procos tvl 
another tyme, 81/26; cf. 14/21, 16/10, 22/15, 30/27, 32/7, 33/18, 
41/19, 41/24, 42/8, 43/1, 52/17, 58/23, 64/16, 64/20, 66/17, 66/21, 
67/4,68/4,69/1, 85/27, 85/32, 88/11, 99/32, 100/21, 106/8, 108/ 
19, 127/4, 146/9, 157/3, 170/29, 174/20, 195/22, 203/29. 

2. When the subject is the same in a principal and a subordinate 
sentence, the pronoun is omitted in one of them. 

(a) Pronoun omitted in the subordinate sentence : — 

xxxiv Syntax T. § 10. Omission of the Personal Pronoun. 

Blancliardyii emonge other passetjrmes, delyted hymself in hawk- 
yngo and huntyng, whiferas right moderately and manerly [he] mayn- 
tened hymself, 13/18; cf. 21/2, 22/11, 25/8, 39/25, 97/32, 162/28, 

(b) Pronoun omitted in the principal aentence : — 

And for tabredge, after the rewthes, syghes and wepynges that so 
moche incessantly or wythout ceasse made the noble pucelle, [she] 
fell doune sterk ded upon the stomak of her most dere louere, 30/13 ; 
cf. 30/20, 49/11, 52/21, 53/24, 54/6, 65/3, 127/16. 

3. When the subject of a subordinate sentence is not the same 
as that of the principal one, and is yet omitted, it mnst be suppHed 
from the context. 

How be it 1 knowe right wel, and make no doubt at all, but that 
first of all hit shall toume for pryde of her, tyl a grete displeasire 
imto her, and [she] shal be therof wors apayed more than reason 
requyreth, Blanch, 39/15 ; certaynly I shal doo folow hym ; and 
byleue for certayn that his laste daye is comen, and [he] shal deye, 
44/12; cf. 45/16, 45/21, 87/10, 97/3, 133/33, 146/13, 150/23, 

4. It preceding impersonal verbs is omitted. 

There are but two instances of this omission in Blanehardyn :— 

But [it] seemed that she sholde slee herself to be more hastely 
tged, 43/26 ; so [if 
tempeste ceassed, 137^ 

Other instances: Charles the Grete, 41/6, 47/28, 49/11, 60/7, 
63/11, 77/14, 83/9, 83/24, 85/7, etc. . Morte DaHhur, 136/7, 145/ 
34, 163/35, 217/4, 241/34, 266/5, 278/20, 318/9, 354/29, etc 
Arjmon, 24/15, 27/26, 31/32, 39/29, 43/26, 45/3, 47/3, 48/24, etc 

B. A pronoun as object is very rarely omitted. 

* But the knyght that was ryght courteys, guyded hym and con- 
duyted a whyle,' Blanch. 39/30, is scarcely to be called an omission 
(see * Arrangement of Words,' p. ci) ; but the pronoun is certainly 
wanting in the following passage : * For as to his fadir, he wolde not 
touche,' Aymony 85/29. Cf. Starkey, England in the Reign of 
Henry VII , llj^Q : as for thys matter we shal ryght wel avoyd. 

(/) The Emphatic Pronoun (himself, etc) is used either in appo- 
sition (he himself), or independently (himself) : — 

venged, 43/26 ; so [it] taryed not long after thys was doon that the 


JSjffUax I. § 11. Reflexive Pronotms. § 12. Pass, Pronouns, xxxv 

For yf I aholde doo it, he hymself sholde blamo me for it, 
Aymon, 189/33 ; and ho hymselfe is delybered for to take the 
habyte and to become a monke, ibid, 280/23. By my faith, said 
Charlemagn, myself shall it be, ibid, 387/19 ; he thrested his 
swerde in one of his flankes wel depe, and hys swerde, hymself, and 
the place was all bybled of the blood, CItarles the Orete, 77/12 ; 
wherin hym self is buryed, ibid. 37/24. There are not instances 
enough to decide which use prevails. 

Oum is sometimes inserted : * I shall hang you my owne self.* 
Aijmon, 339/13. 

§ 11. TJie Reflexive Pronoun. 

Both the simple and the compound forms occur, but the latter 
are apparently the rule. Of thirty instances occurring on the first 
forty-two pages of Blanehardtpi, only three are simple, namely, 1/22, 
2/10, 41/21. 

§ 12. jT^e Possetfsive Pronoun, 

(a) My, thy J are used before consonants; mine, thine, before 
vowels. Its never occurs; in its place we find his, eta in Old and 
Middle English. For the possessive pronouns used substantively, 
*mine, thine, our«, your«* is the rule; *our, your' occur, but quite 
exceptionally : — 

I baue herde that ye haue called me and my broder the sones of 
a tray tour, and- that tiie kyng kuoweth well that our fader slewe 
your* by trayson, wherof I wylle ye wyte that ye lie falsely, but 
your fader dyde assaylle our by trayson, Aymon, 545/10 ; Ye wolle 
enforce yourselfe to rescue oute of daunger of deth, my lorde and 
youre, my good husband Sadoyne, Blancfiardyn, 189/25. his is 
sometimes preceded by the definite article. See * Article,* p. xxvi. 

The possessive pronouns are sometimes preceded by this : * This 
their message,* Morte Darthur, 160/30. Of. above, § 5, on the 
Genitive Case, p. xv. 

(Jb) The possessive pronoun my is used as a term of courtesy. It 
occurs very frequently in connection with lady, so as to form almost 
one word. This is made evident by the repetition of my in the 
following instances : — 

Unto the right noble puyssaunt and excellent pryncesse, my 
redoubted lady, my lady Margarete, duchesse of Somorceto, etc., 
Blanchardyn (Dedication), 1/2 ; I haue told you her byfore, that 
the paynem kynge Aly modes apparreylleth hymself to make werre 

xxxvi SyifUax I. Pronouns, § 12. Posiessvoe, § 13. Demondraiive, 


to nnj lady, my maystresse, the proude pucelle in amours, iidd, 38/3 ; 
my Ijwiy viy susters namo is dame Lyonesse, Morte DarthuVy 232/13 ; 
I byleuc cortcyuly that he shall doo soo, for the kindness that my 
lorde my fader dyde shewe unto Charlemagne, Aymon^ 427/33 ; I 
pray(», you ryde unto my lorde myn unkel kynge Arthur, Morie 
Darthur^ 267/32. I met with only one exception : At yonder 
wyndowe is my lady syster dame Lyones, ibid. 237/3. 

Instead of 'my lady his moder,' Caxton says several times kis 
lady moder: Aymon, 67/34, 62/20, 81/13. 

(c) The possessive pronoun is often replaced by the genitive of 
the personal pronoun : the head of him = his head. See * Genitive.' 

{d) his instead of the genitival inflexion *s is very rare : — 

And with that renne, blanchardyn his courser ran ouer be provost 
that he tradd upon one of his armes, Blanchardyn, 48/35 ; to what 
thynge Charles hys sone and hys doughters were instructe and taughte 
to doo, Charles the Grete, 28/1 ; this lord of this castel, his name is 
syr Damas, Morte Darthur, \2^l\l (not exactly equal to a genitive); 
the fyrste knyghte hys hors stumbled, ibid, 220/30. 

(e) mine is sometimes equivalent to of me used in an objective 
sense. It occurs in connection with the gerund, and translates the 
French twow, etc. * Thou knowest well, that I dyde was in my dtffend- 
ynge^ Aymon, 88/26 ; * it was I that slewe this knyght in my deffend- 
aunt* Morte Darthur^ 83/25. This is false analogy to the other 
gerundial constructions, like * in my talking,* etc., formed out of the 
intransitive or transitive verbs. There is a parallel passage in 
Chaucer : — * Another homicidy is doon for necessite, as whan a man 
sleth another in his defendaunt* III. 312. One MS., however, has 
him defendaunt} 

§ 13. The Demmistrative Pronouns. 

With the exception of one remnant of Middle English use, the 
syntax of the demonstrative pronouns is really the same in Caxton 
as in our own time. Tha^ is sometimes used in connection with one 
and other : — 

^ Perhaps the following passage cannot be explained in the same way :— 
' Syre, ye be a right fayre louncell . . . and to my seming right wel worthy to 
haue the grace and fauour of the right gentyll damoyBelle/ Blanckardyih 
37/22. Probably *Beem» is here * think' ; *to my thinking' is still in use. 
Of. the chapter on the Impersonal Verb. 

Syntax I. ProiwuTis, § 14. Interrogative, § 15. JRelativc, xxxvii 

T/iat one looked upon tha^ other for to see who wold sette fyret 
honde upon hym, Charles the Greie, 44/26; that one was named 
babtysme, and that other grabam, ibid, 69/17-18. Cf. ibid, 69/24-5, 
62/19, 70/21. 

77ie same is often used as a mere equivalent of the simple personal 
pronoun : — ^ Where by experience he shuld leme to here armas, and 
shuld exercyce and take payne and dyligcnce upon hymself to knowe 
the ways of the same = of them ' {sell, armes), Blanchardyn 16/6 ; cf. 
19/16, 22/1, 38/9, etc It crops up very often in Elizabethan times : 
Marlowe, Tamb, L 2; Edward II. 1. 1439; Greene, Looking Glass, 
135 a, 142 a; Greene, Alphonsus, 228 a, 228 5, 229 a; Gorboducy 
18, 23 ; Spenser, View of the State of Ireland, p. 609 a, 624 a. For 
Shakspere, see Schmidt, Lexicon, s. v. 

§ 14. With regard to Interrogative Pronouns it is noteworthy 
that what often refers to persons : — 

She loked bakward for to se what he was that so hastely rode 
after her, Blanchardyn, 41/30 ; moche grete desyre I haue to wyte 
and knowe wJiat he may be, 64/1 ; (he) asked of him what he was,^ 
of what lande and of what lynage, 99/36. Cf. 43/13, 128/17, 164/11, 
183/20, 194/3. Very often in Morte Darthur, and also in Berners's 
HuoUf we find * what he was and who was his father,' 17/22. Cf. 23/ 
12, 29/11, 30/3, 30/13, 64/7, 104/11, etc. 

§ 15. Tlie Relative Pronotm. 

(A,) The relative clause cither follows its antecedent, or rather 
correlative, or precedes it. Accordingly we find two sorts of relative 
pronouns in Caxton : — 

I. That, which, the wliich, whom, where, as. 
II. Who, who that, whosoever (whomsoever). 

(L) That is used of persons and things, especially after pronouns 
(he, that), but is restricted to the nominative and accusative case, 
when used alone, and is never preceded by a preposition. Of all 
the relative pronouns it is by far the most frequent. 

^That Ci/aveys a vague idea of refe^^ence ; this is its function 
compared with the other relative pronouns. It answers thus to 

1 Though we say still * What are you ? an engineer or a teacher ? * meaning 
* of what profe88ion or busineiki ure you ? ' the (iret quotation above shows that 
what in it means who. 

xxxviii St/fUaxI. § 15. The BelcUive Pronouns : That, Which. 

Old English fc, to the German was, used by illiterate people, and to 
the Ilcbrew asclier. 

Dr. Abbott's rule with regard to the Elizabethan use of thai 
does not apply to Caxton. TJiat is not only used (a) after a nouu 
preceded by the article, (h) after nouns used vocatively, in order to 
complete the description of the antecedent by adding some essential 
characteristics of it. Cf. the following passages : — 

That used of persons: Blanchardyn^ 1/9 (theyni that); 12/17 
(people of the lande that Judged hemself right happy) ; 14/6 (theym 
that); 15/2 (Bknchardyn that) ; 16/22 (knyghtes that); 19/16 (dyuers 
there were that); 19/19 (blanchardyn that) ; 19/21 (notonge humayn 
that); 19/23, 24; 20/1, 21/11, 22/2, 4, 17; 23/2, 7, 13, 17, 19, 
24; 25/15, 16, 22, 24; 26/16,27/11, 28/6, 31/2,9; 32/13, 22, 25; 
33/4, 6 ; 38/8, 39/29, etc. 

That used of things : 12/5, 19 ; 15/6, 16, 21 ; 16/7, 17, 19 ; 17/ 
10, 14; 18/10, 22; 19/1, 14, 15, 25, 26; 20/19, 22/9, 11; 23/6, 
24/9, 26/1, 7, 19, 25; 27/4, 16, etc. 

Next in frequency comes which. It refers to persons and things, 

but differs from that in three points. 

1. It not only follows an immediate antecedent, bat may be 

separated from it by other nouns : — 

he found the foot of the hors of hym for whom he wente in 
enqueste, whiche {sic. the foot) he folowed ryght quykly, Blanch- 
ardiin^ 25/19 ; at thynstaunce and requeste of my sayd lady, 
whiche I repute as a commaundemente, I haue reduced, 1/23; he 
gate a ryght goodo and riche swerde, that longed unto the kynge 
his fader, whiche afterward was to hym wel syttynge, 17/15; 
wliere he fondo the leest courser of tlie kinge his fader, tchiclie was 
the fairest luid the best that coude haue ben founde in ony contreye 
at that tynie, 18/1 ; cf. 19/10. There is a very instructive instance 
in Morfe Darihur : * when svr Gahorvs sawe hvs tvnie, he cam to 
tlicir bcddes syde, alle armed, with his swerd naked and soddenly 
gat his vwder by the here and strake of her hede; whenne syr Lamorak 
Siiwe the bkuHl dassho upon hym all hoto, the whiche he lefte |ias.«- 
yngo wel (/. /•. his nioder), wete ye wel he was sore al>asshed,' 452/27. 

2. Which is used in connection with prepositions. Upon which^ 
nhno'hanJf/fi, 18/7 ; in whioho, 22/2, 28/17, 31/16 ; tlirough whiche, 
32/3, 62/2. 

3. It replaces a personal or demonstrative pn.>noun, in order to 
bring about a closer connection between the two lo'jicalhj co-ordinate 
sentences : — 

^yrUax I. § 15. The Bdaiive Pronouns: Which, Where, zxxix 

I, wyllyam Caxton . . . presente this lytyl book unto the noble 
??race of my sayd lady : whiche hoke I late receyued in frenshe from 
ler sayd grace, etc., Dlanchardyn, 1/7; I haue reduced this sayd 
1)oke out of frenshe into our englyshe : whyche hohe specyfyeth of 
the ooble actes and fayttes of wane . . . ibid, 1/25 (= and it) ; cf. 
33/6 ; the noble mayden beholdc hym moche humbly, whyche toko a 
lyght greto pleasure to see his gracyouse and assured bohauyng, 77/7 
(= and she) ; but this function is shared also by the whiclie and 
whom. Cf. Of whain and of their behauynge I shal make mencion 
after, CJiarles, 38/22. 

The whiclie (answering to the French liqueU) is used most of 
persons in the same function as which, Blanchardyn, 13/3, 18/16, 22/ 
18, 26/10, 27/8, 29/7, 32/14, etc. 

Whom, so far as I am aware, is used of persons, .and in connec- 
tion with prepositions. Of whom, 15/15; for whom, 25/18; to 
whom, 37/7. Cf. 82/12, 90/19, 94/22, 98/31, 99/3, 104/5, 105/ 
11, etc. 

Who-e, followed by of or by, refers to persons and things, and 
whole sentences, and is equivalent to which and whom. 

The childe grewe and amended sore of the grete beaulte, wherof 
he was gamyssed, Blanchardyn, 13/6 (French dont) ; and (that) galf 
hym a wylle for to be lyke unto those noble and worthy knyghtes, 
wherof h'^ sawe the remembraunces, 15/19; thurgh the cite were herde 
the voyces, wherhy they were soone aduortysed, 20/4 ; (he) wrapped 
his wounde, wherof he so sore sorowed, 23/1 1 ; and thenne toko their 
swerdes, wherof they gaafo many a grete stroke, 28/11 ; cf. 28/16 ; 
he sholde vaunce hymself for to kysse suche a pryncesse that neuer 
he had seen before, and wherof thacquentaunce wa* so daungcrous, 
40/25 ; the rayson wherby 1 so saye I shall show it unto you, 53/9, etc. 

Referring to sentences : but trowed all they tliat were present 
that they had be bothe ded, wherof the pyteous cryes, wepyng and 
lamentacyons began to be more grete . . . 20/2, 20/5. 

As is used after such as in Modem English ; cf. 1/20, 2/11, etc., 
but such is also often followed by th^at : — 

It shall not be taken so lightly as men wene, for sucho folke doo 
kepe it, that well and worthily shall deffende it, Aymon, 73/11 ; ye 
aske counseyll of sucJi that cannot counseyll theymsolfe, ibid, 208/14 ; 
I requyre and byseche alle suche that fynde faulte or error . . . 
Blades, Caxton, 170. Cf. Chaucer, Boeth. (ed. Morris) : such a place 
that men clepen theatre. On the first forty pages of BlancJiardyriy 
the share of these pronouns expressed in figures is : — 


The whiche 











xl Syntax I. § 15. JRelative Frorumns: Who, Who thai, 

(TI.) WJio as a relative preceding the correlative is met with in 
Old English in connection with swa, and becomes in Middle English 
ichose, later whoso. 

Who that is declared by the grammai-ians not to appear before 
the second half of the 14th century; cf. Koch 11.*, p. 282. But 
there are instances of an earlier date : — 

)5enne a^aines kinde Ga^ hwa ^at swuche kinsemon ne iTiue? 
and leuc^ (then against nature goes each man who loveth such a 
kinsman and leaveth, Mams), pe wohunge of ure Lauerd (0. K 
Horn, I. p. 275). 

to quat centre sum fa/ f u wend, Cursor Mundi, 1149. Cf. 1151 ; 
qua fat, ibid. 1969. 

huo fef yelpjj ; he is a])ertcliche goiles Jjyef, Ayenbiie, 59 ; huo ^t 
godele^ his euoristen, he is accorsed of god, ibid, 66 ; cf, 70, 75, 80, 
81, 89, 93, 94, etc. 

For Chaucor, see Koch, loc. cit, 

Caxton has both tclio and who that equivalently : for who that was 
that tyme yrought of hyni, his dayes were fynyshed, Blandiardtpij 
169/4 ; who had seen hyra at that tyme, he wold not haue trowed, 
that he had bo a man moit&if ibid, 194/20; for whx) thai believes 
ouer moche in dremes, he dooth againste the commaundemente of god, 
Aymon, 222/12 ; who that dooth you goode, he leseth wel hys tyme, 
ibid, 269/17 ; who had seen the grete mone that alarde . . . made for 
their cosyn, ho woldo haue grete pyte for to see them, 363/3. Cf. 
368/5 (who that), 420/28 (who), 453/3 (who that), 514/13 (who), 
590/24 (who). Cf. Morte Darthur, 43/29, 45/23, 176/35, 264/23, 
378/23, etc. 

{B.) Relative pronouns in the sentence.^ 

The structure of the relative clauses in Caxton is far from being 
the same as in Modern English. There are throe principal types of 
relative constructions : — 

(I.) The antecedent or correlative is a noun in a complete sentence, 
which is followed by a many- worded adjective or relative clause :— 

* She conceyucd a ryght faire sonc, whiche was named Blanch- 
ardy n.' — BlmichardyUy 12/12. 

{a) If the relative pronoun is in the nominative case, the con- 
sti'uction, as a rule, is the same as in Modern English. There are 
only a few exceptions : — 

^ For conveDience' sake I prefer to discuss this important point in this 
place, instead of in the Syntax of the Sentence, as the system requires. 

Syntax L § 15. The JRelative Pronouns in Sentences, xli 

Ine yise zxm^ep moche uolk : ine uelo manercs . ase ))ise fole wyf- 
men . pet uor a lito wynnyngc, hy jwcp ham to zenne, Ai/enbtte, 45. 

A knight thor was and that a worthy man, That fro the time that 
he firsto began To ridcn out, he louodc chevalrio. — Chaucer, Cajtter- 
bury TVi^ (quoted by Zupitza in a note to Koch IP. p. 278). 

I have not come across any such instance in Caxton, but have 
found two in Malory's Morte Darthur : — 

Now tourne we unto sire Lamorak that upon a daye he took a 
lytel Barget and his wyf . . . 330/24 ; here is a worshipful! knyght 
sir Lamorak that for mo he shal be lord of this countreye, 334/2 ; sir 
Trystram thai by adventure he cam . . . ibid, 407/21. 

(6) The relative is an oblique case. Tlien, as a rule, the relatives 
enumerated above are used in connection with the corresponding 
preposition : * Of whom, to whom, whom or which,' etc. But there 
are exceptions in this case too. Instead of the simple relatives, there 


In the genitive : relative + his (her), their. 

In the dative "j 

V relative + him (her, it), them, 
and accusative J 

Old English. Hwset se god w^re, J?e ))is his be&cen was, Elene^ 
162 ; se mon ne wat, J?e him on foldan faegnost limped, God, Ex. 
306/25 (quoted by Koch, p. 277). 

Middle English. )5e pope Gregorie \pat Jje fende him hadde wel 
nei^ icau^t, C^reg. ed. Schulz, 16 a; a doughter ffat wif hire was hire 
moder ded, ibid. 32 a; It was hire owhen child, }^at in his armes 
ani3t she went, ibid. 748 ; there were maydencs thretty, that for hys 
seruyse in the halle there there loue on hym can falle, Guy of War- 
wick y ed. Zupitza, 1. 180, see note (Koch, p. 278, note by Zupitza). 

Tliere are a few instances in Caxton and Malory : — 

Thenne answered Kubyon to Blanchardyn, that the daughter of 
the myghty kynge AlymoJes, the euen before had gyuen imto hym 
her sleue, the whiche in presence of her father she had taken it from 
her ryght arme, Blanchardyn, 84/12, 13 ; he fonde hym, the terres at 
the eyes of hym, makynge his full pituouse coinplaynto.s, the whiche 
sadoyne had herde part of heiif, 123/25 ; 8yre, I say tin; same for the 
knyght, that is the most parfyt in all beaulte and condicyons fhat^ hitt 
lyke can not be founde, 155/8 ; the whiche thenne, by old age and 
lyuynge many yeres, his blood was wexen colde, Eneydos, 14/21 ; of 
whom may not wel be recounted the valyaunce of hym, CharleSy 38/20 ; 

^ Perhaps ' that ' in here = so that ! 

xlii Syntax I. § 15. Tfi^i Relative Pronmcns in Sentences. 

for he had lost moche of his blode by his foure mortal woundes, of 
whyche the leste of th-ein was suffysaunt for hym to haue deyed, ibid. 
236/10 ; A, syr, ye aije the same knyghte that I lodged ones in your 
castel, Morte Darthury 266/15 ; so leue we sire Trystram in Bretayne, 
and speke we of sire Lamcrak de galys, that as he say led, his shyp 
felle on a rok, and perysshed all, 330/2 ; and that was she that Breunys 
saunce pyte took that slielde/rom her, 345/11, 12. 

This use continued in the 16 th century : — 

I know no man lyuyng that I or my brother haue done to hyin 
any dyspleasure, Borners, Huofi, 19/24 ; the whidie treasure I ^af 
part therof to the kynge, 263/9 ; I pray thee, show me what be 
yonder two prynces that goth up the stayres, and that so moch 
honour is done to them, 286/9. 


Very rarely is a relative in the oblique case followed by a re- 
dundant personal pronoun : — 

(they) were all murderei-s, tcherof the pryncypall and the mayster 
of them all was named eyluayne, Blaiichardyn, 204/8 ; It is by cause 
ther is come in to thy court he that hath slayne my brother whom 
incontynente thou onghtest to haue slayne hym quyke, Huon^ 

The edition of 1601 omits hyin. There is perhaps a change of the 
construction in Blanchardyn, 192/29: *they recountred a peyncm, 
which they toke, and broughte hyin before Blanchardyn.' 

(II.) The correlative sentence is divided into two parts by the 
relative clause : — 

* lie that wyll be enliaunced in price, he oughte not to loke soo 
nyghe.' — AymoUy 354/23. 

In Old and Midille English this type is nearly always a sort of 
anacoluthon to our modern eyes and ears, and perhaps it was such 
indeed. The essential point in which this construction differs from 
the modern use is, that tlie correlative always appears in tlic nomina- 
tlce caf>e, without regard to its place in the sentence ; it is only the 
redundant pronoun, personal or possessive, in the second part, which 
marks the subjective or objective case of the correlative, c. g.j in 
Modern English we might say : — ' To hr who was not skilled in 
receiving such guests, his acquaintance was hard to make,' but 
Caxton has : — * and she that was not lerncd to receyue suche gcesies, 
sore harde was his acquaintance to her,* — Blanchardyn^ 67/29, 30. 

yniax L § 15. Tfie Relative Pronouns in Sentences, xliii 

Accordingly I distinguish two groups of typo IL 
{a) Tho correlative is the sjiibject of the sentence. Then the 
Lundant personal pronoun appears in the nominative case. 

This pronoun is, as said above {see * Personal Pronoun '), very 
quent in Old English and Middle English. Perhaps we might 
r that this is the rule ; at least the Old English Honiilies seem to 
jgest such a supposition. There are in the Second Series tweuty- 
ree instances of the redundant pronoun, namely, p. 15, 1. 4 from 
>; p. 15, L 4 from foot; p. 19, 1. 9 from top; p. 43, 1. 3 from 
>; p. 45, L 16 from foot, and on pages 69 (twice), 73, 75, 99, 
5 (twice), 133 (twice), 143, 153 (three times), 155, 159, 201, 
3, 207 ; while only six passages omit it, namely, on pages 11, 17, 
,73, 111, 151. 

In Caxton this is no longer the case. There is not one instance 

the group (a) in Blanchardyn ; and in Aymon they are not very 
merous. See * Personal Pronoun.* 

(6) The correlative is the object (direct or indirect) of tlie sen- 
ice j then, as a rule, it is in the nominative case, and the redundant 
Bonal pronoun is either in the genitive (his, her, their) or dative 
cusative) case : — 

Alle synfidlG men \e heued-synnes don habbe^, and nelle^ jjerof 

shrift nimen he bihat hetii eche fur on helle, O. E, Hovi. 

41 ; alle fo jje here synnen forlete^ and bete^ he hele^ here 

iwunden mid fulcnege, ibid, ; fat (Harleian MS. f ei fat) etys nio 

. hungres thaym, and ^y fat drinkes me 3itt fristes thaym. 

mpole, Prose Treatises^ p. 3. 

In Caxton, (b) is apparently the rule : — 

The rayson wherby I so say, I shall show it unto you, Blaneh- 
lyn, 53/9, 67/30 (quoted above) ; but this tliat I haue toforo 
yton, I haue taken it oute of an au ten tyke book, Charlesy 38/24 ; 

perccyued a right myghty nauye, wherof they that were conic 
3n lande, he sawe hem in grete nombre, ibid. 162/3; that whicho 
laue done in this behalue, I haue donn it for tho beste, 185/19 ; 
y that were about hym rebell, he dompted and subdewed them^ 
5/15; very instructive instances, ibid. 215; he that deyeth in 
ringe, his soule shall neuer be saued, Aipnon, 232/26 ; but the 
ou that the kyng made for his queue, that myglite no man telle. — 
lory, Morte Darthur, ^lijM. 

I found but a few instances of moderr construction : — 

xliv Syntax I. § 15. 7^ Belaiive Pronouns in SerUences, 

And tfiem that ben poure and caste dotm, maketh she oftymes to 
ryse and monnte from certaynte to Incertaynte, Curialy 6/13; and 
them that were hurte, he lete the surgyens doo heale their woundes, 
Malory, Morte Darthur, 174/13. 

There is one instance in Malory in which — if Caxton or his 
compositor did not introduce a first gaf not in the author's copy- 
both the old and modem uses are mixed in one : * Thenne the kpg 
stably sshed all his knyghtes and \gaf\ them that were of londes not 
ryche, he gaf them londes . . .' Morte Darthur^ 118/13. Maloiy 
(if the first gaf was his) began with the modem construction : * and 
gaf them that were of londes not ryche (londes)/ but in the second 
half of the sentence he found it would be quite confusing and 
impossible to add * londes ' only to his long adjective * that were of 
londes not ryche/ and he therefore repeated the words which 
governed * londes/ the old use suggesting itself to his memory as a 
justification for his cumbrousness. This use occurs very often in 
Berners : — 

The londe that they hold, g}'^ue it to Chariot your sone, H\m^ 
5/13; with my sworde I so defendyd me, that he that thought to 
haue slayne me, I haue slayne hym^ 27/5, 6 ; he that lieth there deed 
before you, I slew him in my defence, 34/11 ; all the mete thai he 
could get in the towne, ho shuld by i7, 84/33. 

(III.) Tlie relative sentence prpcedes its correlative, 
* who had seen hym at that tyme, he wold not haue trowed that 
he had be a man mortal/ Blanchardyn, 194/21. The use of the 
personal pronoun in the correlative is the same as in type XL 

In the Ayenhite the pronoun is the rule, just as in the French 


Original (qui-il, quicomiue-il) ; quite exceptionally it is emitted, 
e. g. ^ huo fet wyle lede guod lif ; zeche |)et he habbe f et zof e guod/ 
p. 94 (omitted also in the Original). In the Ge^ta Romavorum, too, 
it is always to be met with : — 

who that cuer coniith thediv, he shall fare wele, p. 15; who so 
euer wold come to that festo, hr sliolde haue his doughter, p. 87; 
who so euer goto thorby to the holy londe, he shiill in \)es go, p. 106 ; 
who so euer wolde rin with his dowter, he shulde wed her, p. 122 ; 
who so euer gothe with her to bcdde, he shall anon falle in to a dede 
slcei>, p. 160 ; wlio so euer bci-e it upon him, he shal haue loue of al 
men, \\ 180 ; whosoeuer haue hit, he shall euermore joy, p. 286. 

Sifntax I. § 15. The Relative Pronouns in Sentences, xlv 

Caxton. Blanchanlyn, 194/21 (quoted above); whosoeuer rek- 
eneth withoute his hoste, he rekeueth twys for ones, 202/6 ; who 
that was that day yrought of hyiu, his dayes were fyuyshed, 169/4 ; — 
Aymon, 222/12, 269/18. See above, p. xl. 

Malory, Morte Darthur. Who that holdeth against it, we wylle 
dee him, 43/29, 30 ; who saith nay, he shal bo kyng, 45/23 ; who- 
someuer is hurte with this blade, he shalle neuer be staunched, 176/ 
35 ; who that may first mete ony of these two knyghtes, they sholde 
torne hem unto Morgan le fays castel, 378/23. 

The same use occurs in the 16th century as well : — 

Whosoeuer that hath not scene the noble citie of Venis, he hath 
not seene the bowyte and ryches of thys worlde, Andrew Boorde, 
p. 181 ; whosoeuer wil buylde a mancyon place or a house, he must 
cytaate . . • p. 233. Cf-^pp. 236, 238, 242. 

Shakspere has often tchat — it : — 

What our contempt doth often hurl from us, We wish it ours 
again, Antony, I. ii. 127 ; wfiat you have spoke, it may be so per- 
chance, Macbeth, IV. iii. 11. 

(C.) Attraction is to be observed in that = that which : — 

Paynem, upon that thou me demaundest, 1 telle to thee . . . 
Charles the Orete, 54/17 ; Olyuer answered that he wold not, and 
that he sayd was folye, ibid. 56/35. Cf. Blanchardyn, 74/12, 91/7 ; 
MoHe Darthur, 257/31. 

Stronger attractions occur in Blanchardyn : — 

Blanchardyn, sore angry and euyl apayde of that he sawe the